Ielts Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

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  • IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

    Reading Answers

    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below.

    The Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1985. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat-screen.

    So ordinary and routine has this become to us that it takes a determined leap of imagination to grasp the impact of those first moving images. But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.

    Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of films became familiar, the magic was accepted- but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audience and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. But in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.

    One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived. Overwhelmingly, the lives recorded at least in film fiction- have been American. From the earliest days of the industry, Hollywood has dominated the world film market. American imagery-the cars, the cities, the cowboys became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.

    And, thanks to film, future generations will know the 20-th century more intimately than any other period. We can only imagine what life was like in the 14th century or in classical Rome. But the life of the modern world has been recorded on film in massive encyclopedic detail. We shall be known better than any pceding generations.

    The ‘star’ was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate psence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than we do ourselves. The star as a magnified human self is one of cinema’s most strange and enduring legacies.

    Cinema has also given a new lease of life to the idea of the story. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground attraction.

    Cinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television -as a strange noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories- early producers doubted the ability of audiences to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in 1912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled upon the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.

    Questions 1-5

    Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?

    Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

    1 the location of the first cinema

    2 how cinema come to focus on stories

    3 the speed with which cinema has changed

    4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in films

    Questions 6-9

    Do the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I?

    In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:

    YES

    NO

    NOT GIVEN

    if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

    if the statement contradicts with the views of the writer

    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.

    7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode.

    8 Cinema psents a bias0d view of other countries.

    9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

    And it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again -that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.1 the location of the first cinema2 how cinema come to focus on stories3 the speed with which cinema has changed4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in filmsDo the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I?In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:if the statement agrees with the views of the writerif the statement contradicts with the views of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode.8 Cinema psents a bias0d view of other countries.9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

    Questions I0-13

    Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D.

    Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

    10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrate

    The simplicity of early films

    B the impact of early films

    C how short early films were

    Dhow imaginative early films were

    11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at it

    A aims to impss its audience 

    B tells stories better than books

    C illustrates t11e passing of t me

    D describes familiar events

    12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11at

    Ait would always tell toes

    Bit s11ould be used in fairgrounds

    Cits audiences were unappciative

    Dits future was uncertain

    13 what is the best title for the passage?

    A The rise of the cinema star

    B Cinema and novels compared

    C The dominant of Hollywood

    D The power of the big screen

    Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    Reading Answers

    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

    Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition

    THE CHALLENGE

    It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organization than a declining one. When organizations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay raises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organization create Slings of optimism. Management is able to ta use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose- those with me the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

    Morale also surfers during the decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumors and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly pided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

    KEY POINT ONE

    There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there are independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety, and responsibility.

    KEY POINT TWO

    KEY POINT THREE

    Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

    KEY POINT FOUR

    Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope, and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.

    KEY POINT FIVE

    KEY POINT SIX

    Questions 14-18

    Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.

    Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.

    Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.

    i Ensure the reward system is fair

    ii Match rewords lo inpiduals

    iii Ensure targets ore realistically

    iv Link rewords to achievement

    v Encourage managers to take more responsibility

    vi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedback

    viii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs

    14 Koy Point Two

    15 Koy Point Three

    16 Kay Point FoLir

    17 Key Point Five

    18 Key Point Six

    Questions 19-24

    Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:

    YES

    NO

    NOT GIVEN

    if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writer

    if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilled

    employees.

    20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business.

    21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork.

    22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.

    23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.

    24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

    Questions 25-27

    Look at the following groups of workers (Question2S-27) and the list of descriptions below.

    Match ec1chgroup with the correct description, A -E Write the correct letter, A-Ein boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet

    25 high achievers

    26 clerical workers

    27 product on workers

    List of descriptions

    A They judge promotion to bo important

    B They have less need for external goats

    C They think that the quality of their work is important 

    D They resist goals which are imposed

    E Thay have limited job options

    The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

    Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    Reading Answers

    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

    The Search for the Anti-aging Pill

    In government laboratories and elsewhere, scientists are seeking a drug able to prolong

    life and youthful vigor. Studies of caloric restriction are showing the way

    As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging- the build-up of molecular and cellular damage that increases vulnerability to infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. Those findings suggest that caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.

    Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping from 2,500 calories a day to 1, 750. Few mortals could stick to chat harsh a regimen, especially for years on end. But what if someone could create a pill that mimicked the physiological effects of eating less without actually forcing people to eat less? Could such a ‘caloric-restriction mimetic’, as we call it, enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and cancer) until very lace in life? Scientists first posed this question in the mid-1990s, after researchers came upon a chemical agent that in rodents seemed to reproduce many of caloric restriction’s benefits. No compound that would safely achieve the same feat in people has been found yet, but the search has been informative and has fanned the hope that caloric-restriction (CR) mimetics can indeed be developed eventually.

    The benefits of caloric restriction

    The hunt for CR mimetics grew out of a desire to better understand caloric restriction’s many effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the practice more than 60 years ago, when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats and also had a reduced incidence of conditions that become increasingly common in old age. What is more, some of the treated animals survived longer than the oldest-living animals in the control group, which means that the maximum lifespan (the oldest attainable age), not merely the normal lifespan, increased. Various interventions, such as infection-fighting drugs, can increase a population’s average survival time, but only approaches chat slowly the body’s rate of aging will increase the maximum lifespan.

    The rat findings have been replicated many times and extended to creatures ranging from yeast to fruit flies, worms, fish, spiders, mice, and hamsters. Until fairly recently, the studies were limited short-lived creatures genetically distant from humans. But caloric-restriction projects underway in two species more closely related to humans- rhesus and squirrel monkeys- have scientists optimistic that CR mimetics could help people.

    calorie: a measure of the energy value of food.

    The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals that eat normally. caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones that tend to fall with age.

    The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pssure and triglyceride levels(signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease) and they have more normal blood glucose levels( pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes, which is marked by unusually high blood glucose levels). Further, it has recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-restricted diets for an extended time( nearly 15 years) have a less chronic disease. They and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespans in monkeys. Unlike the multitude of elixirs being touted as the latest anti-aging cure, CR mimetics would alter fundamental processes that underlie aging. We aim to develop compounds that fool cells into activating maintenance and repair.

    How a prototype caloric-restriction mimetic works

    The best-studied candidate for a caloric-restriction mimetic, 2DG (2-deoxy-D-glucose), works by interfering with the way cells process glucose, it has proved toxic at some doses in animals and so cannot be used in humans. But it has demonstrated that chemicals can replicate the effects of caloric restriction; the trick is finding the right one.

    Cells use glucose from food to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake, caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases ATP generation. When 2DG is administered to animals that eat normally, glucose reaches cells in abundance but the drug pvents most of it from being processed and thus reduces ATP synthesis. Researchers have proposed several explanations for why interruption of glucose processing and ATP production might retard aging. One possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery’s emission of free radicals, which are thought to contribute to aging and t such age-related diseases as cancer by damaging cells. Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage. Another hypothesis suggests that decreased processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce( even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes pservation of the organism over such ‘luxuries’ as growth and reproduction.

    Questions 28-32

    Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? 

    Inboxes 28-32  on your answer sheet, write

    YES

    NO

    NOT GIVEN

    if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

    if the statement contradicts the clo1ms of the writer

    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    28 Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.

    29 There is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.  

    30 Not many people are likely to find a caloric-restricted diet attractive.

    31Diet-related diseases ore is common in older people.

    32Inexperiments.rots who ote what they wonted led shorter lives than rots on a low-calorie diet

    Questions 33-37

    Classify the following descriptions os relating to

    A colone-restricted n1onkeys

    B controls on keys

    C neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

    33 Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic.

    34 Monkeys experienced more chronic disease.

    35 Monkeys l1ove been shown to experience o longer than overage life span. 

    36 Monkeys enjoyed o reduced chance of heart disease.

    37 Monkeys produced greater quantities of insulin.

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

    1. A

    2. I

    3. J

    4. E

    5. G

    6. yes

    7. not given

    8. not given

    9. no

    10. B

    11. C

    12. D

    13. D

    Question 1-5: 

    1. A (the whole para: ―The Lumiere Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at l4 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1895. Before the eyes oi the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and 

    moved across a flat screen‖) 

    2. I (line 5-14: ―narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in I912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.‖) 

    3. J (line 2-9: ―unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and perhaps, aware that the world never same again — that, maybe, it could be better brighter more astonishing, more real than reality‖) 

    4. E (first 6 lines: ―One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For the cinema it makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked lived‖) 

    5. G (lines 3-8: ―bon in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate psence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than do ourselves‖) 

    Question 6-9: 

    6. YES (para D, line 1-9: ―Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of the film became familiar, the magic was accepted – but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audiences and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which 

    cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events‖) 

    7. NOT GIVEN 

    8. NOT GIVEN 

    9. NO (para I, line 7-11: ―Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces 

    doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel.‖) 

    Question 10-13: 

    10. B (para C, line 9-17: ―the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ‘Panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when Cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture. Pictures were still, only reality move; this must, therefore, be a reality. In their confusion, they 

    feared that a real train about to crush them.‖) 

    11. C (para D, line 7-13: ―world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence oi time, while time in a novel passed at the whim oi the reader. But in 

    cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.‖) 

    12. D (para H, last 4 lines: ―movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn 

    off, the cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground 

    attraction‖) 

    13. D 

    Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    14. 7

    15. 3

    16. 2

    17. 4

    18. 1

    19. no

    20. not given

    21. no

    22. yes

    23. not given

    24. yes

    25. B

    26. C

    27. A

    Question 14-18: 

    14. vii (KEY POINT TWO, first 2 lines: ―The literature in goal-setting theory suggests that 

    how well they are doing in those goals‖) 

