Top 6 # Đáp Án Flyers 8 Test 2 Reading And Writing Xem Nhiều Nhất, Mới Nhất 2/2023 # Top Trend | Phusongyeuthuong.org

Cam 9, Test 2, Reading Pas 2

June 2004 saw the first passage., known as a ‘transit` of the planet Venus across the face of the Sun in 122 years. Transits have helped shape our view of the whole Universe, as Heather Cooper and Nigel Henbest explain

Tháng 6 năm 2004 đã chứng kiến một sự di chuyển đầu tiên, được biết đến như là một sự ‘quá cảnh’, của sao Kim băng qua bề mặt của Mặt trời trong 122 năm. Sự di chuyển này đã giúp định hình quan điểm của chúng ta về toàn bộ Vũ trụ, như Heather Cooper và Nigel Henbest giải thích.

AOn 8 June 2004, more than half the population of the world were treated to a rare astronomical event. For over six hours, the planet Venus steadily inched its way over the surface of the Sun. This “transit` of Venus was the first since 6 December l882. On that occasion, the American astronomer Professor Simon Newcomb led a party to South Africa to observe the event. They were based at a girls’ school, where – if is alleged – the combined forces of three schoolmistresses outperformed the professionals with the accuracy of their observations.

Vào ngày 8 tháng 6 năm 2004, hơn một nửa dân số thế giới đã được chứng kiến một sự kiện thiên văn hiếm hoi. Hành tinh sao Kim đã dần dần đi qua bề mặt của mặt trời khoảng hơn sáu tiếng đồng hồ. Sự ”dịch chuyển” này của sao Kim là lần đầu tiên kể từ ngày 6 tháng 12 năm 1882. Vào dịp đó, nhà thiên văn học người Mỹ, giáo sư Simon Newcomb đã dẫn một đoàn người đến Nam Phi để quan sát sự kiện này. Họ đặt cơ sở tại trường học nữ sinh, nơi mà được đưa ra lý lẽ rằng – kết hợp sức mạnh của ba nữ hiệu trưởng thực hiện tốt hơn các chuyên gia với sự chính xác về các quan sát của họ.

EWhile the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. This is due to diffraction of light. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun’s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.

Trong khi thời gian dịchchuyển ban đầu chính xác như các thiết bị cho phép, các phép đo được theo đuổi bởi hiệu ứng ‘giọt đen’. hi sao Kim bắt đầu băng qua đĩa Mặt Trời, nó có vẻ bị mờ không tròn – điều mà khiến việc xác định thời gian trở nên khó khăn. Điều này là do sự nhiễu xạ của ánh sáng. Vấn đề thứ hai là sao kim cho thấy một quầng sáng khi nó chỉ được nhìn thấy ở bên ngoài đĩa Mặt trời. Trong khi điều này cho các nhà thiên văn học thấy rằng sao Kim được bao quanh bởi một lớp khí dày mà bao phủ ánh sáng mặt trời quanh nó, cả hai ảnh hưởng đã làm cho nó không thể có được thời gian chính xác.

G June 2004’s transit of Venus was thus more of an astronomical spectacle than a scientifically important event. But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.

Sự đi qua của Sao Kim vào tháng 6 năm 2004 đã trở thành một hiện tượng thiên văn hơn là một sự kiện khoa học trọng đại. Nhưng những chuyến đi quá cảnh này đã mở đường cho điều có thể chứng minh là một trong những bước đột phá quan trọng nhất trong vũ trụ – phát hiện các hành tinh có kích cỡ Trái đất quay quanh các ngôi sao khác.

Hướng dẫn các kỹ năng Ielts:

Cam 7, Test 1, Reading Pas 2

AThe history of human civilization is entwined with the history of ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today. Lịch sử của nền văn minh con người gắn chặt với lịch sử các cách thức mà chúng ta đã biết để vận dụng tài nguyên nước. Khi dân cư dần dần mở rộng, con người phải lấy nước từ các nguồn ngày càng xa, dẫn đến các nỗ lực kỹ thuật phức tạp như xây đập và cống dẫn nước. Ở đỉnh cao của đế chế La Mã, chín hệ thống lớn, với một bố trí sáng tạo của ống cống được xây dựng khá tốt, đã cung cấp cho mỗi cư dân Rome lượng nước giống như lượng nước cung cấp cho mỗi người ở nhiều nơi trong thế giới công nghiệp ngày nay.

