Ielts Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

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  • IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

    Reading Answers

    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below.

    The Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1985. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat-screen.

    So ordinary and routine has this become to us that it takes a determined leap of imagination to grasp the impact of those first moving images. But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.

    Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of films became familiar, the magic was accepted- but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audience and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. But in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.

    One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived. Overwhelmingly, the lives recorded at least in film fiction- have been American. From the earliest days of the industry, Hollywood has dominated the world film market. American imagery-the cars, the cities, the cowboys became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.

    And, thanks to film, future generations will know the 20-th century more intimately than any other period. We can only imagine what life was like in the 14th century or in classical Rome. But the life of the modern world has been recorded on film in massive encyclopedic detail. We shall be known better than any pceding generations.

    The ‘star’ was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate psence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than we do ourselves. The star as a magnified human self is one of cinema’s most strange and enduring legacies.

    Cinema has also given a new lease of life to the idea of the story. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground attraction.

    Cinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television -as a strange noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories- early producers doubted the ability of audiences to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in 1912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled upon the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.

    Questions 1-5

    Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?

    Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

    1 the location of the first cinema

    2 how cinema come to focus on stories

    3 the speed with which cinema has changed

    4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in films

    Questions 6-9

    Do the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I?

    In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:

    YES

    NO

    NOT GIVEN

    if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

    if the statement contradicts with the views of the writer

    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.

    7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode.

    8 Cinema psents a bias0d view of other countries.

    9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

    And it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again -that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.1 the location of the first cinema2 how cinema come to focus on stories3 the speed with which cinema has changed4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in filmsDo the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I?In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:if the statement agrees with the views of the writerif the statement contradicts with the views of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode.8 Cinema psents a bias0d view of other countries.9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

    Questions I0-13

    Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D.

    Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

    10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrate

    The simplicity of early films

    B the impact of early films

    C how short early films were

    Dhow imaginative early films were

    11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at it

    A aims to impss its audience 

    B tells stories better than books

    C illustrates t11e passing of t me

    D describes familiar events

    12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11at

    Ait would always tell toes

    Bit s11ould be used in fairgrounds

    Cits audiences were unappciative

    Dits future was uncertain

    13 what is the best title for the passage?

    A The rise of the cinema star

    B Cinema and novels compared

    C The dominant of Hollywood

    D The power of the big screen

    Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    Reading Answers

    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

    Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition

    THE CHALLENGE

    It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organization than a declining one. When organizations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay raises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organization create Slings of optimism. Management is able to ta use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose- those with me the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

    Morale also surfers during the decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumors and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly pided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

    KEY POINT ONE

    There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there are independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety, and responsibility.

    KEY POINT TWO

    KEY POINT THREE

    Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

    KEY POINT FOUR

    Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope, and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.

    KEY POINT FIVE

    KEY POINT SIX

    Questions 14-18

    Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.

    Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.

    Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.

    i Ensure the reward system is fair

    ii Match rewords lo inpiduals

    iii Ensure targets ore realistically

    iv Link rewords to achievement

    v Encourage managers to take more responsibility

    vi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedback

    viii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs

    14 Koy Point Two

    15 Koy Point Three

    16 Kay Point FoLir

    17 Key Point Five

    18 Key Point Six

    Questions 19-24

    Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:

    YES

    NO

    NOT GIVEN

    if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writer

    if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilled

    employees.

    20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business.

    21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork.

    22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.

    23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.

    24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

    Questions 25-27

    Look at the following groups of workers (Question2S-27) and the list of descriptions below.

    Match ec1chgroup with the correct description, A -E Write the correct letter, A-Ein boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet

    25 high achievers

    26 clerical workers

    27 product on workers

    List of descriptions

    A They judge promotion to bo important

    B They have less need for external goats

    C They think that the quality of their work is important 

    D They resist goals which are imposed

    E Thay have limited job options

    The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

    Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    Reading Answers

    You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

    The Search for the Anti-aging Pill

    In government laboratories and elsewhere, scientists are seeking a drug able to prolong

    life and youthful vigor. Studies of caloric restriction are showing the way

    As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging- the build-up of molecular and cellular damage that increases vulnerability to infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. Those findings suggest that caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.

    Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping from 2,500 calories a day to 1, 750. Few mortals could stick to chat harsh a regimen, especially for years on end. But what if someone could create a pill that mimicked the physiological effects of eating less without actually forcing people to eat less? Could such a ‘caloric-restriction mimetic’, as we call it, enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and cancer) until very lace in life? Scientists first posed this question in the mid-1990s, after researchers came upon a chemical agent that in rodents seemed to reproduce many of caloric restriction’s benefits. No compound that would safely achieve the same feat in people has been found yet, but the search has been informative and has fanned the hope that caloric-restriction (CR) mimetics can indeed be developed eventually.

    The benefits of caloric restriction

    The hunt for CR mimetics grew out of a desire to better understand caloric restriction’s many effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the practice more than 60 years ago, when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats and also had a reduced incidence of conditions that become increasingly common in old age. What is more, some of the treated animals survived longer than the oldest-living animals in the control group, which means that the maximum lifespan (the oldest attainable age), not merely the normal lifespan, increased. Various interventions, such as infection-fighting drugs, can increase a population’s average survival time, but only approaches chat slowly the body’s rate of aging will increase the maximum lifespan.

    The rat findings have been replicated many times and extended to creatures ranging from yeast to fruit flies, worms, fish, spiders, mice, and hamsters. Until fairly recently, the studies were limited short-lived creatures genetically distant from humans. But caloric-restriction projects underway in two species more closely related to humans- rhesus and squirrel monkeys- have scientists optimistic that CR mimetics could help people.

    calorie: a measure of the energy value of food.

    The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals that eat normally. caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones that tend to fall with age.

    The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pssure and triglyceride levels(signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease) and they have more normal blood glucose levels( pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes, which is marked by unusually high blood glucose levels). Further, it has recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-restricted diets for an extended time( nearly 15 years) have a less chronic disease. They and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespans in monkeys. Unlike the multitude of elixirs being touted as the latest anti-aging cure, CR mimetics would alter fundamental processes that underlie aging. We aim to develop compounds that fool cells into activating maintenance and repair.

    How a prototype caloric-restriction mimetic works

    The best-studied candidate for a caloric-restriction mimetic, 2DG (2-deoxy-D-glucose), works by interfering with the way cells process glucose, it has proved toxic at some doses in animals and so cannot be used in humans. But it has demonstrated that chemicals can replicate the effects of caloric restriction; the trick is finding the right one.

    Cells use glucose from food to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake, caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases ATP generation. When 2DG is administered to animals that eat normally, glucose reaches cells in abundance but the drug pvents most of it from being processed and thus reduces ATP synthesis. Researchers have proposed several explanations for why interruption of glucose processing and ATP production might retard aging. One possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery’s emission of free radicals, which are thought to contribute to aging and t such age-related diseases as cancer by damaging cells. Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage. Another hypothesis suggests that decreased processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce( even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes pservation of the organism over such ‘luxuries’ as growth and reproduction.

    Questions 28-32

    Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? 

    Inboxes 28-32  on your answer sheet, write

    YES

    NO

    NOT GIVEN

    if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

    if the statement contradicts the clo1ms of the writer

    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

    28 Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.

    29 There is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.  

    30 Not many people are likely to find a caloric-restricted diet attractive.

    31Diet-related diseases ore is common in older people.

    32Inexperiments.rots who ote what they wonted led shorter lives than rots on a low-calorie diet

    Questions 33-37

    Classify the following descriptions os relating to

    A colone-restricted n1onkeys

    B controls on keys

    C neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

    33 Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic.