    15. iii (KEY POINT THREE, last 3 lines: ―Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees 

    feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability oi doing the job and must regard the appraisal 

    the process as valid‖) 

    16. ii (KEY POINT FOUR, first 3 lines: ―Since employees have different needs, what acts as 

    a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge oi each 

    employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control.‖) 

    17. iv (KEY POINT FIVE, first 2 lines: ―Managers need to make rewards contingent on 

    performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other 

    factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and‖) 

    18. i (KEY POINT SIX, first 2 lines: ―The way rewards are distributed should be transparent 

    so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs 

    given. On a simplistic level‖) 

    Question 19-24:

     

    19. NO (THE CHALLENGE, part 1, last 4 lines: ―employees. When an organization is 

    shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose – those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are 

    limited‖) 

    20. NOT GIVEN 

    21. NO (KEY POINT ONE, line 3-6: ―autonomous unit within a larger business, high 

    achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need or power and a low need for affiliation should be selected Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that 

    are inconsistent with their needs‖) 

    22. YES (KEY POINT TWO, last 3 lines: ―the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If 

    participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the 

    participation process as manipulative and l be negatively affected by it.‖) 

    23. NOT GIVEN 

    24. YES (KEY POINT FIVE, line 4-5: ―goals. Consistent with maximizing the impact oi 

    rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the 

    the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating‖) 

    Question 25-27: 

    25. B (KEY POINT TWO, line 3-4: ―those with high achievement needs, typically a minority 

    in any organization, the existence of external goals is less important because high 

    achievers are already internally motivated.‖) 

    26. C (KEY POINT SIX, line 7-9: ―production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and 

    outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

    workers’ list‖) 

    27. A (KEY POINT SIX, line 9-11: ―their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

    workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were 

    quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks‖) 

    The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    28. no

    29. yes

    30. yes

    31. not given 

    32. yes

    33. A

    34. B

    35. C

    36. A

    37. B

    38. glucose

    39. free radicals

    40. pservation

    Question 28-32: 

    28. NO (para 1, first 2 lines: ―As researchers on aging noted recently. no treatment on the 

    market today has been proved to slow human aging – the build-up of molecular and 

    cellular damage that increases vulnerability to‖) 

    29. YES (para 1, last 4 lines: ―infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption 

    of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. These findings suggest that 

    the caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.‖) 

    30. YES (para 2, first 2 lines: ―Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably 

    have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping 

    2.500 calories a day to 1,750.‖) 

    31. NOT GIVEN 

    32. YES (para 3, line 2-3: ―effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the 

    practice more than 60 years ago. when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived 

    longer on average than free-feeding rats.‖) 

    Question33-37:

     

    33. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of 

    risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pssure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which is 

    marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

    34. B (para 5, line 5-6: ―recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-

    diets for an extended time (nearly 15 years) have less chronic disease‖) 

    35. C 

    36. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators 

    risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pssure 

    triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they 

    more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which 

    marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

    37. B (para 4: ―The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals 

    eat normally, caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones 

    tend to fall with age.‖) 

    Question 38-40:

    38. ‘glucose’ (para 7, line 2-3: ―powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake 

    caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases 

    generation.‖) 

    39. ‘free radicals’ (para 7,line 7-8: ―One possibility relates to the ATP-making 

    emission of free radicals, which are thought to continue to aging and to such age-

    diseases as cancer by damaging cells‖) 

    40. “pservation’ (para 7, last 3 lines: ―damage. Another hypothesis suggests that 

    processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce (even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes pservation of 

    organism over such ‗luxuries’ as growth and reproduction‖) 

    Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D.Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrateThe simplicity of early filmsB the impact of early filmsC how short early films wereDhow imaginative early films were11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at itA aims to impss its audienceB tells stories better than booksC illustrates t11e passing of t meD describes familiar events12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11atAit would always tell toesBit s11ould be used in fairgroundsCits audiences were unappciativeDits future was uncertain13 what is the best title for the passage?A The rise of the cinema starB Cinema and novels comparedC The dominant of HollywoodD The power of the big screenQuestions 14-18Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.i Ensure the reward system is fairii Match rewords lo inpidualsiii Ensure targets ore realisticallyiv Link rewords to achievementv Encourage managers to take more responsibilityvi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedbackviii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs14 Koy Point Two15 Koy Point Three16 Kay Point FoLir17 Key Point Five18 Key Point SixDo the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writerif the statement contradicts the claims of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilledemployees.20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business.21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork.22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

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  • June 2004 saw the first passage., known as a ‘transit` of the planet Venus across the face of the Sun in 122 years. Transits have helped shape our view of the whole Universe, as Heather Cooper and Nigel Henbest explain

    Tháng 6 năm 2004 đã chứng kiến một sự di chuyển đầu tiên, được biết đến như là một sự ‘quá cảnh’, của sao Kim băng qua bề mặt của Mặt trời trong 122 năm. Sự di chuyển này đã giúp định hình quan điểm của chúng ta về toàn bộ Vũ trụ, như Heather Cooper và Nigel Henbest giải thích.

    A

    On 8 June 2004, more than half the population of the world were treated to a rare astronomical event. For over six hours, the planet Venus steadily inched its way over the surface of the Sun. This “transit` of Venus was the first since 6 December l882. On that occasion, the American astronomer Professor Simon Newcomb led a party to South Africa to observe the event. They were based at a girls’ school, where – if is alleged – the combined forces of three schoolmistresses outperformed the professionals with the accuracy of their observations.

    Vào ngày 8 tháng 6 năm 2004, hơn một nửa dân số thế giới đã được chứng kiến một sự kiện thiên văn hiếm hoi. Hành tinh sao Kim đã dần dần đi qua bề mặt của mặt trời khoảng hơn sáu tiếng đồng hồ. Sự ”dịch chuyển” này của sao Kim là lần đầu tiên kể từ ngày 6 tháng 12 năm 1882. Vào dịp đó, nhà thiên văn học người Mỹ, giáo sư Simon Newcomb đã dẫn một đoàn người đến Nam Phi để quan sát sự kiện này. Họ đặt cơ sở tại trường học nữ sinh, nơi mà được đưa ra lý lẽ rằng – kết hợp sức mạnh của ba nữ hiệu trưởng thực hiện tốt hơn các chuyên gia với sự chính xác về các quan sát của họ.

    E

    While the early transit timings were as pcise as instruments would allow the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. This is due to diffraction of light. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun’s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.

    Trong khi thời gian dịchchuyển ban đầu chính xác như các thiết bị cho phép, các phép đo được theo đuổi bởi hiệu ứng ‘giọt đen’. hi sao Kim bắt đầu băng qua đĩa Mặt Trời, nó có vẻ bị mờ không tròn – điều mà khiến việc xác định thời gian trở nên khó khăn. Điều này là do sự nhiễu xạ của ánh sáng. Vấn đề thứ hai là sao kim cho thấy một quầng sáng khi nó chỉ được nhìn thấy ở bên ngoài đĩa Mặt trời. Trong khi điều này cho các nhà thiên văn học thấy rằng sao Kim được bao quanh bởi một lớp khí dày mà bao phủ ánh sáng mặt trời quanh nó, cả hai ảnh hưởng đã làm cho nó không thể có được thời gian chính xác.

    G

    June 2004’s transit of Venus was thus more of an astronomical spectacle than a scientifically important event. But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.

    Sự đi qua của Sao Kim vào tháng 6 năm 2004 đã trở thành một hiện tượng thiên văn hơn là một sự kiện khoa học trọng đại. Nhưng những chuyến đi quá cảnh này đã mở đường cho điều có thể chứng minh là một trong những bước đột phá quan trọng nhất trong vũ trụ – phát hiện các hành tinh có kích cỡ Trái đất quay quanh các ngôi sao khác.

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  • A

    The history of human civilization is entwined with the history of ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.

    Lịch sử của nền văn minh con người gắn chặt với lịch sử các cách thức mà chúng ta đã biết để vận dụng tài nguyên nước. Khi dân cư dần dần mở rộng, con người phải lấy nước từ các nguồn ngày càng xa, dẫn đến các nỗ lực kỹ thuật phức tạp như xây đập và cống dẫn nước. Ở đỉnh cao của đế chế La Mã, chín hệ thống lớn, với một bố trí sáng tạo của ống cống được xây dựng khá tốt, đã cung cấp cho mỗi cư dân Rome lượng nước giống như lượng nước cung cấp cho mỗi người ở nhiều nơi trong thế giới công nghiệp ngày nay.

     

     

    B

    During the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unpcedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation system that makes possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food. Nearly one-fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water.

    Trong cuộc cách mạng công nghiệp và sự bùng nổ dân số của thế kỷ 19 và 20, nhu cầu về nước tăng lên đáng kể. Việc xây dựng chưa từng có với hàng chục ngàn dự án kỹ thuật hoành tráng được thiết kế để kiểm soát lũ lụt, bảo vệ nguồn nước sạch, và cung cấp nước cho thủy lợi và thủy điện đã mang lại nhiều lợi ích cho hàng trăm triệu người. Sản xuất lương thực đã theo kịp với các việc dân số tăng cao chủ yếu là do việc mở rộng các hệ thống thủy lợi nhân tạo để có thể tăng sản lượng lương thực thế giới lên 40%. Gần một phần năm tất cả nguồn điện được tạo ra trên toàn thế giới được sản xuất bởi các tua bin quay bằng sức mạnh của nước.

     

     

    C

    Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population till suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve their problems.