   

BDuring the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unprecedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation system that makes possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food. Nearly one-fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water. Trong cuộc cách mạng công nghiệp và sự bùng nổ dân số của thế kỷ 19 và 20, nhu cầu về nước tăng lên đáng kể. Việc xây dựng chưa từng có với hàng chục ngàn dự án kỹ thuật hoành tráng được thiết kế để kiểm soát lũ lụt, bảo vệ nguồn nước sạch, và cung cấp nước cho thủy lợi và thủy điện đã mang lại nhiều lợi ích cho hàng trăm triệu người. Sản xuất lương thực đã theo kịp với các việc dân số tăng cao chủ yếu là do việc mở rộng các hệ thống thủy lợi nhân tạo để có thể tăng sản lượng lương thực thế giới lên 40%. Gần một phần năm tất cả nguồn điện được tạo ra trên toàn thế giới được sản xuất bởi các tua bin quay bằng sức mạnh của nước.

   

CYet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population till suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve their problems.

   

DThe consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in part of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions. Hậu quả của chính sách về nước của chúng ta đã lan rộng đến mức gây nguy hiểm cho sức khỏe con người. Hàng chục triệu người đã bị buộc phải di dời khỏi nhà của họ – thường chỉ được địa phương cảnh báo hoặc bồi thường qua loa – để nhường chỗ cho các hồ chứa đằng sau đập. Hơn 20% của tất cả các loài cá nước ngọt đang bị đe dọa vì đập và việc xả nước đã phá hủy hệ sinh thái sông “có dòng chảy tự do” nơi mà các loài này đang sinh sống. Một số tập quán tưới tiêu làm suy giảm chất lượng đất và làm giảm năng suất nông nghiệp. Các tầng chứa nước ngầm đang được khai thác nhanh hơn lượng bổ sung tự nhiên ở một số nơi như Ấn Độ, Trung Quốc, Mỹ và các nơi khác. Và tranh chấp về tài nguyên nước dùng chung đã dẫn đến bạo lực và tiếp tục tạo ra những căng thẳng ở địa phương, quốc gia và thậm chí quốc tế.

   

EAt the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as a top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organizations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pressing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from preventable water-related illness.

   

FFortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted. As a result, the pressure to build now water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen. May mắn thay và bất ngờ là nhu cầu về nước không tăng nhanh như một số dự đoán. Kết quả là, áp lực để xây dựng các cơ sở hạ tầng về nước đã giảm trong hai thập kỷ qua. Mặc dù dân số, sản lượng công nghiệp và năng suất kinh tế vẫn tiếp tục tăng cao ở các nước phát triển, tỷ lệ mà mọi người rút nước từ các hồ chứa nước, sông và hồ đã chậm lại. Và ở vài nơi trên thế giới, nhu cầu này đã thực sự giảm.

   

GWhat explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20% from their peak in 1980. Điều gì giải thích về sự thay đổi đáng ghi nhận này? Có hai yếu tố là con người đã tìm ra cách để sử dụng nước hiệu quả hơn, và cộng đồng đang suy nghĩ lại về ưu tiên của họ khi sử dụng nước. Trong suốt ba phần tư đầu tiên của thế kỷ 20, lượng nước ngọt được tiêu thụ trên đầu người trung bình tăng gấp đôi; như ở Mỹ, lượng rút ​​nước tăng gấp mười lần, trong khi dân số tăng gấp bốn lần. Nhưng kể từ năm 1980, lượng nước tiêu thụ mỗi người đã thực sự giảm, nhờ vào một loạt các công nghệ mới giúp tiết kiệm nước tại nhà và tại các xưởng công nghiệp. Ví dụ năm 1965 Nhật Bản sử dụng khoảng 13 triệu gallons nước sản xuất 1 triệu đô sản lượng thương mại; năm 1989 lượng tiêu thụ này đã giảm xuống còn 3,5 triệu gallon (thậm chí hơn do lạm phát) – khoảng bốn lần lượng nước tiêu thụ năm 1965. Ở Mỹ, lượng ​​nước tiêu thụ đã giảm hơn 20% so với mức đỉnh vào năm 1980.

   

HOn the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget. Mặt khác, các đập, cống dẫn nước và các loại cơ sở hạ tầng khác sẽ vẫn phải được xây dựng, đặc biệt là ở các nước đang phát triển, nơi nhu cầu cơ bản của con người đã không được đáp ứng. Nhưng các dự án như vậy phải được xây dựng hiện đại và có trách nhiệm hơn với người dân địa phương và môi trường của họ so với trong quá khứ. Và ngay cả trong các khu vực có các dự án mới có vẻ đảm bảo này thì chúng ta vẫn phải tìm cách để đáp ứng nhu cầu với ít nguồn lực hơn, tôn trọng các tiêu chuẩn sinh thái và với ngân sách ít hơn.