    34 Monkeys experienced more chronic disease.

    35 Monkeys l1ove been shown to experience o longer than overage life span. 

    36 Monkeys enjoyed o reduced chance of heart disease.

    37 Monkeys produced greater quantities of insulin.

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

    1. A

    2. I

    3. J

    4. E

    5. G

    6. yes

    7. not given

    8. not given

    9. no

    10. B

    11. C

    12. D

    13. D

    Question 1-5: 

    1. A (the whole para: ―The Lumiere Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at l4 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1895. Before the eyes oi the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and 

    moved across a flat screen‖) 

    2. I (line 5-14: ―narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in I912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.‖) 

    3. J (line 2-9: ―unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and perhaps, aware that the world never same again — that, maybe, it could be better brighter more astonishing, more real than reality‖) 

    4. E (first 6 lines: ―One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For the cinema it makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked lived‖) 

    5. G (lines 3-8: ―bon in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate psence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than do ourselves‖) 

    Question 6-9: 

    6. YES (para D, line 1-9: ―Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of the film became familiar, the magic was accepted – but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audiences and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which 

    cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events‖) 

    7. NOT GIVEN 

    8. NOT GIVEN 

    9. NO (para I, line 7-11: ―Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces 

    doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel.‖) 

    Question 10-13: 

    10. B (para C, line 9-17: ―the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ‘Panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when Cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture. Pictures were still, only reality move; this must, therefore, be a reality. In their confusion, they 

    feared that a real train about to crush them.‖) 

    11. C (para D, line 7-13: ―world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence oi time, while time in a novel passed at the whim oi the reader. But in 

    cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.‖) 

    12. D (para H, last 4 lines: ―movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn 

    off, the cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground 

    attraction‖) 

    13. D 

    Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    14. 7

    15. 3

    16. 2

    17. 4

    18. 1

    19. no

    20. not given

    21. no

    22. yes

    23. not given

    24. yes

    25. B

    26. C

    27. A

    Question 14-18: 

    14. vii (KEY POINT TWO, first 2 lines: ―The literature in goal-setting theory suggests that 

    how well they are doing in those goals‖) 

    15. iii (KEY POINT THREE, last 3 lines: ―Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees 

    feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability oi doing the job and must regard the appraisal 

    the process as valid‖) 

    16. ii (KEY POINT FOUR, first 3 lines: ―Since employees have different needs, what acts as 

    a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge oi each 

    employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control.‖) 

    17. iv (KEY POINT FIVE, first 2 lines: ―Managers need to make rewards contingent on 

    performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other 

    factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and‖) 

    18. i (KEY POINT SIX, first 2 lines: ―The way rewards are distributed should be transparent 

    so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs 

    given. On a simplistic level‖) 

    Question 19-24:

     

    19. NO (THE CHALLENGE, part 1, last 4 lines: ―employees. When an organization is 

    shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose – those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are 

    limited‖) 

    20. NOT GIVEN 

    21. NO (KEY POINT ONE, line 3-6: ―autonomous unit within a larger business, high 

    achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need or power and a low need for affiliation should be selected Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that 

    are inconsistent with their needs‖) 

    22. YES (KEY POINT TWO, last 3 lines: ―the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If 

    participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the 

    participation process as manipulative and l be negatively affected by it.‖) 

    23. NOT GIVEN 

    24. YES (KEY POINT FIVE, line 4-5: ―goals. Consistent with maximizing the impact oi 

    rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the 

    the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating‖) 

    Question 25-27: 

    25. B (KEY POINT TWO, line 3-4: ―those with high achievement needs, typically a minority 

    in any organization, the existence of external goals is less important because high 

    achievers are already internally motivated.‖) 

    26. C (KEY POINT SIX, line 7-9: ―production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and 

    outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

    workers’ list‖) 

    27. A (KEY POINT SIX, line 9-11: ―their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

    workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were 

    quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks‖) 

    The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

    28. no

    29. yes

    30. yes

    31. not given 

    32. yes

    33. A

    34. B

    35. C

    36. A

    37. B

    38. glucose

    39. free radicals

    40. pservation

    Question 28-32: 

    28. NO (para 1, first 2 lines: ―As researchers on aging noted recently. no treatment on the 

    market today has been proved to slow human aging – the build-up of molecular and 

    cellular damage that increases vulnerability to‖) 

    29. YES (para 1, last 4 lines: ―infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption 

    of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. These findings suggest that 

    the caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.‖) 

    30. YES (para 2, first 2 lines: ―Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably 

    have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping 

    2.500 calories a day to 1,750.‖) 

    31. NOT GIVEN 

    32. YES (para 3, line 2-3: ―effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the 

    practice more than 60 years ago. when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived 

    longer on average than free-feeding rats.‖) 

    Question33-37:

     

    33. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of 

    risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pssure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which is 

    marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

    34. B (para 5, line 5-6: ―recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-

    diets for an extended time (nearly 15 years) have less chronic disease‖) 

    35. C 

    36. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators 

    risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pssure 

    triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they 

    more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which 

    marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

    37. B (para 4: ―The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals 

    eat normally, caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones 

    tend to fall with age.‖) 

    Question 38-40:

    38. ‘glucose’ (para 7, line 2-3: ―powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake 

    caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases 

    generation.‖) 

    39. ‘free radicals’ (para 7,line 7-8: ―One possibility relates to the ATP-making 

    emission of free radicals, which are thought to continue to aging and to such age-

    diseases as cancer by damaging cells‖) 

    40. “pservation’ (para 7, last 3 lines: ―damage. Another hypothesis suggests that 

    processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce (even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes pservation of 

    organism over such ‗luxuries’ as growth and reproduction‖) 

    Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D.Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrateThe simplicity of early filmsB the impact of early filmsC how short early films wereDhow imaginative early films were11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at itA aims to impss its audienceB tells stories better than booksC illustrates t11e passing of t meD describes familiar events12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11atAit would always tell toesBit s11ould be used in fairgroundsCits audiences were unappciativeDits future was uncertain13 what is the best title for the passage?A The rise of the cinema starB Cinema and novels comparedC The dominant of HollywoodD The power of the big screenQuestions 14-18Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.i Ensure the reward system is fairii Match rewords lo inpidualsiii Ensure targets ore realisticallyiv Link rewords to achievementv Encourage managers to take more responsibilityvi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedbackviii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs14 Koy Point Two15 Koy Point Three16 Kay Point FoLir17 Key Point Five18 Key Point SixDo the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writerif the statement contradicts the claims of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilledemployees.20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business.21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork.22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

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  • PAPER 1 READING AND WRITING (1 hour 10 minutes)

    QUESTIONS 1-5

    Which notice (A-H) says this (1-5)?

    For questions 1-5, mark the correct letter A-H on the answer sheet.