     

     

    D

    The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in part of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

    Hậu quả của chính sách về nước của chúng ta đã lan rộng đến mức gây nguy hiểm cho sức khỏe con người. Hàng chục triệu người đã bị buộc phải di dời khỏi nhà của họ – thường chỉ được địa phương cảnh báo hoặc bồi thường qua loa – để nhường chỗ cho các hồ chứa đằng sau đập. Hơn 20% của tất cả các loài cá nước ngọt đang bị đe dọa vì đập và việc xả nước đã phá hủy hệ sinh thái sông “có dòng chảy tự do” nơi mà các loài này đang sinh sống. Một số tập quán tưới tiêu làm suy giảm chất lượng đất và làm giảm năng suất nông nghiệp. Các tầng chứa nước ngầm đang được khai thác nhanh hơn lượng bổ sung tự nhiên ở một số nơi như Ấn Độ, Trung Quốc, Mỹ và các nơi khác. Và tranh chấp về tài nguyên nước dùng chung đã dẫn đến bạo lực và tiếp tục tạo ra những căng thẳng ở địa phương, quốc gia và thậm chí quốc tế.

     

     

    E

    At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as a top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organizations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pssing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from pventable water-related illness.

     

     

    F

    Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some pdicted. As a result, the pssure to build now water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen.

    May mắn thay và bất ngờ là nhu cầu về nước không tăng nhanh như một số dự đoán. Kết quả là, áp lực để xây dựng các cơ sở hạ tầng về nước đã giảm trong hai thập kỷ qua. Mặc dù dân số, sản lượng công nghiệp và năng suất kinh tế vẫn tiếp tục tăng cao ở các nước phát triển, tỷ lệ mà mọi người rút nước từ các hồ chứa nước, sông và hồ đã chậm lại. Và ở vài nơi trên thế giới, nhu cầu này đã thực sự giảm.

     

     

    G

    What explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have pd out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20% from their peak in 1980.

    Điều gì giải thích về sự thay đổi đáng ghi nhận này? Có hai yếu tố là con người đã tìm ra cách để sử dụng nước hiệu quả hơn, và cộng đồng đang suy nghĩ lại về ưu tiên của họ khi sử dụng nước. Trong suốt ba phần tư đầu tiên của thế kỷ 20, lượng nước ngọt được tiêu thụ trên đầu người trung bình tăng gấp đôi; như ở Mỹ, lượng rút ​​nước tăng gấp mười lần, trong khi dân số tăng gấp bốn lần. Nhưng kể từ năm 1980, lượng nước tiêu thụ mỗi người đã thực sự giảm, nhờ vào một loạt các công nghệ mới giúp tiết kiệm nước tại nhà và tại các xưởng công nghiệp. Ví dụ năm 1965 Nhật Bản sử dụng khoảng 13 triệu gallons nước sản xuất 1 triệu đô sản lượng thương mại; năm 1989 lượng tiêu thụ này đã giảm xuống còn 3,5 triệu gallon (thậm chí hơn do lạm phát) – khoảng bốn lần lượng nước tiêu thụ năm 1965. Ở Mỹ, lượng ​​nước tiêu thụ đã giảm hơn 20% so với mức đỉnh vào năm 1980.

     

     

    H

    On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.

    Mặt khác, các đập, cống dẫn nước và các loại cơ sở hạ tầng khác sẽ vẫn phải được xây dựng, đặc biệt là ở các nước đang phát triển, nơi nhu cầu cơ bản của con người đã không được đáp ứng. Nhưng các dự án như vậy phải được xây dựng hiện đại và có trách nhiệm hơn với người dân địa phương và môi trường của họ so với trong quá khứ. Và ngay cả trong các khu vực có các dự án mới có vẻ đảm bảo này thì chúng ta vẫn phải tìm cách để đáp ứng nhu cầu với ít nguồn lực hơn, tôn trọng các tiêu chuẩn sinh thái và với ngân sách ít hơn.

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  • Collecting must be one of the most varied of human activities, and it’s one that many of us psychologists find fascinating.

    Many forms of collecting have been dignified with a technical name: an archtophilist collects teddy bears, a philatelist collects postage stamps, and a deltiologist collects postcards. Amassing hundreds or even thousands of postcards, chocolate wrappers or whatever, takes time, energy and money that could surely to much more productive use. And yet there are millions of collectors around the world. Why do they do it?

    There are the people who collect because they want to make money – this could be called an instrumental reason for collecting; that is, collecting as a means to an end. They’ll look for, say, antiques that they can buy cheaply and expect to be able to sell at a profit. But there may well be a psychological element, too – buying cheap and selling dear can give the collector a sense of triumph. And as selling online is so easy, more and more people are joining in.

    Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the inpidual is ever lucky enough to find what they’re looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty, now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

    If you think about collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting – is its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps. Similarly, in the 19th century, many collectors amassed fossils, animals and plants from around the globe, and their collections provided a vast amount of information about the natural world. Without those collections, our understanding would be greatly inferior to what it is.

    In the past – and nowadays, too, though to a lesser extent – a popular form of collecting, particularly among boys and men, was trainspotting. This might involve trying to see every locomotive of a particular type, using published data that identifies each one, and ticking off each engine as it is seen. Trainspotters exchange information, these days often by mobile phone, so they can work out where to go to, to see a particular engine. As a by-product, many practitioners of the hobby become very knowledgeable about railway operations, or the technical specifications of different engine types.

    Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

    Not all collectors are interested in learning from their hobby, though, so what we might call a psychological reason for collecting is the need for a sense of control, perhaps as a way of dealing with insecurity. Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly, organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles-perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict -people, birds, maps, and so on.

    One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s inpidualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves. And believe it or not, there is at least one dog collar museum in existence, and it grew out of a personal collection.

    Of course, all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment. To non-collectors, it may appear an eccentric, if harmless, way of spending time, but potentially, collecting has a lot going for it.

    Source: Cambridge Ielts Test 12

    CAMBRIDGE IELTS 12 – TEST 5 – PASSAGE 2

    Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

    Write your answers in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet.

    14. The writer mentions collecting ……………………. as an example of collecting in order to make money.

    15. Collectors may get a feeling of ……………………. from buying and selling items.

    16. Collectors’ clubs provide opportunities to share ……………………. .

    17. Collectors’ clubs offer ……………………. with people who have similar interests.

    18. Collecting sometimes involves a life-long ……………………. for a special item.

    19. Searching for something particular may pvent people from feeling their life is completely ……………………. .

    20. Stamp collecting may be ……………………. because it provides facts about different countries.

    21. ……………………. tends to be mostly a male hobby.

    14. The writer mentions collecting ……………………. as an example of collecting in order to make money.

    = Người viết đề cập việc sưu tầm ……………………. như một ví dụ của sưu tầm nhằm mục đích kiếm tiền.

    Trong đoạn 2 của bài đọc ta thấy các của câu hỏi ” There are the people who collect because they want to make money – this could be called an instrumental reason for collecting; that is, collecting as a means to an end. They’ll look for, say, antiques that they can buy cheaply and expect to be able to sell at a profit.

    = “Có những người sưu tầm vì họ muốn kiếm tiền – điều này có thể được gọi là lý do công cụ cho việc sưu tầm; đó là, sưu tập như là một phương tiện cho một mục đích. Họ sẽ tìm kiếm, ví dụ, những đồ cổ mà họ có thể mua rẻ và mong muốn có thể bán với một mức lợi nhuận.”

    15. Collectors may get a feeling of ……………………. from buying and selling items.

    = Những người sưu tầm có thể một cảm giác của ……………………. từ việc mua và bán những vật phẩm.

    Vẫn trong đoạn 2 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” But there may well be a psychological element, too – buying cheap and selling dear can give the collector a sense of triumph

    = “Nhưng cũng có thể là một yếu tố tâm lý – mua rẻ và bán lấy lãi có thể mang lại cho nhà sưu tập một cảm giác chiến thắng.”

    16. Collectors’ clubs provide opportunities to share ……………………. .

    = Các câu lạc bộ của những người sưu tầm cung cấp những cơ hội để chia sẻ ……………………. .

    Trong đoạn 3 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Many collectors collect to develop their social life, attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items. This is a variant on joining a bridge club or a gym, and similarly brings them into contact with like-minded people.

    = “Nhiều nhà sưu tập thu thập để phát triển đời sống xã hội của họ, tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầmtrao đổi thông tin về các vật phẩm. Đây là một biến thể trong việc tham gia một câu lạc bộ chơi bài bridge hay một phòng tập gym, và tương tự như vậy đưa họ đến việc tiếp xúc với những người có cùng sở thích. “

    … attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items . = Collectors’ clubs provide opportunities to share ……………………. .

    … tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầm và trao đổi thông tin về các vật phẩm . Các câu lạc bộ của những người sưu tầm cung cấp những cơ hội để chia sẻ ……………………. .

     group of collectors = collectors’ clubs

     exchanging = to share

    Từ những dữ liệu trên ta thông tin trùng khớp để trả lời câu hỏi là information on items. Tuy nhiên theo đầu bài thì đáp án chỉ được ONE WORD ONLY. Do đó kết luận đáp án của câu 16information

    17. Collectors’ clubs offer ……………………. with people who have similar interests.

    = Các câu lạc bộ của những người sưu tầm tạo cơ hội ……………………. với những người mà có những mối quan tâm giống nhau.

    Vẫn ở đoạn 3 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Many collectors collect to develop their social life, attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items. This is a variant on joining a bridge club or a gym, and similarly brings them into contact with like-minded people.

    = “Nhiều nhà sưu tập thu thập để phát triển đời sống xã hội của họ, tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầm và trao đổi thông tin về các vật phẩm. Đây là một biến thể trong việc tham gia một câu lạc bộ chơi bài bridge hay một phòng tập gym, và tương tự như vậy đưa họ đến việc tiếp xúc với những người có cùng sở thích.”