Đáp Án Sách Flyers 2022

ĐÁP ÁN SÁCH FLYERS 2018

Đáp án reading & writing 2018

Test 1

Part 1

1.   factories 2.   police stations 3.   a pizza 4.   a bank 5.   a waiter 6.   stadium 7.   cereal 8.   salt 9.   artists 10.honey    Part 2

1.   b 2.   f 3.   d 4.   g 5.   a   Part 3

1. once 2. foggy 3. tired 4. minutes 5. believe 6. the day the whales arrived

Part 4

1. because 2. some 3. like 4. other 5. them 6. every 7. feed 8. there 9. can’t 10. few   Part 5

1. phoned the school 2. 10 o’clock 3. shoulder 4. three hours 5. biscuits 6. wood 7.top of the hills   Part 6

1. read 2. at 3. ago 4. who 5. tell   Test 2

Part 1

1.salt 2.a mechanic 3. a ring 4.a cook 5. jam 6.a flash light 7. a comb 8. an astronaut 9. artists 10.cheese   Part 2

1.e 2.g 3.a 4.f 5.c   Part 3

1.  watch 2.  warm 3.  bored 4.  took 5.  ice 6.   David wants a winter swim   Part 4

1. enough 2. the 3. called 4. but 5. its 6. think 7. hearing 8. up 9. few 10. where   Part 5

1. five years old 2. orange 3. brushes 4. train 5. some old newspaper 6. 3 hours 7. bed and cupboards   Part 6

1.  to 2.  hour 3.  to 4.  it 5.  ate   Test 3

Part 1

1. a factory 2. a dentist 3. knives 4. a queen 5. a comb 6. an airport 7. a waiter 8. meals 9.soap 10.a stadium   Part 2

1.f 2.h 3.d 4.e 5.a   Part 3

1. heavy 2. stairs 3.drove 4.city 5. forgotten 6. dad and the house key   Part 4

1. any 2. to 3. in 4. goes 5. if 6. but 7. all 8. something 9. would 10.what   Part 5

1. three big blue rucksacks 2. bus 3. mountain village 4. the hotel 5. the window 6. strange 7. skiing   Part 6

       1. he        2. wrote        3.of        4.which        5. like

 CÓ BÁN CÁC SÁCH LUYỆN THI CAMBRIDGE STARTERS – MOVERS -  FLYERS – KET – PET – IELTS (sach in màu đẹp giống bản gốc, giá rất rẻ =1/3 so với giá gốc) 

LIÊN HỆ MUA SÁCH 0938885092

 

HỖ TRỢ MIỄN PHÍ  FILE ĐÁP ÁN STARTERS, MOVERS, FLYERS CHO PHỤ HUYNH

( Update 2022) Cambridge Ielts 9 Reading Test 2 Answers

Cambridge IELTS 9 is the latest IELTS exam preparation. chúng tôi will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 9 reading test 2 with detail explanations.

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 9 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS

Passage 1: Children with auditory problems

1-6. Which section contains the following information?

1. An account of a national policy initiative.

Keywords: national policy initiative

In paragraph H, the writer states that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.” So, this is a national policy initiative for New Zealand.

– policy initiative=strategy

2. A description of a global team effort

Keywords: global team effort

– a global team= an international working party

3. A hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise.

Keywords: reason, the growth, classroom noise

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit.”

– growth in classroom noise=heightened noise levels

4. a demand for suitable world-wide regulations.

Keywords: worldwide regulations

In paragraph I, the writer argues that “It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.”

– suitable = appropriate

– worldwide = international

– regulations=standards

5. a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others.

Keywords: medical conditions, more at risk

In paragraph D, the writer says that “While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and attention deficit

disorders (ADD/ADHD).

– at risk=vulnerable

6. the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems.

Keywords: proportion, auditory problems

In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

– Auditory problems = hearing loss

Questions 7-10: Answer the questions below.

7. For what period of time has hearing loss in school children been studied in New Zealand?

Keywords: period of time

In paragraph A, “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

8. In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism?

Keywords: machinery, type of noise, autism

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated bymachinerypainful and distressing.”

– upset=find painful, distressing

9. What term is used to describe the hearing problems of schoolchildren which have not been diagnosed?

Keywords: term, hearing problems, not been diagnosed

At the end of paragraph G, “It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education

system with „invisible‟ disabilities.”

– have not been diagnosed = undiagnosed

10. What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give schoolchildren equal opportunities?

Keywords: New Zealand Disability Strategy, part, equal opportunities

In paragraph H, the writer says that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.”

Questions 11-12: Choose TWO letters, A-F.

11-12. Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage?

A. current teaching methods

B. echoing corridors

C. cooling system

D. large class sizes

E loud-voiced teachers

F. playground games

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air- conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher’s voice.”

– current teaching methods = modern teaching practices

– cooling system = mechanical means of ventilation (such as air-conditioning)

Obviously, options B, D, E, and F are not given in the text.

Questions 13: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

13.What is the writer’s overall purpose in writing this article?