    EXAMPLE ANSWER

    0 We can answer your questions. E

    1 You can’t drive this way.

    2 Children do not have to pay.

    3 You can shop here six days a week.

    4 Be careful when you stand up.

    5 We work quickly.

    h pvent this candidate from scoring 5, but the errors do not impede communication of the message. Hello Richard, I'm so happy to see you soon. I'll like come 16th of June I hope this is right for you and I'll like to stay 2 weeks. I want to go to the theatre and in the evening I'll like going to the theatre, cinema and discho. Katia Sample answer C Mark: 3 This candidate clearly communicates the three parts of the message. However, there are grammar and spelling errors which means the candidate would have scored 4. However, the writer is penalised for not including either a salutation or a signature on his/her postcard and therefore loses one mark and scores a 3. I am coming on next Friday by plane. You will know right time, I will ring up. I want to stay about 10 days and I want to visit London but first - I would like to bee wiht you. Sample answer D Mark: 2 Two parts of the message are clearly communicated, but the third ('I'm going to End of March') requires interptation, as does the concluding sentence. Consequently, the candidate would score 3. However, the writer is penalised for not including a signature on his/her postcard, and so loses a mark and scores 2. I'm going to End of March. I will stay for two weeks. I'd like to go anywhere and shopping, so I looking for you! KET 1 Europe Level A2 21 Sample answer E Mark: 0 Lack of linguistic resources make the message in this writing incomphensible. It is unclear whether the writer is attempting a response to the input text and writing about future plans, or is attempting to describe impssions and past and/or psent activities. England is very big country. Before come here is very cold. I in here Febremary 7th. In here school study English is one year another school is long date. Paper 2 Listening Part 1 1 B 2 A 3 B 4 A 5 C Part 2 6 F 7 G 8 E 9 B 10 A Part 3 11 B 12 C 13 A 14 B 15 C Part 4 For questions 16-20, ignore capitals/absence of capitals. In question 16, spelling must be correct. Recognisable spelling is acceptable for questions 17 and 19. 16 Elaine 17 (the) Grand Hotel 18 8.30 p.m./20.30/half past eight 19 Friend 20 724 5936 Part 5 For questions 21-25, ignore capitals/absence of capitals. In question 21, spelling must be correct. Spelling of 'bank', 'May' and 'bag' must also be correct as these are simple 'high frequency' KET vocabulary items. 21Warnock 22 (the) bank 23 21st May 24 £350(ormore) 25 (travel) bag Transcript This is the Key English Test. Paper 2. Listening. Test number one. There are five parts to the test. Parts One, Two, Three, Four and Five. We will now stop for a moment before we start the test. Please ask any questions now because you musn't speak during the test. You will hear five short conversations. You will hear each conversation twice. There is one question for each conversation. For questions 1 to 5, put a tick under the right answer. Here is an example. Example: What time is it? Female: Excuse me, can you tell me the time? Male: Yes, it's nine o'clock. Female: Thank you. Male: You're welcome. Now listen again. Question 2 Two What time does the train go? Male: Hurry up! We'll be late. Femate: What time does the train go? Male: At six fifteen. We've got to leave in ten minutes. Female: I'm nearly ready. KET 1 Europe Level A2 23 Now listen again. Question 4 Four Which man wants to see him? Male: Which man wants to see me? Female: The one over there, wearing a hat. Male: The one with the glasses? Female: No, not him. The other one. Now listen again. KET 1 Europe Level A2 24 This is the end of Part One. Now look at Part Two. Female: Tell me about your family, Paul. Paul: Well, you know Sally, my sister - the writer - don't you? Female: Yes. Is she your only sister? Paul: She is. But I've got two brothers. David's older than me, and Bill's younger. Female: How old is Bill? Paul: He's nineteen. He's studying French in Paris at the moment. Female: That sounds interesting ... And David? What does he do? Paul: Oh, he's a teacher, the same as my mother was. But she finished working last year. Female: And what about your father? Paul: Oh, he's a doctor at the local hospital. Female: Of course. I've seen him there. Paul: My mother says he works too hard. She wants him to stop. She wants to go and live on a farm in the country, near David, Female: Um ... Are you a doctor too, Paul? Paul: I'm not clever enough! I work in a bank - the one in the High Street, next to the bookshop. Female: Do you? So does my sisterl KET 1 Europe Level A2 25 PART 3 Listen to Eric talking to Mary about the weekend. Their friend, Carlos, is coming to visit them. For questions 11 to 15, tick A, B or C. You will hear the conversation twice. Look at questions 11 to 15 now, You have 20 seconds. Now listen again. KET 1 Europe Level A2 26 This is the end of Part Three. Now look at Part Four. Male: Hello. 785 3126. Elaine: Hello. Could I speak to Martin please? Male: I'm afraid he's out at the moment. Can I take a message for him? Elaine: Yes, please. My name's Elaine. Male: How do you spell that? Elaine: E-L-A-I-N-E. Male: Right, Elaine. And what's the message? Elaine: Tell Martin that the party tonight is at the Grand Hotel. I'll meet him there. Male: Does he know the address? Elaine: Oh yes, Everyone knows the Grand Hotel. Male: OK. I'll tell him. Elaine: And tell him I'll try to be there at half past eight. But I may be a bit late. Male: Oh, I'm sure he won't mind waiting. I'll tell him eight thirty ... Is there anything else? Elaine: Oh, yes ... ask him to bring a friend. Male: A friend? Oh good, that could be me. Elaine: Hmmm ... well ... and please ask him to phone me if he can't come. Male: Has he got your phone number? Elaine: It's 724 5936. Male: Right, I've got that. KET 1 Europe Level A2 27 Elaine: Thanks a lot. Bye. Male: Bye. PART 5 You will hear some information about a travel agency. Listen and complete questions 21 to 25. You will hear the information twice. Now listen again, This is the end of Part Five. KET 1 Europe Level A2 28 You now have eight minutes to write your answers on the answer sheet. Note: Teacher, stop the recording here and time eight minutes. Remind students when there is one minute remaining. [pause] This is the end of the test.

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    Test 1

    Part 1

    1.   factories

    2.   police stations

    3.   a pizza

    4.   a bank

    5.   a waiter

    6.   stadium

    7.   cereal

    8.   salt

    9.   artists

    10.honey

      

    Part 2

    1.   b

    2.   f

    3.   d

    4.   g

    5.   a

     

    Part 3

    1. once

    2. foggy

    3. tired

    4. minutes

    5. believe

    6. the day the whales arrived

    Part 4

    1. because

    2. some

    3. like

    4. other

    5. them

    6. every

    7. feed

    8. there

    9. can’t

    10. few

     

    Part 5

    1. phoned the school

    2. 10 o’clock

    3. shoulder

    4. three hours

    5. biscuits

    6. wood

    7.top of the hills

     

    Part 6

    1. read

    2. at

    3. ago

    4. who

    5. tell

     

    Test 2

    Part 1

    1.salt

    2.a mechanic

    3. a ring

    4.a cook

    5. jam

    6.a flash light

    7. a comb

    8. an astronaut

    9. artists

    10.cheese

     

    Part 2

    1.e

    2.g

    3.a

    4.f

    5.c

     

    Part 3

    1.  watch

    2.  warm

    3.  bored

    4.  took

    5.  ice

    6.   David wants a winter swim

     

    Part 4

    1. enough

    2. the

    3. called

    4. but

    5. its

    6. think

    7. hearing

    8. up

    9. few

    10. where

     

    Part 5

    1. five years old

    2. orange

    3. brushes

    4. train

    5. some old newspaper

    6. 3 hours

    7. bed and cupboards

     

    Part 6

    1.  to

    2.  hour

    3.  to

    4.  it

    5.  ate

     

    Test 3

    Part 1

    1. a factory

    2. a dentist

    3. knives

    4. a queen

    5. a comb

    6. an airport

    7. a waiter

    8. meals

    9.soap

    10.a stadium

     

    Part 2

    1.f

    2.h

    3.d

    4.e

    5.a

     

    Part 3

    1. heavy

    2. stairs

    3.drove

    4.city

    5. forgotten

    6. dad and the house key

     

    Part 4

    1. any

    2. to

    3. in

    4. goes

    5. if

    6. but

    7. all

    8. something

    9. would

    10.what

     

    Part 5

    1. three big blue rucksacks

    2. bus

    3. mountain village

    4. the hotel

    5. the window

    6. strange

    7. skiing

     

    Part 6

           1. he

           2. wrote

           3.of

           4.which

           5. like

     CÓ BÁN CÁC SÁCH LUYỆN THI CAMBRIDGE STARTERS – MOVERS -  FLYERS – KET – PET – IELTS (sach in màu đẹp giống bản gốc, giá rất rẻ =1/3 so với giá gốc) 

    LIÊN HỆ MUA SÁCH 0938885092

     

    HỖ TRỢ MIỄN PHÍ  FILE ĐÁP ÁN STARTERS, MOVERS, FLYERS CHO PHỤ HUYNH

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    103

    A

    Chọn một danh từ điền vào chỗ trống.