    18. Collecting sometimes involves a life-long ……………………. for a special item.

    Đầu đoạn 4 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this.

    = “Một động cơ thúc đẩy khác cho việc sưu tầm là mong muốn tìm một thứ gì đó đặc biệt, hoặc một mẫu cụ thể của một vật phẩm được sưu tập, chẳng hạn như một bản ghi âm sớm hiếm có bởi một ca sĩ nào đó. Một số người có thể dành cả cuộc đời của họ trong một cuộc săn đuổi cho điều này.”

    19. Searching for something particular may pvent people from feeling their life is completely ……………………. .

    = Tìm kiếm cho thứ gì đó cụ thể có thể ngăn chặn con người khỏi cảm giác cuộc sống của họ là hoàn toàn ……………………. .

    Vẫn ở đoạn 4 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi ” Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the inpidual is ever lucky enough to find what they’re looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty, now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

    = “Một động cơ thúc đẩy khác cho việc sưu tầm là mong muốn tìm một thứ gì đó đặc biệt, hoặc một mẫu cụ thể của một vật phẩm được sưu tập, chẳng hạn như một bản ghi âm sớm hiếm có bởi một ca sĩ nào đó. Một số người có thể dành cả cuộc đời của họ trong một cuộc săn đuổi cho điều này. Về mặt tâm lý, điều này có thể mang lại một mục đích cho một cuộc sống mà nếu không thì sẽ cảm thấy không có mục đích. Mặc dù, có một hiểm họa mà nếu cá nhân thực sự đủ may mắn để tìm thấy những gì họ đang tìm kiếm, thay vì ăn mừng cho sự thành công của họ, họ có thể cảm thấy trống rỗng, bây giờ mục tiêu mà đã thúc đẩy họ đã biến mất.”

    20. Stamp collecting may be ……………………. because it provides facts about different countries.

    = Việc sưu tầm tem có thể là ……………………. bởi vì nó cung cấp những sự thật về các quốc gia khác nhau.

    Trong đoạn 5 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

    = “Nếu bạn nghĩ về việc thu thập tem bưu chính, một lý do tiềm năng khác cho điều này – hoặc, có lẽ, một kết quả của việc sưu tập giá trị giáo dục của nó. Sưu tầm tem mở cánh cửa sổ đến các quốc gia khác, và đến các loài thực vật, động vật hoặc những người nổi tiếng được trình bầy trên những con tem của họ.”

    If you think about collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting is – its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps.

    … collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting – is … its educational value … . Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, = Stamp collecting may be ……………………. because it provides facts about different countries.

    … việc thu thập tem bưu chính, một lý do tiềm năng khác cho điều này – hoặc, có lẽ, một kết quả của việc sưu tập – là … giá trị giáo dục của nó … . Sưu tầm tem mở cánh cửa sổ đến các quốc gia khác, Việc sưu tầm tem có thể là ……………………. bởi vì nó cung cấp những sự thật về các quốc gia khác nhau.

     potential, perhaps = may be

     opens a window = provides facts

     other countries = different countries

    Từ những dữ liệu trên ta thấy đáp án cho câu này chắc chắn nằm ở chỗ “it’s educational value”.

    Trong câu hỏi – sau từ ” may be” – yêu cầu một đáp án là tính từ hoặc danh từ, trong khi đó đầu bài yêu cầu ONE WORD ONLY, do đó tính từ “educational” là lựa chọn phù hợp nhất.

    Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 20educational

    21. ……………………. tends to be mostly a male hobby.

    = ……………………. hướng tới chủ yếu là một sở thích của đàn ông.

    Đầu đoạn 6 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

    = “Trong quá khứ – và hiện tại nữa, mặc dù ở phạm vi nhỏ hơn – một hình thức sưu tập phổ biến, đặc biệt giữa các cậu bé và những người đàn ông trưởng thành, là xem và ghi chú con số của các động cơ tàu hỏa.”

    In the past – and nowadays, too, though to a lesser extent – a popular form of collecting, particularly among boys and men, was trainspotting.

    Questions 22-26

    Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

    In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write

    TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

    FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

    NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

    22. The number of people buying dolls has grown over the centuries.

    23. Sixteenth century European dolls were normally made of wax and porcelain.

    24. Arranging a stamp collection by the size of the stamps is less common than other methods.

    25. Someone who collects unusual objects may want others to think he or she is also unusual.

    26. Collecting gives a feeling that other hobbies are unlikely to inspire.

    22. The number of people buying dolls has grown over the centuries.

    = Số lượng người mua búp bê đã và đang phát triển qua các thế kỷ.

    Ở đoạn 7 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

    = “Tương tự như vậy, những người sưu tầm búp bê có thể đi vượt quá việc chỉ đơn giản mở rộng bộ sưu tập của họ, và phát triển một sự hứng thú với cách mà búp bê được tạo ra, hoặc các vật liệu mà được sử dụng. Những thứ này đã và đang thay đổi qua nhiều thế kỷ từ gỗ thứ mà đã là tiêu chuẩn ở châu Âu trong thế kỷ 16, đến sáp và sứ của những thế kỷ sau đó, đến các loại nhựa của những con búp bê ngày nay. Hoặc người sưu tầm có thể được truyền cảm hứng để nghiên cứu những con búp bê phản ánh những ý niệm của những gì trẻ em thích, hoặc nên thích như thế nào.”

    Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

    23. Sixteenth century European dolls were normally made of wax and porcelain.

    = Những con búp bê của châu Âu vào thế kỷ 16 thường được làm bằng sáp và sứ.

    Vẫn trong đoạn 7 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

    = “phát triển một sự hứng thú với cách mà búp bê được tạo ra, hoặc các vật liệu mà được sử dụng. Những thứ này đã và đang thay đổi qua nhiều thế kỷ từ gỗ thứ mà đã là tiêu chuẩn ở châu Âu trong thế kỷ 16, đến sáp và sứ của những thế kỷ sau đó, đến các loại nhựa của những con búp bê ngày nay.”

    develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls.

    24. Arranging a stamp collection by the size of the stamps is less common than other methods.

    = Sắp xếp một bộ sưu tập tem theo kích cỡ của các con tem là ít phổ biến hơn những cách thức khác.

    Trong đoạn 8 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

    = “Ví dụ, các nhà sưu tập tem sắp xếp tem của họ trong các album, thường rất gọn gàng, tổ chức bộ sưu tập của họ theo các nguyên tắc thông thường nhất định – có thể theo quốc gia với thứ tự chữ cái, hoặc nhóm các con tem theo những gì chúng miêu tả – người, chim, bản đồ, vân vân.”

    Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly, organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles – perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict – people, birds, maps, and so on.

    Trong cả đoạn 8 tác giả chỉ nói đến cách thức mà những người sưu tập tem sắp xếp các bộ sưu tập của họ, không có thông tin nói lên cách thức nào là phổ biến hơn hay kém.

     organising, grouping = arranging

     commonplace = common

     principles = methods

    Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 24Not Given

    25. Someone who collects unusual objects may want others to think he or she is also unusual.

    = Người nào đó mà sưu tầm những vật phẩm khác thường có thể mong muốn những người khác nghĩ rằng anh ấy hay cô ấy cũng là khác thường.

    Trong đoạn 9 của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

    = “Một lý do, cố ý hoặc không, cho những gì người nào đó lựa chọn sưu tầm là để thể hiện chủ nghĩa cá nhân của nhà sưu tầm. Ví dụ, một người nào đó quyết định sưu tầm thứ gì đó đáng ngạc nhiên như những chiếc vòng cổ của chó, có thể truyền tải niềm tin của họ rằng bản thân chúng phải là rất thú vị.”

    One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s inpidualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves.

    One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s inpidualism. = Someone who collects unusual objects may want others to think he or she is also unusual.

    Một lý do, cố ý hoặc không, cho những gì người nào đó lựa chọn sưu tầm là để thể hiện chủ nghĩa cá nhân của nhà sưu tầm. = Người nào đó mà sưu tầm những vật phẩm khác thường có thể mong muốn những người khác nghĩ rằng anh ấy hay cô ấy cũng là khác thường.

     something as unexpected = unusual objects

     to show = want others to think

     collector’s inpidualism he or she is also unusual =

    Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 25True

    26. Collecting gives a feeling that other hobbies are unlikely to inspire.

    = Việc sưu tầm trao cho một cảm giác mà những sở thích khác khó có thể gây cảm hứng.

    Trong đoạn cuối cùng của bài đọc tác giả có đề cập đến của câu hỏi “

    = “Tất nhiên, tất cả các sở thích đều mang đến sự vui sướng hạnh phúc, nhưng yếu tố chung trong việc sưu tập thường là niềm đam mê: còn hơn rất nhiều so với niềm vui sướng và hạnh phúc. Hơn hầu hết các sở thích khác, sưu tầm có thể là hoàn toàn toàn tâm toàn ý, và có thể trao cho một cảm giác mạnh mẽ về sự hoàn thành của cá nhân.”

    Of course, all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment.

    … all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment. = Collecting gives a feeling that other hobbies are unlikely to inspire.