A. to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems

B. to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments

C. to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems

D. to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow

At the beginning of the text, the writer argues that “Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole.” Then the writer details the situation of auditory function deficit in young children in New Zealand by discussing the reasons, consequences and solutions to this problem. Therefore, overall, the writer’s purpose is to “increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems”.

Options A, B, D do not represent the GENERAL purpose of the writer.

Passage 2: Venus in transit

14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?

14. Examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

Keywords: examples, parallax principle

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 chúng tôi AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars.” So, the parallax principle has been applied to determine a value for the AU and to measure the distances to the stars.

15. a description of an event which prevented a transit observation.

Keywords: event, prevented transit observation

In paragraph D, the writer says that “He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship‟s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations.”

– prevented=ruled out any attempt at

16. a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations.

Keywords: future discoveries, transit observations.

In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

– discoveries=breakthroughs

– leading on from=paved the way for

17. a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome.

Keywords: instruments, physical states, Venus, failed

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the „black drop‟ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun‟s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

– physical states= the ‘black drop’ effect, a halo of light

– failed to overcome=made it impossible

18-21: Match each statement with the correct person.

18. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

Keywords: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AUbased on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today‟s value of 149,597,870 km.”

– the distance of the Sun from the Earth=the AU

– with a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate

19. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

Keywords: distance, worked out bycomparing observations

In paragraph B, “He (Edmond Halley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun‟s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

– work out=calculate, measure

20. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

Keywords: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun

In paragraph C, the writer argues that “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sungoverned their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

– go around = orbit (orbital)

21. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

Keywords: Venus transit, unable, calculations

In paragraph D, “Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations”.

– unable=ruled out

– make any calculations=making accurate observations

Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?

22. Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

Keywords: Halley, transit, Venus

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific…..Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn‟t survive to see either”.

23. Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

Keywords: managed, second Venus transit.

In paragraph D, the writer states that “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience. ” This means that Le Gentil did not succeed in observing a second Venus transit in the Philippines.

24. The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

Keywords: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun

In paragraph E, the writer says that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

– pass in front of the Sun=cross the Sun‟s disc

– distorted=smeared not circular

25. Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

Keywords: atmosphere on Venus, toxic

In this passage, Venus’s atmosphere is not mentioned by the writer, so it is not known whether it is toxic or not. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

26. The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

Keywords: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth

In paragraph F, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth‟s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”

Passage 3: A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently

Questions 27-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to

Keywords: Neuroeconomics, seeks to

In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors.” In other words, neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.

– achievement=success

28. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because

Keywords: iconoclasts, distinctive

In paragraph 2, the writer says that “This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.” So, iconoclasts are distinctive because their brains are different, in other words, their brains function differently.

– distinctive=different

29. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because

Keywords: brain, efficiently

In paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information” So, the brain works efficiently because it relies on previous events.

– efficiently = in the quickest way

– relies on = draw on

– previous events=past experience

30. The writer says that perception is

Keyword: perception

At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says that “More than the physical reality of photons and sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”

31. According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker

Keywords: iconoclastic thinker

In paragraph 4, the writer says that “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people.” In other words, an iconoclast thinker can avoid cognitive traps.

– cognitive=perceptual

Questions 32-37: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3 ?

32. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.

Keywords: different events, think differently

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”

– different events = things it (the brain) has never encountered before = novelty

– think differently=make new judgments

33. Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.

Keywords: receptive, new experiences

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.”

– are unusually receptive to = have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to

– new experiences=what is fresh and different

34. Most people are too shy to try different things.

Keywords: too shy, different things

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether most people are too shy to try different things. He just says that “most people avoid things that are different” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.

Keywords: think, iconoclastic, overcome fear.

In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.” This means that fear prevents people from thinking in an iconoclast way. So, the statement’s meaning is opposite to that in the text.

36. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.

Keywords: embarrassment, less, fears, irrelevant

In paragraph 6, “fear of public ridicule” is mentioned. It we interpret this as “embarrassment”, still we are not told if other fears then become irrelevant. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN

37. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

Keywords: fear, public speaking, a psychological illness

In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.” So, fear of public speaking is not a psychological illness, it is just a common variant of human nature.

– a psychological illness= a mental disorder

Questions 38-40: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

38. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it

Keyword: successful, demanding

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in…Perception is important in social cognition too…Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.” This means that thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.

39. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it

Keywords: social brain, useful,

In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.” So, the concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it focuses on how groups decide on an action.

– groups = circuits

– groups decide on an action=groups coordinate decision making

40. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking

Keywords: an asset, way of thinking

In the last paragraph, “Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.” So, iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.

Cambridge IELTS 9 Self-study Pack (Student’s Book with Answers and Audio CDs (2)) Authentic Examination Papers from Cambridge ESOL