    Sau “an” là một danh từ, nên chọn đáp

    án A. increase

    Tờ báo chứng kiến sự tăng ở số

    lượng người theo dõi.

    104

    B

    Chọn giới từ. „ for‟ thể hiện 1 khoảng thời gian

    Luật sư ở công ty Duncan &

    Hulce đã thực hành luật trong

    hơn 10 năm.

    105

    A

    Công ty dụng cụ Prehar đã tạo ra

    mẫu khoan hiệu quả hơn mẫu

    trước

    107

    A

    Chia động từ dựa vào thì câu này là sự kết hợp của thị hiện tại

    đơn và tương lai đơn qua từ while.

    110

    B

    Chọn loại từ phù hợp.

    Đây là cấu trúc câu bị động

    Vỉa hè trên phố Edinburgh được

    mở rộng 1 mét

    112

    C

    Chọn đại từ quan hệ phù hợp. Who thay

    thế cho those, đều chỉ người.

    Một nghiên cứu gần đây đã tìm

    ra rằng những người thường

    xuyên đọc các nhãn trên thức ăn

    có xu hướng khỏe mạnh hơn.

    113

    C

    Chọn dạng từ phù hợp. chỗ trống đứng

    sau động từ to be và đứng trước giới từ

    nên sẽ là một tính từ

    114

    B

    Tìm một giới từ phù hợp.

    cụm từ head into (st) là dẫn đến

    115

    B

    những tình nguyện viên của hội

    chợ sách có thể được yêu cầu

    làm việc ca dài hơn nếu nhu cầu

    tăng cao

    116

    D

    Chọn một giới từ chỉ thời gian phù hợp.

    Vào thứ ba, ông Molina sẽ ghé

    thăm văn phòng tại Seoul lần

    đầu tiên kể từ khi trở thành phó

    giám đốc vận hành.

    117

    B

    Chọn tính từ để điền vào chỗ trống.

    Đứng sau “the most” – so sánh hơn nhất

    cần là một tính từ

    Người tham dự nói rằng pháo hoa

    là phần ấn tượng nhất của lễ hội

    118

    A

    Đội ngũ phỏng vấn cảm thấy

    rằng nền tảng giáo dục của

    Dinah Ong‟s hoàn toàn phù

    hợp với yêu cầu công việc là một

    kế toán

    119

    D

    Chọn loại từ phù hợp. Đứng sau động từ là trạng từ

    Phần mềm mới có thể theo dõi những mua bán một cách đáng

    tin cậy ở nhiều điểm bán

    120

    D

    Chọn giới từ chỉ thời gian. over + time = thể hiện 1 khoảng thời gian

    122

    B

    Chọn dạng từ phù hợp. Đứng sau tính từ packaging là một danh từ.

    123

    A

    Điền từ phù hợp với nghĩa.

    excel at = good at

    Trong suốt nhiệm kỳ tại LPID

    Systems, bà Patterson đã trong việc định nghĩa những

    cái niệm phúc tạp bằng những

    thuật ngữ

    124

    D

    Chọn dạng từ trong câu đứng trước to thì phải là 1 động từ.

    ngoài ra đây còn là thì hiện tại hoàn

    thành

    126

    D

    Tìm loại từ phù hợp đằng sau „an‟ và trước „lightweight‟ –

    tính từ thì là một trạng từ

    127

    C

    Sau khi hoãn việc học trong

    nhiều năm, cô Ruiz cuối cùng

    cũng đạt được một tấm bằng về

    Luật

    128

    A

    Điền loại từ thích hợp. đứng ngay sau mạo từ „the‟ và trước giới

    từ “of‟ là một danh từ

    130

    C

    Tháp Pugh thắng giải tòa nhà

    mới đẹp nhất nhờ sự sáng tạo

    hợp nhất của những nguyên liệu

    bền vững.

    Từ khóa

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    101

    C

    Trước danh từ “chairs” cần 1

    tính từ

    Nhà tổ chức sự kiện khẳng định diễn

    đàn hôm thứ 3 cần thêm ghế.

    106

    A

    Cần điền danh từ sau tính từ

    “main”

    Công ty điện thoại Talk-Talk sẽ sớm

    sáp nhập với đối thủ chính của họ.

    107

    C

    Có “one of the” nên phải chọn

    tính từ để được cấu trúc so

    sánh nhất

    Cô Ellis đã thiết kế 1 trong những

    chiến dịch marketing sáng tạo nhất

    của phòng ban.

    108

    D

    Dựa vào nghĩa của từ để chọn

    đáp án đúng: A. Cuối cùng

    B. Có thể

    C. Gần gũi

    D. Tích cực

    117

    B

    Cần đại từ quan hệ chỉ người.

    Những khách hàng mà mong muốn

    trả các sản phẩm lỗi nên thực hiện

    trong vòng 20 ngày kể từ khi mua.

    119

    D

    Ông Wijaya đang review các sơ yếu

    lý lịch để lựa chọn ứng viên đủ điều

    kiện nhất cho vị trí.

    130

    C

    Bà Choi đáng lẽ ra đã nơi cần đến

    nếu tàu của cô ấy đến đúng giờ

    132

    D

    Dựa vào nghĩa những câu

    xung quanh để chọn đáp án

    đúng

    Sử dụng nó để nhận tin tức giao

    thông nếu bạn đang không ngồi gần

    TV và không thể xem tin tức giao

    thông. Ứng dụng được cập nhật

    thường xuyên.

    133

    B

    Cần trạng từ để bổ nghĩa cho

    động từ “receive”

    Hơn nữa, bạn có thể lên chương trình

    giao thông hàng ngày của mình trong

    ứng dụng và trực tiếp nhận những

    thông báo được cá nhân hóa trên

    điện thoại…

    134

    A

    Dựa vào nghĩa của câu, chọn

    “or” để chỉ sự lựa chọn giữa 2

    vế

    Tránh ách tắc giao thông bằng cách

    tải ứng dụng của PH11-TV hôm nay,

    hoặc bật chương trình trực tiếp của

    chúng tôi bắt đầu vào 5 AM hoặc 4

    PM hàng ngày

    135

    B

    Vế trước đã là một mệnh đề

    hoàn chỉnh nên không thể

    chọn đáp án A, C, D

    136

    A

    Rất nhiều trong những miếng phô mai này được sử dụng bởi đầu bếp ở

    các nhà hàng trên khắp thế giới.

    138

    D

    Dan Travella là nhà vô địch của

    năm ngoái. Phô mai do anh ấy làm

    đạt điểm chiến thắng 98.7 trên 100.