    … tất cả các sở thích đều mang đến sự vui sướng hạnh phúc, nhưng yếu tố chung trong việc sưu tập thường là niềm đam mê: còn hơn rất nhiều so với niềm vui sướng và hạnh phúc. Hơn hầu hết các sở thích khác, sưu tầm có thể là hoàn toàn toàn tâm toàn ý, và có thể trao cho một cảm giác mạnh mẽ về sự hoàn thành của cá nhân. = Việc sưu tầm trao cho một cảm giác mà những sở thích khác khó có thể gây cảm hứng.

     pleasure, passion, a strong sense of personal fulfilment = feeling

     to show = want others to think

     more than most other hobbies = other hobbies are unlikely to

     be totally engrossing, and can give = to inspire

    Từ những dữ liệu và phân tích trên, kết luận đáp án của câu 26True

    Collecting as a hobby

    Sưu tầm như một sở thích

    Cambridge IELTS 12: Test 5 – Reading Passage 1 – Answer explanation with key vocab, keyword tables, & Translation Cambridge IELTS 12: Test 5 – Reading Passage 3 – Answer explanation with key vocab, keyword tables, & Translation

    Collecting must be one of the most varied of human activities, and it’s one that many of us psychologists find fascinating. Many forms of collecting have been dignified with a technical name: an archtophilist collects teddy bears, a philatelist collects postage stamps, and a deltiologist collects postcards. Amassing hundreds or even thousands of postcards, chocolate wrappers or whatever, takes time, energy and money that could surely to much more productive use. And yet there are millions of collectors around the world. Why do they do it?

    Sưu tầm phải là một trong những hoạt động đa dạng nhất của loài người, và nó là một hoạt động mà nhiều nhà tâm lý học của chúng ta thấy rằng hấp dẫn. Nhiều hình thức sưu tầm đã được tôn lên với một cái tên chuyên môn: một archtophilist sưu tầm gấu bông teddy, một philatelist sưu tập tem bưu chính, và một deltiologist sưu tập bưu thiếp. Tích lũy hàng trăm hoặc thậm chí hàng ngàn bưu thiếp, giấy gói sô cô la hoặc bất cứ thứ gì, làm mất thời gian, năng lượng và tiền bạc mà có thể chắc chắn sử dụng hiệu quả hơn nhiều. Và vẫn có hàng triệu nhà sưu tập trên khắp thế giới. Tại sao họ làm điều đó?

    There are the people who collect because they want to make money – this could be called an instrumental reason for collecting; that is, collecting as a means to an end. They’ll look for, say, antiques that they can buy cheaply and expect to be able to sell at a profit. But there may well be a psychological element, too – buying cheap and selling dear can give the collector a sense of triumph. And as selling online is so easy, more and more people are joining in.

    Có những người sưu tầm vì họ muốn kiếm tiền – điều này có thể được gọi là lý do công cụ cho việc sưu tầm; đó là, sưu tập như là một phương tiện cho một mục đích. Họ sẽ tìm kiếm, ví dụ, những đồ cổ mà họ có thể mua rẻ và mong muốn có thể bán với một mức lợi nhuận. Nhưng cũng có thể là một yếu tố tâm lý – mua rẻ và bán lấy lãi có thể mang lại cho nhà sưu tập một cảm giác chiến thắng. Và khi bán hàng trực tuyến thật dễ dàng, ngày càng có nhiều người tham gia.

    Many collectors collect to develop their social life, attending meetings of a group of collectors and exchanging information on items. This is a variant on joining a bridge club or a gym, and similarly brings them into contact with like-minded people.

    Nhiều nhà sưu tập thu thập để phát triển đời sống xã hội của họ, tham dự các cuộc hội họp của một nhóm các nhà sưu tầm và trao đổi thông tin về các vật phẩm. Đây là một biến thể trong việc tham gia một câu lạc bộ chơi bài bridge hay một phòng tập gym, và tương tự như vậy đưa họ đến việc tiếp xúc với những người có cùng sở thích.

    Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the inpidual is ever lucky enough to find what they’re looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty, now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

    Một động cơ thúc đẩy khác cho việc sưu tầm là mong muốn tìm một thứ gì đó đặc biệt, hoặc một mẫu cụ thể của một vật phẩm được sưu tập, chẳng hạn như một bản ghi âm sớm hiếm có bởi một ca sĩ nào đó. Một số người có thể dành cả cuộc đời của họ trong một cuộc săn đuổi cho điều này. Về mặt tâm lý, điều này có thể mang lại một mục đích cho một cuộc sống mà nếu không thì sẽ cảm thấy không có mục đích. Mặc dù, có một hiểm họa mà nếu cá nhân thực sự đủ may mắn để tìm thấy những gì họ đang tìm kiếm, thay vì ăn mừng cho sự thành công của họ, họ có thể cảm thấy trống rỗng, bây giờ mục tiêu mà đã thúc đẩy họ đã biến mất.

    If you think about collecting postage stamps, another potential reason for it – or, perhaps, a result of collecting – is its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps. Similarly, in the 19th century, many collectors amassed fossils, animals and plants from around the globe, and their collections provided a vast amount of information about the natural world. Without those collections, our understanding would be greatly inferior to what it is.

    Nếu bạn nghĩ về việc thu thập tem bưu chính, một lý do tiềm năng khác cho điều này – hoặc, có lẽ, một kết quả của việc sưu tập – là giá trị giáo dục của nó. Sưu tầm tem mở cánh cửa sổ đến các quốc gia khác, và đến các loài thực vật, động vật hoặc những người nổi tiếng được trình bầy trên những con tem của họ. Tương tự, vào thế kỷ 19, nhiều nhà sưu tầm đã sưu tập hóa thạch, động vật và thực vật từ khắp nơi quanh địa cầu, và các bộ sưu tập của họ đã cung cấp một lượng lớn thông tin về thế giới tự nhiên. Nếu không có các bộ sưu tập này, sự hiểu biết của chúng ta có thể hạn hẹp hơn rất nhiều so với thực tế của nó.

    Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

    Tương tự như vậy, những người sưu tầm búp bê có thể đi vượt quá việc chỉ đơn giản mở rộng bộ sưu tập của họ, và phát triển một sự hứng thú với cách mà búp bê được tạo ra, hoặc các vật liệu mà được sử dụng. Những thứ này đã và đang thay đổi qua nhiều thế kỷ từ gỗ thứ mà đã là tiêu chuẩn ở châu Âu trong thế kỷ 16, đến sáp và sứ của những thế kỷ sau đó, đến các loại nhựa của những con búp bê ngày nay. Hoặc người sưu tầm có thể được truyền cảm hứng để nghiên cứu những con búp bê phản ánh những ý niệm của những gì trẻ em thích, hoặc nên thích như thế nào.

    Not all collectors are interested in learning from their hobby, though, so what we might call a psychological reason for collecting is the need for a sense of control, perhaps as a way of dealing with insecurity. Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly, organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles -perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict – people, birds, maps, and so on.

    Tuy nhiên, không phải tất cả các nhà sưu tầm đều quan tâm đến việc học hỏi từ sở thích của họ, nên điều mà chúng ta có thể gọi là một lý do tâm lý cho việc sưu tập là sự cần thiết cho một cảm giác kiểm soát, có lẽ như một cái cách để đối phó với sự thiếu an toàn. Ví dụ, các nhà sưu tập tem sắp xếp tem của họ trong các album, thường rất gọn gàng, tổ chức bộ sưu tập của họ theo các nguyên tắc thông thường nhất định – có thể theo quốc gia với thứ tự chữ cái, hoặc nhóm các con tem theo những gì chúng miêu tả – người, chim, bản đồ, vân vân.

    One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s inpidualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves. And believe it or not, there is at least one dog collar museum in existence, and it grew out of a personal collection.

    Một lý do, cố ý hoặc không, cho những gì người nào đó lựa chọn sưu tầm là để thể hiện chủ nghĩa cá nhân của nhà sưu tầm. Ví dụ, một người nào đó quyết định sưu tầm thứ gì đó đáng ngạc nhiên như những chiếc vòng cổ của chó, có thể truyền tải niềm tin của họ rằng bản thân chúng phải là rất thú vị. Và tin vào nó hay không, có ít nhất một viện bảo tàng vòng cổ chó đang tồn tại, và nó phát triển từ một bộ sưu tập cá nhân.

    Of course, all hobbies give pleasure, but the common factor in collecting is usually passion: pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing, and can give a strong sense of personal fulfilment. To non-collectors, it may appear an eccentric, if harmless, way of spending time, but potentially, collecting has a lot going for it.

    Tất nhiên, tất cả các sở thích đều mang đến sự vui sướng hạnh phúc, nhưng yếu tố chung trong việc sưu tập thường là niềm đam mê: còn hơn rất nhiều so với niềm vui sướng và hạnh phúc. Hơn hầu hết các sở thích khác, sưu tầm có thể là hoàn toàn toàn tâm toàn ý, và có thể trao cho một cảm giác mạnh mẽ về sự hoàn thành của cá nhân. Đối với những người không phải là nhà sưu tầm, điều này có vẻ là một sự lập dị, nếu vô hại, cách sử dụng thời gian, nhưng một cách tiềm năng, sự sưu tầm có rất nhiều lợi ích.

    many of us psychologists

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Sample answer D Mark: 2 Two parts of the message are clearly communicated, but the third ('I'm going to End of March') requires interptation, as does the concluding sentence. Consequently, the candidate would score 3. However, the writer is penalised for not including a signature on his/her postcard, and so loses a mark and scores 2. I'm going to End of March. I will stay for two weeks. I'd like to go anywhere and shopping, so I looking for you! KET 1 Europe Level A2 21 Sample answer E Mark: 0 Lack of linguistic resources make the message in this writing incomphensible. It is unclear whether the writer is attempting a response to the input text and writing about future plans, or is attempting to describe impssions and past and/or psent activities. England is very big country. Before come here is very cold. I in here Febremary 7th. In here school study English is one year another school is long date. Paper 2 Listening Part 1 1 B 2 A 3 B 4 A 5 C Part 2 6 F 7 G 8 E 9 B 10 A Part 3 11 B 12 C 13 A 14 B 15 C Part 4 For questions 16-20, ignore capitals/absence of capitals. In question 16, spelling must be correct. Recognisable spelling is acceptable for questions 17 and 19. 16 Elaine 17 (the) Grand Hotel 18 8.30 p.m./20.30/half past eight 19 Friend 20 724 5936 Part 5 For questions 21-25, ignore capitals/absence of capitals. In question 21, spelling must be correct. Spelling of 'bank', 'May' and 'bag' must also be correct as these are simple 'high frequency' KET vocabulary items. 21Warnock 22 (the) bank 23 21st May 24 £350(ormore) 25 (travel) bag Transcript This is the Key English Test. Paper 2. Listening. Test number one. There are five parts to the test. Parts One, Two, Three, Four and Five. We will now stop for a moment before we start the test. Please ask any questions now because you musn't speak during the test. You will hear five short conversations. You will hear each conversation twice. There is one question for each conversation. For questions 1 to 5, put a tick under the right answer. Here is an example. Example: What time is it? Female: Excuse me, can you tell me the time? Male: Yes, it's nine o'clock. Female: Thank you. Male: You're welcome. Now listen again. Question 2 Two What time does the train go? Male: Hurry up! We'll be late. Femate: What time does the train go? Male: At six fifteen. We've got to leave in ten minutes. Female: I'm nearly ready. KET 1 Europe Level A2 23 Now listen again. Question 4 Four Which man wants to see him? Male: Which man wants to see me? Female: The one over there, wearing a hat. Male: The one with the glasses? Female: No, not him. The other one. Now listen again. KET 1 Europe Level A2 24 This is the end of Part One. Now look at Part Two. Female: Tell me about your family, Paul. Paul: Well, you know Sally, my sister - the writer - don't you? Female: Yes. Is she your only sister? Paul: She is. But I've got two brothers. David's older than me, and Bill's younger. Female: How old is Bill? Paul: He's nineteen. He's studying French in Paris at the moment. Female: That sounds interesting ... And David? What does he do? Paul: Oh, he's a teacher, the same as my mother was. But she finished working last year. Female: And what about your father? Paul: Oh, he's a doctor at the local hospital. Female: Of course. I've seen him there. Paul: My mother says he works too hard. She wants him to stop. She wants to go and live on a farm in the country, near David, Female: Um ... Are you a doctor too, Paul? Paul: I'm not clever enough! I work in a bank - the one in the High Street, next to the bookshop. Female: Do you? So does my sisterl KET 1 Europe Level A2 25 PART 3 Listen to Eric talking to Mary about the weekend. Their friend, Carlos, is coming to visit them. For questions 11 to 15, tick A, B or C. You will hear the conversation twice. Look at questions 11 to 15 now, You have 20 seconds. Now listen again. KET 1 Europe Level A2 26 This is the end of Part Three. Now look at Part Four. Male: Hello. 785 3126. Elaine: Hello. Could I speak to Martin please? Male: I'm afraid he's out at the moment. Can I take a message for him? Elaine: Yes, please. My name's Elaine. Male: How do you spell that? Elaine: E-L-A-I-N-E. Male: Right, Elaine. And what's the message? Elaine: Tell Martin that the party tonight is at the Grand Hotel. I'll meet him there. Male: Does he know the address? Elaine: Oh yes, Everyone knows the Grand Hotel. Male: OK. I'll tell him. Elaine: And tell him I'll try to be there at half past eight. But I may be a bit late. Male: Oh, I'm sure he won't mind waiting. I'll tell him eight thirty ... Is there anything else? Elaine: Oh, yes ... ask him to bring a friend. Male: A friend? Oh good, that could be me. Elaine: Hmmm ... well ... and please ask him to phone me if he can't come. Male: Has he got your phone number? Elaine: It's 724 5936. Male: Right, I've got that. 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    CAMBRIDGE IELTS 6 READING TEST 3 ANSWERS

    Passage 1: THE POWER OF THE BIG SCREEN

    Questions 1-5: Which paragraph contains the following information?

    1. The location of the first cinema

    Keywords: location, first cinema

    In paragraph A, the writer refers to a cinema called “Cinematographe” together with its location: “at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris” as well as its early time of formation which is “on December 8, 1895”

    Keywords: how, stories

    In paragraph I, it is stated that “…it (refers to cinema) became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories.”

    Keywords: speed, changed

    The change taking place in the cinema is clearly the main idea of paragraph J: “And it has all happened so chúng tôi is a mere 100 years since……”

    Keywords: teaches, cultures

    In paragraph E, the writer says that: “One effect of this realism was to educate the world about chúng tôi before people travelled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places look like; they knew how other people worked and lived…”

    + to teach = to educate

    How other places look like, how other people worked and lived ~ other cultures

    Keywords: attraction, actors

    The actor who holds attraction for audiences, or “star”, is mentioned in paragraph G: ” The „star‟ was another natural consequence of chúng tôi personalities have such an immediate psence that, inevitably, they become super-real”.

    + actors~stars~film personalities

    6.It is important to understand how the first audience reacted to the cinema.

    Keywords: first audience, understand, reacted.

    In paragraph B, the writer says that “…But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema…”

    “The initial shock of those images” refers to “how the first audience reacted to the cinema”. So the given statement agrees with the view of the writer.

    + important = worth trying

    +first = initial

    Keywords: Lumiere Brothers‟ film, train, greatest films

    Scan the keyword in capitals “Lumiere Brothers” then find it in paragraph C: “One of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films was a 30 second piece which showed a section of a railway platform flooded with sunshine.

    A train appears …. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists described the film as a „work of genius‟.” The writer only says the director Andrei Tarkovsky is one of the greatest of all film artists. Only the opinion of this director is mentioned, so we are not told if this film was one of the greatest films ever made.

    Keywords: a biased view, other countries

    All the information about the cinema‟s psentation of other countries is in paragraph E. Because of the influence of the American film industry: “American imagery – the cars, the cities, the cowboys – became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.” Thus, we are only told that most cinema audiences watched images of American life. We do not know if the cinema psents a biased view of other countries.

    Keywords: storylines, early cinema

    In paragraph H, the writer mentions that: “All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement.” So movement, not storyline, was important in very early cinema.

    + in very early cinema = at first

    + important ~ mattered

    10.The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate

    Keywords: film of the train

    In paragraph C, the film of the train, “one of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films”, is described: “As the train approached, panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran chúng tôi feared that a real train was about to crush them.” So the writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate the impact of early films.

    Keywords: Tarkovsky, attraction of cinema

    In paragraph D: “For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image of the real flow of events….. in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.”

    + attraction = magic

    It means the attraction of the cinema is that it illustrates the passing of time.

    Keywords: cinema first began

    In paragraph H, the writer says that: “When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. Indeed, some said that……cinema would fade away.” So when cinema first began, people thought that its future was uncertain.

    The whole passage psents the introduction, development and impact of the cinema and only mentions in one or two paragraphs other topics such as stars, the comparison between cinema and novels, or the domination of Hollywood. So the best choice for its title is “The power of the big screen”.

    Questions 14-18: Matching headings

    14.Key Point Two

    + establish targets= setting goals

    This key point shows that managers must ensure targets are realistic: “…..goals are achievable…managers must be chúng tôi employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals.”

    + achievable = realistic ~ their efforts can lead to performance goals

    + to be sure ~ to ensure

    The main idea of this key point is about matching rewards to inpiduals: “managers could use their own knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control.”

    + each employee = inpiduals

    + personalise the rewards = match rewards to inpiduals

    In the topic sentence of this paragraph, the writer points out that: “Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance.” This means that managers must link rewards to achievement.

    + achievement = performance

    Continuing to talk about rewards, the writer states: “The way rewards are distributed should be transparent ….” then suggests a method of weighing inputs and outcomes according to employee group to make this key point feasible. So the correct heading of this key point is “ensure the reward system is fair.”

    + transparent ~ fair, so that everyone can understand clearly

    19.A shrinking organization tends to lose its less skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees.

    Keywords: shrinking organization, skilled employees

    In the first paragraph, the writer says that: “When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. chúng tôi are the chúng tôi the highest skills and experience.” So the given statement is opposite to the writer‟s view. The more skilled employees are the most likely to leave.

    Keywords: small business, large business.

    Small and large businesses are mentioned in Key Point One: “For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business…..”, but there is no information about whether it is easier to manage a small business rather than a large business. Instead, the paragraph deals only with matching people to jobs.

    Keywords: High achievers, team work.

    In the paragraph of Key Point One, the writer says: ” chúng tôi achievers will do best … where there is independence …” So, high achievers are well suited to work independently, not to team work.

    Keywords: manipulated, participate in goal-setting

    Look at the paragraph of Key Point Two, in which it is said that: “If participation (in goal-setting) and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative …” So, this means that some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.

    Keywords: staff appraisal process

    “The staff appraisal process” is only mentioned in the paragraph of Key Point Three: “For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.” However, the writer does not say anything about whether this process should be designed by employees or not.

    + staff = employees

    Keywords: earnings, disclosed

    In the paragraph of Key Point Five, the writer suggests that: “Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone‟s remuneration, publicising performance bonuses chúng tôi make rewards more visible …….” So, the statement agrees with the view of the writer.

    + earnings = pay, remuneration

    + disclose = eliminate the secrecy, openly communicate, publicise

    25.High achievers

    In Key Point Two, the writer states that: “For those with high achievement needs… the existence of goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated.” So high achievers have less need of external goals, because they have high internal motivation.

    In Key Point Six, the writer points out: “The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list” (the list of inputs and outcomes placed in degree of importance). So they think that the quality of their work is important.

    Questions 28-32: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN

    28.Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.

    Keywords: drugs available today

    In the first sentence of the passage, the writer states: “As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging…”. It is similar to the given statement.