    139

    D

    140

    A

    Dựa vào nghĩa của từ và vế

    sau để chọn đáp án đúng

    A. with that said: dẫu vậy

    B. for instance: ví dụ

    C. in other words: nói cách

    khác

    D. in that case: trong trường

    hợp này

    141

    C

    Chọn đáp án C vì có sự liên

    kết với câu đằng trước: trước

    khi gửi ý tưởng, hãy đọc kĩ

    hướng dẫn  gia tăng khả

    năng ý tưởng được chấp nhận.

    Trước khi gửi ý tưởng để xuất bản,

    vui lòng đọc hướng dẫn tại

    chúng tôi vì

    chúng phác thảo chi tiết các lĩnh vực

    quan tâm cụ thể của chúng tôi. Điều

    này sẽ tăng khả năng đề xuất của

    bạn được chấp nhận.

    142

    A

    ……nhưng có thể có những lúc chúng

    tôi chậm phản hồi. Vì lý do này, chúng tôi yêu cầu bạn hãy kiên

    nhẫn.

    143

    C

    As…….as it should be

    Cấu trúc so sánh, lại có “be”

     cần chọn tính từ.

    Đầu tiên, trang web không hiệu quả

    như mong muốn.

    Từ khóa

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  • Cambridge IELTS 6 is the latest IELTS exam pparation. chúng tôi will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 6 reading test 3 with detail explanations.

    CAMBRIDGE IELTS 6 READING TEST 3 ANSWERS

    Passage 1: THE POWER OF THE BIG SCREEN

    Questions 1-5: Which paragraph contains the following information?

    1. The location of the first cinema

    Keywords: location, first cinema

    In paragraph A, the writer refers to a cinema called “Cinematographe” together with its location: “at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris” as well as its early time of formation which is “on December 8, 1895”

    Keywords: how, stories

    In paragraph I, it is stated that “…it (refers to cinema) became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories.”

    Keywords: speed, changed

    The change taking place in the cinema is clearly the main idea of paragraph J: “And it has all happened so chúng tôi is a mere 100 years since……”

    Keywords: teaches, cultures

    In paragraph E, the writer says that: “One effect of this realism was to educate the world about chúng tôi before people travelled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places look like; they knew how other people worked and lived…”

    + to teach = to educate

    How other places look like, how other people worked and lived ~ other cultures

    Keywords: attraction, actors

    The actor who holds attraction for audiences, or “star”, is mentioned in paragraph G: ” The „star‟ was another natural consequence of chúng tôi personalities have such an immediate psence that, inevitably, they become super-real”.

    + actors~stars~film personalities

    6.It is important to understand how the first audience reacted to the cinema.

    Keywords: first audience, understand, reacted.

    In paragraph B, the writer says that “…But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema…”

    “The initial shock of those images” refers to “how the first audience reacted to the cinema”. So the given statement agrees with the view of the writer.

    + important = worth trying

    +first = initial

    Keywords: Lumiere Brothers‟ film, train, greatest films

    Scan the keyword in capitals “Lumiere Brothers” then find it in paragraph C: “One of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films was a 30 second piece which showed a section of a railway platform flooded with sunshine.

    A train appears …. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists described the film as a „work of genius‟.” The writer only says the director Andrei Tarkovsky is one of the greatest of all film artists. Only the opinion of this director is mentioned, so we are not told if this film was one of the greatest films ever made.

    Keywords: a biased view, other countries

    All the information about the cinema‟s psentation of other countries is in paragraph E. Because of the influence of the American film industry: “American imagery – the cars, the cities, the cowboys – became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.” Thus, we are only told that most cinema audiences watched images of American life. We do not know if the cinema psents a biased view of other countries.

    Keywords: storylines, early cinema

    In paragraph H, the writer mentions that: “All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement.” So movement, not storyline, was important in very early cinema.

    + in very early cinema = at first

    + important ~ mattered

    10.The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate

    Keywords: film of the train

    In paragraph C, the film of the train, “one of the Lumiere Brothers‟ earliest films”, is described: “As the train approached, panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran chúng tôi feared that a real train was about to crush them.” So the writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate the impact of early films.

    Keywords: Tarkovsky, attraction of cinema

    In paragraph D: “For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image of the real flow of events….. in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.”

    + attraction = magic

    It means the attraction of the cinema is that it illustrates the passing of time.

    Keywords: cinema first began

    In paragraph H, the writer says that: “When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. Indeed, some said that……cinema would fade away.” So when cinema first began, people thought that its future was uncertain.

    The whole passage psents the introduction, development and impact of the cinema and only mentions in one or two paragraphs other topics such as stars, the comparison between cinema and novels, or the domination of Hollywood. So the best choice for its title is “The power of the big screen”.

    Questions 14-18: Matching headings

    14.Key Point Two

    + establish targets= setting goals

    This key point shows that managers must ensure targets are realistic: “…..goals are achievable…managers must be chúng tôi employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals.”

    + achievable = realistic ~ their efforts can lead to performance goals

    + to be sure ~ to ensure

    The main idea of this key point is about matching rewards to inpiduals: “managers could use their own knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control.”

    + each employee = inpiduals

    + personalise the rewards = match rewards to inpiduals

    In the topic sentence of this paragraph, the writer points out that: “Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance.” This means that managers must link rewards to achievement.

    + achievement = performance

    Continuing to talk about rewards, the writer states: “The way rewards are distributed should be transparent ….” then suggests a method of weighing inputs and outcomes according to employee group to make this key point feasible. So the correct heading of this key point is “ensure the reward system is fair.”

    + transparent ~ fair, so that everyone can understand clearly

    19.A shrinking organization tends to lose its less skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees.

    Keywords: shrinking organization, skilled employees

    In the first paragraph, the writer says that: “When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. chúng tôi are the chúng tôi the highest skills and experience.” So the given statement is opposite to the writer‟s view. The more skilled employees are the most likely to leave.

    Keywords: small business, large business.

    Small and large businesses are mentioned in Key Point One: “For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business…..”, but there is no information about whether it is easier to manage a small business rather than a large business. Instead, the paragraph deals only with matching people to jobs.

    Keywords: High achievers, team work.

    In the paragraph of Key Point One, the writer says: ” chúng tôi achievers will do best … where there is independence …” So, high achievers are well suited to work independently, not to team work.

    Keywords: manipulated, participate in goal-setting

    Look at the paragraph of Key Point Two, in which it is said that: “If participation (in goal-setting) and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative …” So, this means that some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.

    Keywords: staff appraisal process

    “The staff appraisal process” is only mentioned in the paragraph of Key Point Three: “For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.” However, the writer does not say anything about whether this process should be designed by employees or not.

    + staff = employees

    Keywords: earnings, disclosed

    In the paragraph of Key Point Five, the writer suggests that: “Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone‟s remuneration, publicising performance bonuses chúng tôi make rewards more visible …….” So, the statement agrees with the view of the writer.

    + earnings = pay, remuneration

    + disclose = eliminate the secrecy, openly communicate, publicise

    25.High achievers

    In Key Point Two, the writer states that: “For those with high achievement needs… the existence of goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated.” So high achievers have less need of external goals, because they have high internal motivation.

    In Key Point Six, the writer points out: “The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list” (the list of inputs and outcomes placed in degree of importance). So they think that the quality of their work is important.

    Questions 28-32: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN

    28.Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.

    Keywords: drugs available today

    In the first sentence of the passage, the writer states: “As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging…”. It is similar to the given statement.

    +drugs available ~ treatment on the market

    + delay = slow

    + the process of growing old= human aging

    Keywords: scientific evidence, eating fewer calories

    In the first paragraph, it is reported that: “But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health.” Furthermore, in paragraphs 4, 5 and 6, the writer describes scientists‟ experiments studying the benefits of a caloric-restricted diet for rats and monkeys. So, there is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.

    + extend human life = increasing longevity

    Keywords: a caloric-restricted diet, attractive

    It is stated in the second paragraph: “Few mortals could stick to that harsh a regimen….”, which means few people would like such a harsh caloric-restricted diet. So, the given statement is similar to the writer‟s view.

    + people = mortals

    + diet = regimen

    Keywords: Diet-related diseases , older people.

    Age-related diseases are mentioned in the second paragraph: ” Could such a caloric-restriction mimetic….enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis) …..” However, the writer does not say anything about diet-related diseases in old age.

    + disease =disorder

    Keywords: experiments, rats, low-calorie diet

    The experiment on rats is reported in the third and fourth paragraphs: “…they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats…” So, rats who ate what they wanted led shorter lives than rats on a low-calorie diet. rats who ate what they wanted = free-feeding rats

    1. Caloric-restricted monkeys
    2. Control monkeys
    3. Neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

    The comparison between caloric-restricted monkeys and control ones (ones that eat normally) is reported in paragraphs 5 and 6. The caloric-restricted monkeys: “have lower body temperature and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin”; “have lower blood pssure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease)….;”have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes)” and “have less chronic disease”.

    33.Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic

    In the sixth paragraph, the writer says: “They (refers to caloric-restricted monkeys) and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespan in monkeys.” It means that we do not yet know whether caloric-restricted monkeys experience a longer than average life span than the control monkeys.

    How a caloric- restriction mimetic works

    CR mimetic

    Less chúng tôi produced

    Productions of ATP is decreased

    Theory 1: Theory 2:

    Cells less damaged by disease because fewer Cel ls focus on 40…..because food is in short supply chúng tôi emitted

    38.In the last paragraph, the writer says that: “.caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells…..” This means that less glucose is produced than normal.

    In which, “one possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals ….Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage.”The words “their production” refers to “the ATP-making machinery‟s emission of free radicals”. So, the damage is constrained because of limited emission of free radicals, or fewer free radicals are emitted.

    + emission~production

    + in short supply = scarce

    + focus on = emphasize

    Cambridge IELTS 6 Audio CDs Examination papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations

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  • * The Tudor time is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.

    Questions 1-5

    Refer to Reading Passage 334 “Sugar and Other Sweeteners“, and look at Questions 1 – 5 below.

    Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your Answer Sheet.

    The first one has been done for you as an example.

    Example: What do the letters HFCS stand for?

    1 & 2. There are TWO naturally occurring sugar substances mentioned in the article other than sucrose. What are they?

    3. What does the food industry consider to be the perfect sweetener?

    4. & 5. Name the TWO most recent artificial sweeteners listed in Figure 1.

    The following paragraphs summarise the reading passage. Choose the ONE most appropriate word from the box below the paragraphs to complete each blank space.

    Write your answers in boxes 6- 15 on your answer sheet.

    The first one has been done for you as an example.

    NB. NO WORD CAN BE USED MORE THAN ONCE.

    Sugar tastes sweet because of thousands of receptors on the tongue which connect the substance with the brain. The taste of sweetness is universally ……(Ex:) accepted…… as the most pleasurable known, although it is a ……(6)…… why a substance tastes sweet. ……(7)….. is the most naturally occurring sugar, sources of which include ……(8)…… and honey. Sucrose, which supplies ……(9)…… to the body, is extracted from the sugar-cane plant, and white sugar (pure sucrose) is used by food ……(10)…… to measure sweetness in other ……(11)…… . Approximately a dozen artificial sweeteners have been ……(12)……; one of the earliest was Sorbitol from France.

    Manufacturers often add large amounts of sugar to foodstuffs but never more than the ……(13)…… required to produce the optimum pleasurable taste. Surprisingly, this amount is ……(14)…… for different people and in different cultures. No-one has yet discovered a way to pdict whether a substance will taste sweet, and it was by chance alone that all the man-made ……(15)…… sweeteners were found to be sweet.

    glucose sweetened different technology fructose

    mystery artificially technologists maximum commonly

    chemical best substances discovered accepted

    fruit chemist similar

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  • This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 6 Reading Test 3 Reading Passage 1 about ‘History of films’. This is a post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

    IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3: AC Reading Module

    Reading Passage 1: Questions 1-13

    This passage contains no title

    Questions 1-5: Identifying information:

    Question no. 6: It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.

    Keywords for the question: important, understand, how, first audiences, reacted to, cinema,

    The answer is found in lines 4-9 of paragraph B, “ . .. . But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.”

    Here, it is worth trying = it is important, the initial shock of those images = how the first audiences reacted to the cinema,

    So, the answer is: YES

    Question no. 7: The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest films ever made.

    Keywords for the question: Lumiere Brothers’ film, train, one of, greatest films ever made,

    Paragraph C gives a detailed explanation of The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train. Here, these lines may confuse you, “ . .. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists, described the film as a ‘work of genius’.”

    You need to read the question again; it asks about the film, not the film artists.

    In this passage, there is no information about whether this film is one of the greatest films ever made or not.

    So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

    Question no. 8: Cinema psents a biased view of other countries.

    Keywords for the question: cinema, psents, biased view, other countries,   

    In paragraph E we find the information that cinema can make us aware about other countries. So, we can guess that the answer to this question should be found in the same paragraph. However, it does not say anywhere that cinema gives a biased view of other countries.

    So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

    Question no. 9: Storylines were important in very early cinema. 

    Keywords for the question: storylines, important, very early cinema,   

    In paragraph D H lines 5-7 say, “ . .. . All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. … . .”

    Here, All that mattered at first = all that was important in very early cinema,

    So, it was the wonder of movement, not the storylines.

    So, the answer is: NO

    Questions 11-13: Multiple choice questions

    [This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers to pvious questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

    Question no. 10: The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate –

    Keywords for the question: the film of train, to demonstrate,  

    Take a look at these lines paragraph C where the writer talks about the film about the moving train psented by the Lumiere Brothers, “. . .. ‘As the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ’panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture..  … .”

    Clearly, the writer explains the impact of the early films as mass people reacted with astonishment.

    So, the answer is: B (the impact of early films)

    Question no. 11: In Tarkovsky’s opinion, the attraction of the cinema is that it –

    Keywords for the question: Tarkovsky’s opinion, attraction, cinema, it,

    Take a look at lines 7-9 in paragraph D, “. . .. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. .  ..”

    Here, that magic dynamic image = attraction of the cinema, real flow of events = passing of time,

    So, the answer is: C (illustrates the passing of time)

    Question no. 12: When cinema first began, people thought that –    

    Keywords for the question: when, cinema, first begun, people, thought,   

    The answer can be found in paragraph H as the author says here, “.. .. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. .. . .”

    Here, by no means obvious = the future was uncertain,

    So, the answer is: D (its future was uncertain)

    Question no. 13: What is the best title for this passage?

    Keywords for the question: best title,  

    During answering all the 12 questions, we have found out that the passage highlights the introduction, the development and different impacts of the cinema. Only two paragraphs in this passage talk about stars/ film artists, the dominance of Hollywood and a short comparison between cinema and novels.

    The best choice from the four options has to be ‘The power of the big screen (cinema)’.

    So, the answer is: D (The power of the big screen)

    3.6

    22

    votes

    Article Rating

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  • Syllabus of Level 1 – Reading and Writing

    Fall 2013 – Friday

    WEEK 1 – 9/20

    Reading

    Part 1: Doing cloze

    71. Do You Want It or Not?

    Charity (n): hội từ thiện

    Offer (v): tặng

    She called him up a week later: Cô ta gọi cho anh ta một tuần sau đó.