    +drugs available ~ treatment on the market

    + delay = slow

    + the process of growing old= human aging

    Keywords: scientific evidence, eating fewer calories

    In the first paragraph, it is reported that: “But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health.” Furthermore, in paragraphs 4, 5 and 6, the writer describes scientists‟ experiments studying the benefits of a caloric-restricted diet for rats and monkeys. So, there is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.

    + extend human life = increasing longevity

    Keywords: a caloric-restricted diet, attractive

    It is stated in the second paragraph: “Few mortals could stick to that harsh a regimen….”, which means few people would like such a harsh caloric-restricted diet. So, the given statement is similar to the writer‟s view.

    + people = mortals

    + diet = regimen

    Keywords: Diet-related diseases , older people.

    Age-related diseases are mentioned in the second paragraph: ” Could such a caloric-restriction mimetic….enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis) …..” However, the writer does not say anything about diet-related diseases in old age.

    + disease =disorder

    Keywords: experiments, rats, low-calorie diet

    The experiment on rats is reported in the third and fourth paragraphs: “…they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats…” So, rats who ate what they wanted led shorter lives than rats on a low-calorie diet. rats who ate what they wanted = free-feeding rats

    1. Caloric-restricted monkeys
    2. Control monkeys
    3. Neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

    The comparison between caloric-restricted monkeys and control ones (ones that eat normally) is reported in paragraphs 5 and 6. The caloric-restricted monkeys: “have lower body temperature and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin”; “have lower blood pssure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease)….;”have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes)” and “have less chronic disease”.

    33.Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic

    In the sixth paragraph, the writer says: “They (refers to caloric-restricted monkeys) and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespan in monkeys.” It means that we do not yet know whether caloric-restricted monkeys experience a longer than average life span than the control monkeys.

    How a caloric- restriction mimetic works

    CR mimetic

    Less chúng tôi produced

    Productions of ATP is decreased

    Theory 1: Theory 2:

    Cells less damaged by disease because fewer Cel ls focus on 40…..because food is in short supply chúng tôi emitted

    38.In the last paragraph, the writer says that: “.caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells…..” This means that less glucose is produced than normal.

    In which, “one possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals ….Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage.”The words “their production” refers to “the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals”. So, the damage is constrained because of limited emission of free radicals, or fewer free radicals are emitted.

    + emission~production

    + in short supply = scarce

    + focus on = emphasize

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  • Title

    :

    Đáp án Brain Test 2: Chuyện Mưu Mẹo – Thợ Săn Quái Vật Mạnh

    Artist

    :

    Đáp án Brain Test 2: Chuyện Mưu Mẹo

    Album

    :

    Thợ Săn Quái Vật Mạnh – Single

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    13:48

    Audio Summary

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    mp3, 44100 Hz, stereo, s16p, 192 kb/s

    Added

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    07 Jul 2022

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    Link download akan muncul beberapa saat lagi, mohon tunggu…

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    Tải xuống Brain Test 2 trên Android Tải xuống Brain Test 2 trên iOS

    Kiểm tra não đầy đủ 2 câu trả lời.

    Thợ săn quái vật mạnh mẽ

    Câu trả lời cho câu hỏi 1: Đầu tiên hãy mở cửa cho người thợ săn thức dậy, sau đó mặc quần áo vào và đưa cho anh ta chiếc vòng cổ.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 2: Đầu tiên, bạn dùng đinh đâm vào tay người thợ săn cho chảy máu, sau đó di chuyển giọt máu đến gần 3 cậu bé đang ngồi, lúc này ma cà rồng sẽ xuất hiện.

    Câu trả lời 3: Di chuyển màn hình điện thoại sang bên phải để xem ma cà rồng.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 4: Kéo chữ Miễn phí từ bảng hiệu vào xe trà sữa, vì ma cà rồng không uống trà sữa nên sẽ không chạy đến xe hàng.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 5: Di chuyển thùng đến gần cột, sau đó dùng con trỏ bắn thùng, cột sẽ đổ và ma cà rồng sẽ chết.

    Câu trả lời 6: Nhấn nút lửa khi con trỏ di chuyển đến vị trí màu xanh lá cây.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 7: Rút cống ra, sau đó di chuyển thợ săn để zombie rơi xuống cống.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 8: Xếp hàng đầu của con quái vật, sau đó bắn.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 9: Tránh đánh người đi bộ và đâm một số Zombie nhất định.

    Đáp án câu 10: Phun thuốc vào những đám mây và làm mưa.

    Đáp án câu 11: Phóng to đôi dép, sau đó sử dụng nó để đánh con nhện khổng lồ.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 12: Cho thợ săn đứng sau xe, sau đó mở cửa mở cốp xe, kẻ này sẽ tự bắn vào công trình.

    Trả lời 13: Dùng hai tay kéo đuôi sói và tay cô gái cùng lúc.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 14: Di chuyển thợ săn lên, và bắn tất cả trái tim trước khi sói tấn công.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 15: Kéo tất cả giấy của xác ướp lên, sau đó bắn.

    Đáp án câu 16: Bắn nòng súng để tiêu diệt quái vật, sau đó bắn sói.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 17: Lắc điện thoại và thả bầy vào con quỷ.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 18: Đặt tầm ngắm của bạn để giết con sói, sau đó bắn khóa để thả con chó.

    Trả lời 19: Quay máy, cho xe nát hết xương.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 20: Đốt củi và di chuyển nó đến gần người thợ săn, để tạo ra một cái bóng lớn.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 21: Di chuyển người thợ săn để con chó chăm sóc bộ xương, nước cho xác ướp, cố gắng di chuyển quả cầu lửa để quay lại phía cha.

    Đặc vụ hắc ám

    Câu trả lời cho câu hỏi 1: Dùng lọ mực phía trên tủ, để tô màu kính thành đen, sau đó đeo cho đặc vụ.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 2: Đầu tiên mở két, sau đó mở bưu phẩm. Tiếp theo, bỏ bom vào két và đóng lại.

    Câu trả lời 3: Sắp xếp các gói, bạn sẽ thấy số 1792.

    Câu trả lời 4: Chạm vào ô tô để sử dụng lại tại nhà số 17 2, sau đó lấy 1 số 9 từ nhà 7999 bên cạnh, để chuyển vào nhà 1792.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 5: Thu thập tất cả 2 mục tương tự như hình ảnh sau đây.

    Trả lời 6: Nhìn vào tờ giấy trên mặt sau của quả bom, sau đó cắt theo hướng dẫn thời gian để không giao hàng khi cắt dây.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 7: Sử dụng bột để che các đối tượng, dấu vân tay sẽ xuất hiện.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 8: Hãy nhờ một người hâm mộ làm tóc cho gã hói bây giờ, sau đó bỏ kính của gã hói ra, và bạn sẽ thấy vết sẹo.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 9: Sử dụng đèn tín hiệu giao thông để điều khiển xe, truy bắt tên cướp.

    Đáp án câu 10: Tìm các chữ cái đặc biệt để kết hợp thành các từ Sự độc lập.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 11: Cởi giày của tên tội phạm, sau đó di chuyển cây chổi xuống để làm anh ta buồn.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 12: Di chuyển đặc vụ đến thùng, sau đó đến cửa sổ, giữ cho người bảo vệ khuất tầm nhìn.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 13: Có ngọn nến rơi xuống, để mở căn phòng bí mật, sau đó mở két để lấy giấy có mật khẩu máy tính.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 14: Chạm vào các vòng tròn để chúng được kết nối lại.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 15: Kiểm soát các tác nhân để tránh bị bắn, nhưng làm thế nào để những người muốn làm cho anh ta bắn nhau.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 16: Mở cửa sắt để cho xe chạy, sau đó lấy đinh gỗ trong bụi cỏ và đâm vào lốp xe màu vàng.

    Câu trả lời 17: Sử dụng máy quét để tìm quả bom, sau đó đập vào bức tường nơi quả bom được phát hiện và lấy nó ra.

    Đáp án cho câu hỏi 18: Dùng tay kéo tòa nhà cao chặn máy bay, sau đó ấn vào một chân của xe tăng để nó rơi xuống và rơi máy bay.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 19: Sử dụng một chiếc ô và thả tác nhân xuống, hãy nhớ máy đang cháy.

    Trả lời cho câu hỏi 20: Cúi người đại lý né đạn rồi chồng ba hộp để đạn quay lại bắn tên cướp.

    ………………………..

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  • This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 6 Reading Test 3 Reading Passage 1 about ‘History of films’. This is a post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3: AC Reading Module

    Reading Passage 1: Questions 1-13

    This passage contains no title

    Questions 1-5: Identifying information:

    Question no. 6: It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.

    Keywords for the question: important, understand, how, first audiences, reacted to, cinema,

    The answer is found in lines 4-9 of paragraph B, “ . .. . But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.”

    Here, it is worth trying = it is important, the initial shock of those images = how the first audiences reacted to the cinema,

    So, the answer is: YES

    Question no. 7: The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest films ever made.

    Keywords for the question: Lumiere Brothers’ film, train, one of, greatest films ever made,

    Paragraph C gives a detailed explanation of The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train. Here, these lines may confuse you, “ . .. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists, described the film as a ‘work of genius’.”

    You need to read the question again; it asks about the film, not the film artists.

    In this passage, there is no information about whether this film is one of the greatest films ever made or not.

    So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

    Question no. 8: Cinema psents a biased view of other countries.

    Keywords for the question: cinema, psents, biased view, other countries,   

    In paragraph E we find the information that cinema can make us aware about other countries. So, we can guess that the answer to this question should be found in the same paragraph. However, it does not say anywhere that cinema gives a biased view of other countries.

    So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

    Question no. 9: Storylines were important in very early cinema. 

    Keywords for the question: storylines, important, very early cinema,   

    In paragraph D H lines 5-7 say, “ . .. . All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. … . .”

    Here, All that mattered at first = all that was important in very early cinema,

    So, it was the wonder of movement, not the storylines.

    So, the answer is: NO

    Questions 11-13: Multiple choice questions

    [This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers to pvious questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

    Question no. 10: The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate –

    Keywords for the question: the film of train, to demonstrate,  

    Take a look at these lines paragraph C where the writer talks about the film about the moving train psented by the Lumiere Brothers, “. . .. ‘As the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ’panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture..  … .”

    Clearly, the writer explains the impact of the early films as mass people reacted with astonishment.

    So, the answer is: B (the impact of early films)

    Question no. 11: In Tarkovsky’s opinion, the attraction of the cinema is that it –

    Keywords for the question: Tarkovsky’s opinion, attraction, cinema, it,

    Take a look at lines 7-9 in paragraph D, “. . .. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. .  ..”

    Here, that magic dynamic image = attraction of the cinema, real flow of events = passing of time,

    So, the answer is: C (illustrates the passing of time)

    Question no. 12: When cinema first began, people thought that –    

    Keywords for the question: when, cinema, first begun, people, thought,   

    The answer can be found in paragraph H as the author says here, “.. .. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. .. . .”

    Here, by no means obvious = the future was uncertain,

    So, the answer is: D (its future was uncertain)

    Question no. 13: What is the best title for this passage?

    Keywords for the question: best title,  

    During answering all the 12 questions, we have found out that the passage highlights the introduction, the development and different impacts of the cinema. Only two paragraphs in this passage talk about stars/ film artists, the dominance of Hollywood and a short comparison between cinema and novels.

    The best choice from the four options has to be ‘The power of the big screen (cinema)’.

    So, the answer is: D (The power of the big screen)

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  • Cambridge IELTS 9 is the latest IELTS exam pparation. chúng tôi will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 9 reading test 2 with detail explanations.

    CAMBRIDGE IELTS 9 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS

    Passage 1: Children with auditory problems

    1-6. Which section contains the following information?

    1. An account of a national policy initiative.

    Keywords: national policy initiative

    In paragraph H, the writer states that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.” So, this is a national policy initiative for New Zealand.

    – policy initiative=strategy

    2. A description of a global team effort

    Keywords: global team effort

    – a global team= an international working party

    3. A hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise.

    Keywords: reason, the growth, classroom noise

    In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as inpidual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit.”

    – growth in classroom noise=heightened noise levels

    4. a demand for suitable world-wide regulations.

    Keywords: worldwide regulations

    In paragraph I, the writer argues that “It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.”

    – suitable = appropriate

    – worldwide = international

    – regulations=standards

    5. a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others.

    Keywords: medical conditions, more at risk

    In paragraph D, the writer says that “While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and attention deficit

    disorders (ADD/ADHD).

    – at risk=vulnerable

    6. the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems.

    Keywords: proportion, auditory problems

    In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

    – Auditory problems = hearing loss

    Questions 7-10: Answer the questions below.

    7. For what period of time has hearing loss in school children been studied in New Zealand?

    Keywords: period of time

    In paragraph A, “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

    8. In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism?

    Keywords: machinery, type of noise, autism

    In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comphending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated bymachinerypainful and distressing.”

    – upset=find painful, distressing

    9. What term is used to describe the hearing problems of schoolchildren which have not been diagnosed?

    Keywords: term, hearing problems, not been diagnosed

    At the end of paragraph G, “It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education

    system with „invisible‟ disabilities.”

    – have not been diagnosed = undiagnosed

    10. What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give schoolchildren equal opportunities?

    Keywords: New Zealand Disability Strategy, part, equal opportunities

    In paragraph H, the writer says that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.”

    Questions 11-12: Choose TWO letters, A-F.

    11-12. Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage?

    A. current teaching methods

    B. echoing corridors

    C. cooling system

    D. large class sizes

    E loud-voiced teachers

    F. playground games

    In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air- conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comphend the teacher’s voice.”

    – current teaching methods = modern teaching practices

    – cooling system = mechanical means of ventilation (such as air-conditioning)

    Obviously, options B, D, E, and F are not given in the text.

    Questions 13: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

    13.What is the writer’s overall purpose in writing this article?

    A. to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems

    B. to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments

    C. to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems

    D. to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow

    At the beginning of the text, the writer argues that “Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the inpidual and the population as a whole.” Then the writer details the situation of auditory function deficit in young children in New Zealand by discussing the reasons, consequences and solutions to this problem. Therefore, overall, the writer’s purpose is to “increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems”.

    Options A, B, D do not repsent the GENERAL purpose of the writer.

    Passage 2: Venus in transit

    14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?

    14. Examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

    Keywords: examples, parallax principle

    In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 chúng tôi AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars.” So, the parallax principle has been applied to determine a value for the AU and to measure the distances to the stars.

    15. a description of an event which pvented a transit observation.

    Keywords: event, pvented transit observation

    In paragraph D, the writer says that “He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship‟s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations.”

    – pvented=ruled out any attempt at

    16. a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations.

    Keywords: future discoveries, transit observations.

    In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

    – discoveries=breakthroughs

    – leading on from=paved the way for

    17. a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome.

    Keywords: instruments, physical states, Venus, failed

    In paragraph E, the writer argues that “While the early transit timings were as pcise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the „black drop‟ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun‟s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

    – physical states= the ‘black drop’ effect, a halo of light

    – failed to overcome=made it impossible

    18-21: Match each statement with the correct person.

    18. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

    Keywords: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy

    In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AUbased on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today‟s value of 149,597,870 km.”

    – the distance of the Sun from the Earth=the AU

    – with a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate

    19. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

    Keywords: distance, worked out bycomparing observations

    In paragraph B, “He (Edmond Halley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun‟s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

    – work out=calculate, measure

    20. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

    Keywords: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun

    In paragraph C, the writer argues that “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sungoverned their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

    – go around = orbit (orbital)

    21. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

    Keywords: Venus transit, unable, calculations

    In paragraph D, “Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations”.

    – unable=ruled out

    – make any calculations=making accurate observations

    Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?

    22. Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

    Keywords: Halley, transit, Venus

    In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific…..Nevertheless, he accurately pdicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn‟t survive to see either”.

    23. Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

    Keywords: managed, second Venus transit.

    In paragraph D, the writer states that “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience. ” This means that Le Gentil did not succeed in observing a second Venus transit in the Philippines.

    24. The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

    Keywords: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun

    In paragraph E, the writer says that “While the early transit timings were as pcise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

    – pass in front of the Sun=cross the Sun‟s disc

    – distorted=smeared not circular

    25. Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

    Keywords: atmosphere on Venus, toxic

    In this passage, Venus’s atmosphere is not mentioned by the writer, so it is not known whether it is toxic or not. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

    26. The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

    Keywords: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth

    In paragraph F, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth‟s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”

    Passage 3: A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently

    Questions 27-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

    27. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to

    Keywords: Neuroeconomics, seeks to

    In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors.” In other words, neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.

    – achievement=success

    28. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because

    Keywords: iconoclasts, distinctive

    In paragraph 2, the writer says that “This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more pcisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.” So, iconoclasts are distinctive because their brains are different, in other words, their brains function differently.

    – distinctive=different

    29. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because

    Keywords: brain, efficiently

    In paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpt this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information” So, the brain works efficiently because it relies on pvious events.

    – efficiently = in the quickest way

    – relies on = draw on

    – pvious events=past experience

    30. The writer says that perception is

    Keyword: perception

    At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says that “More than the physical reality of photons and sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”

    31. According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker

    Keywords: iconoclastic thinker

    In paragraph 4, the writer says that “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people.” In other words, an iconoclast thinker can avoid cognitive traps.

    – cognitive=perceptual

    Questions 32-37: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3 ?

    32. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.

    Keywords: different events, think differently

    In paragraph 5, the writer says that “The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”

    – different events = things it (the brain) has never encountered before = novelty

    – think differently=make new judgments

    33. Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.

    Keywords: receptive, new experiences

    In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.”

    – are unusually receptive to = have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to

    – new experiences=what is fresh and different

    34. Most people are too shy to try different things.

    Keywords: too shy, different things

    In this passage, the writer does not mention whether most people are too shy to try different things. He just says that “most people avoid things that are different” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

    35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.

    Keywords: think, iconoclastic, overcome fear.

    In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.” This means that fear pvents people from thinking in an iconoclast way. So, the statement’s meaning is opposite to that in the text.

    36. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.

    Keywords: embarrassment, less, fears, irrelevant

    In paragraph 6, “fear of public ridicule” is mentioned. It we interpt this as “embarrassment”, still we are not told if other fears then become irrelevant. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN

    37. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

    Keywords: fear, public speaking, a psychological illness

    In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.” So, fear of public speaking is not a psychological illness, it is just a common variant of human nature.

    – a psychological illness= a mental disorder

    Questions 38-40: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

    38. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it

    Keyword: successful, demanding

    In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “to be successful iconoclasts, inpiduals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in…Perception is important in social cognition too…Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.” This means that thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.

    39. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it

    Keywords: social brain, useful,

    In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.” So, the concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it focuses on how groups decide on an action.

    – groups = circuits

    – groups decide on an action=groups coordinate decision making

    40. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking

    Keywords: an asset, way of thinking

    In the last paragraph, “Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expssion to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.” So, iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.

    Cambridge IELTS 9 Self-study Pack (Student’s Book with Answers and Audio CDs (2)) Authentic Examination Papers from Cambridge ESOL

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