    For free: miễn phí

    Pick up (v): lấy

    Part 2: Answer the questions

    1. Bald Eagle

    2. What is a Bank?

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 130

    Exercise 131

    Exercise 132

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 001

    WEEK 2 – 9/27

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible: Announcement of the Birth of Jesus.

    Luke 1: 26-33

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    72. A Wheelchair

    – Steal – stole – stolen (v): ăn cắp, đánh cắp

    – Wheelchair (n): xe lăn

    – Belong (v): thuộc về

    – Porch (n): cổng vòm, hành lang

    – Push (v): đẩy

    – Grab (v): chộp lấy

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    3. Money

    – Earn (v): kiếm tiền

    – Completing (adj): hoàn thành

    – household chores (n): công việc lặt vặt trong nhà

    – grade (n): điểm số – (v): chấm điểm

    – allowance (n): tiền trợ cấp, tiền tiêu vặt

    – come in many different forms: tồn tại ở nhiều hình thức khác nhau

    – specific value: giá trị riêng

    – trade items: trao đổi những món đồ

    – currency (n): tiền tệ

    – save (v): tiết kiệm

    – medical needs: dịch vụ y khoa

    – household items: đồ dùng trong nhà

    – such as: như là

    – turn the light on: mở đèn

    – air conditioning (n): máy điều hòa

    – heat (n): lò sưởi

    – cost money: tính tiền, tốn tiền

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 133

    Exercise 134

    Exercise 135

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 002

    WEEK 3 – 10/04

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible

    Luke 17: 5-10

    – Faith (n): Đức tin

    – To increase (v): gia tăng, tăng thêm

    – Mustard seed: hạt mù tạc

    – To uproot (v): nhổ lên, bật gốc

    – Servant (n): tôi tớ, đầy tớ

    – To plant (v): trồng cây

    – To plow (v): cày

    – To tend (v): chăn súc vật

    – Would rather: thích, muốn… hơn

    – S + would rather + not + V + O

    – Jim would rather go to class tomorrow than today: Jim thích tới lớp ngày mai hơn hôm nay.

    – Jim would rather not go to class tomorrow: Jim không thích tới lớp ngày mai.

    – Would he not rather say to him: Liệu ông chủ không muốn nói với anh ta… hơn?

    – Grateful (adj): biết ơn

    – To command (v): ra lệnh

    – Unprofitable (adj): không sinh lợi, chẳng ích lợi gì, vô dụng

    – To be obliged: bị bắt buộc…

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    73. Let Me Drive

    – The radio was on: radio đang bật

    – Accident (n): tai nạn

    – Happen (v): xảy ra

    – Freeway (n): đường cao tốc

    – Two people were dead: 2 người đã chết

    – Careful (adj): cẩn thận

    – Never be in a hurry (adj): đừng bao giờ vội vã

    – pay attention to: chú ý đến…

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    4. Hummingbirds

    – Hummingbird (n): chim ruồi

    – weigh less than even a penny: cân nặng thậm chí còn nhẹ hơn một đồng xu

    – at barely more than two inches long: chỉ dài hơn 2 inch

    – Unlike most birds: không giống như hầu hết các chú chim

    – iridescent (adj): óng ánh, ngũ sắc

    – feather (n): bộ lông (chim)

    – glitter (v): lấp lánh

    – dazzling (adj): sáng chói

    – … Mother Nature could dream up: … thiên nhiên có thể tạo ra

    – bill (n): mỏ chim

    – insert into (v): đưa vào trong,

    – fit (v): hợp, vừa

    – fly (v): bay

    – nectar (n): mật hoa

    – Hummingbirds are also unique among bird species: chim ruồi là loài duy nhất trong số những loài chim…

    – Attract (v): thu hút, hấp dẫn, lôi kéo

    – Feeder (n): thức ăn

    – Fill (v): chứa đầy

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 136

    Exercise 137

    Exercise 138

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 003

    WEEK 4 – 10/11

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible

    Luke 17: 11-19

    – Leper (n): người cùi

    – Journey (v, n): hành trình, chuyến đi

    – To stand at a distance: đừng ở đàng xa

    – To raise one’s voice: lên tiếng, cất tiếng

    – Priest (n): tư tế, linh mục

    – To be cleansed: được sạch

    – To heal (v): chữa lành

    – To glorify (v): chúc tụng

    – Foreigner (n): người nước ngoài, dân ngoại bang

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    74. Where’s My Money?

    – owe (v): nợ

    – borrow (v): mượn

    – pay Jack back: trả lại cho Jack

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    5. The Color Green

    – nature (n): thiên nhiên

    – grass (n): cỏ

    – leaf (n): một chiếc lá – leaves (plural noun): những chiếc lá

    – tree (n): cây lớn (cây thân gỗ) ≠ plant (n): thực vật, cây nhỏ

    – Frog (n): con ếch, nhái

    – grasshopper (n): châu chấu

    – Turtle (n): con rùa

    – mix (v): trộn lẫn

    – primary (adj): đầu tiên

    – secondary (adj): thứ hai

    – harm (v): làm hại, gây hại

    – movement to make products: hoạt động để tạo ra sản phẩm

    – Green products are often those made from recycled materials: sản phẩm xanh thường được làm ra từ vật liệu tái chế

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 139

    Exercise 140

    Exercise 141

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 004

    WEEK 5 – 10/18

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible

    Luke 18: 1-8

    – Widow (n): Bà goá

    – Persistent (adj): Cố chấp, kiên định, dai dẳng

    – Parable (n): dụ ngôn

    – To become weary: trở nên mỏi mệt

    – Judge (n): thẩm phán, quan toà

    – Neither feared God nor respected anyone: Chẳng sợ Thiên Chúa cũng không tôn trọng ai.

    – Human being = Human (n): con người

    – To render (v): Trả lại, dâng, nộp

    – A just decision: một phán quyết công bằng

    – Adversary (n): kẻ thù, đối phương

    – To keep + Ving – keep bothering: cứ quấy rầy

    – Dishonest (adj): bất lương

    – To pay attention to (v): chú ý tới

    – To secure (v): bảo vệ, che chở

    – Chosen ones: những người được tuyển chọn, kẻ được chọn

    – To call out to (v): kêu cầu

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    75. It’s Not the Money

    – The brothers don’t speak to each other: 2 anh em không nói chuyện với nhau

    – fight (v): đánh nhau ; (n): cuộc chiến, mâu thuẫn

    – Money can bring people together: tiền có thể đem mọi người lại gần nhau.

    – Money can tear people apart: Tiền có thể tách mọi người ra xa nhau.

    – tear (v): xé, làm rách

    – principle (n): nguyên tắc

    – truth (n): sự thật

    – work hard: làm việc chăm chỉ, tích cực

    – lie (v): nói dối

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    6. The United States

    – It is the third largest in the whole world: Nó lớn thứ ba trên toàn thế giới

    – It is located in a continent called North America: Nó nằm ở lục địa Bắc Mĩ

    – continent (n): lục địa

    – touch (v): gần, kề, sát bên, liền, giáp với

    – mountain (n): núi

    – wide (adj): rộng lớn

    – plain (n): đồng bằng

    – desert (n): sa mạc

    – hill (n): đồi

    – river (n): sông

    – lake (n): hồ

    – volcanoe (n): núi lửa

    – rainforest (n): rừng nhiệt đới

    – state (n): bang

    – not connected to the other states: không liên kết với những bang khác

    – chain of islands: quần đảo

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 142

    Exercise 143

    Exercise 144

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 005

    WEEK 6 – 10/25

    * Test 1

    Reading

    Reading the Bible

    Luke 18: 9-14

    – Pharisee (n): người biệt phái

    – Tax Collector (n): người thu thuế

    – To be convinced of oneself: vững tin vào chính mình

    – Righteous (adj): công chính

    – Righteousness (n): sự công chính

    – The temple area (n): khu vực đền thờ

    – To take up one’s position: vào chỗ của mình

    – The rest of humanity (n): những người còn lại

    – Greedy (adj): tham lam

    – Adulterous (adj): ngoại tình

    – To fast (v): chay tịnh, ăn chay

    – To pay tithes: nộp thuế thập phân 1/10

    – To raise one’s eyes to: ngước mắt lên

    – To beat one’s breast: đấm ngực

    – To be merciful to = to have mercy on… xin thương xót…

    – The latter: người sau

    – The former: người trước

    – To exalt (v): tự cao, nâng mình lên

    – To humble (n): khiêm tốn, hạ mình

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 145

    Exercise 146

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 006

    WEEK 7 – 11/01

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible

    Luke 19: 1-10

    To intend (v): dự tính, dự định

    To name (v): đặt tên, gọi tên

    Chief (n): thủ lĩnh, trưởng

    Wealth (n): sự giàu có – Wealthy (adj): giàu có

    The crowd (n): đám đông – Crowded (adj): đông đúc

    To be short in stature: lùn, thấp

    Sycamore tree (n): cây sung

    In order: để

    To come down (v): xuống

    To grumble (v): cằn nhằn, càm ràm

    Behold: này đây, đây, chú ý

    Possession (n): tài sản, của cải

    To extort something from someone: lấy cái gì của ai

    Salvation (n): ơn cứu độ, sự cứu độ, ơn cứu rỗi

    Descendent (n) = offspring = children: con cháu

    The Son of Man: Con Người (chỉ Chúa Giêsu)

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    76. Meet Halfway

    – motel (n): khách sạn cạnh đường cho khách có ô tô.

    – clerk (n): thư ký văn phòng

    – vacant (adj): trống, rỗng

    – But the night is half over: nhưng đã quá nửa đêm

    – price (n): giá tiền

    – there is one condition: có một điều kiện

    – one-half: 1/2 , một nửa

    – hot and cold water faucet: vòi nước nóng lạnh

    – cable TV: truyền hình cáp

    – channel: kênh truyền hình

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    7. Redwood Trees

    – magnificent (adj): tráng lệ, nguy nga, lộng lẫy, rất đẹp

    – Redwood tree: cây gỗ đỏ

    – temperature: nhiệt độ

    – misty rains: mưa phùn

    – dense fog: sương mù dày đặc

    – allow (v): cho phép

    – grow (v): lớn lên, phát triển

    – The oldest of these trees can grow to over 300 feet tall: những cây già nhất có thể cao đến hơn 300 feet (feet là đơn vị đo độ dài của Anh ; 1 feet = 0, 3048 m)

    – rise – rose – risen (v): mọc lên

    – the Statue of Liberty: tượng Nữ thần tự do

    – pserve (v): giữ gìn, bảo tồn, duy trì

    – giant (adj): to lớn, khổng lồ

    – surrounding areas: những vùng lân cận, khu vực lân cận

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 147

    Exercise 148

    Exercise 149

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 007

    WEEK 8 – 11/08

    Reading

    Part 1 : Reading the Bible

    Luke 20: 27-38

    – Resurrection (n): sự sống lại

    – Sadducee (n): người Sa-đốc

    – To come forward (v): tiến về phía, tiến đến

    – To take a wife: lấy vợ

    – To raise up descendants: gần dựng dòng dõi

    – Childless (adj): không con

    – To marry a woman (man): cưới vợ, lấy chồng

    – Marriage (n): hôn nhân

    – The children of this age: con cái thế hệ này

    – To deem worthy (v): cho rằng, nghĩ rằng có giá trị

    – The coming age = the age to come: thế giới mai sau, đời sau

    – The dead: kẻ chết

    – The living: người sống

    – The children of God: con cái Thiên Chúa

    – The ones who will rise: những người sẽ sống lại

    – To make known (v): mặc khải

    – To be alive: còn sống

    – Scribe (n): luật sĩ

    – No longer dare to ask: không còn dám hỏi nữa

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    77. God Wants Good People

    – Heaven (n): thiên đàng, thiên đường

    – Leave (v): để lại, bỏ lại

    – Earth (n): trái đất

    – Devil (n): ma quỷ

    – next to (pp.): bên cạnh

    – fire (n): lửa

    – coal (n): than

    – heavy (adj): nặng, nặng nề

    – bucket (n): thùng, xô

    – The devil makes them carry heavy buckets of black coal: ma quỷ bắt họ mang những xô nặng đầy than đen.

    – pour (v): đổ vào

    – Then they refill the big buckets with more coal: sau đó họ lại chất đầy than vào những xô lớn

    – refill (v): làm đầy lại

    – rest (v): nghỉ ngơi

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    8. Penguins

    – Penguin (n): chim cánh cụt

    – Penguins are among the most popular of all birds: Chim cánh cụt là loài phổ biến nhất trong số các loài chim.

    – the South Pole: Nam cực

    – the North Pole: Bắc cực

    – the continent of Antarctica: châu Nam cực

    – wild (adj): hoang dã

    – There are many different kinds of penguins: có nhiều loại chim cánh cụt khác nhau

    – none of them can fly: không con nào có thể bay.

    – have to (v): phải (làm điều gì đó)

    – be able to (v): có thể, có khả năng

    – survive (v): tồn tại, sống

    – the Earth’s coldest and windiest conditions: điều kiện gió mạnh nhất và lạnh nhất trên trái đất.

    – thick layers of fat to protect them from the bitter cold: lớp mỡ dày để bảo vệ chúng khỏi cái lạnh buốt giá

    – habitat (n): môi trường sống

    – watch out (v): đề phòng, cảnh giác

    – pdator (n): động vật ăn thịt

    – Even in their freezing cold habitats, penguins still have to watch out for pdators such as killer whales and seals: ngay cả trong môi trường sống băng giá, chim cánh cụt vẫn phải cảnh giác với những động vật ăn thịt như cá voi và hải cẩu.

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 150

    Exercise 151

    Exercise 152

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 008

    WEEK 9 – 11/15

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible

    Luke 21: 5-19

    Destruction of the temple: sự sụp đổ của đền thờ

    Foretold (n): lời tiên báo

    To be adorned with… được trang hoàng bằng

    Costly stones and votive offerings: đá đắt tiền và lễ vật quý

    A stone upon another stone: hòn đá nào chồng lên hòn đá nào

    to be thrown down: bị tàn phá

    The sign of the end: dấu hiệu ngày sau cùng (ngày tận thế)

    To be about to happen: sẽ (sắp) xảy ra

    To be deceived: bị lừa dối

    To come in my name: đến nhân danh Ta

    Wars and insurrections: chiến tranh và loạn lạc (nổi dậy)

    To rise against…: nổi lên chống lại…

    Earthquake (n): động đất

    Famine (n): nạn đòi

    Plague (n): ôn dịch

    Persecution (n): sự bắt bớ

    To seize and persecute (v): hành hạ và bắt bớ

    To hand someone over to: bắt và giao nộp ai cho, nộp ai cho

    Synagogue (n): hội đường

    Because of my name: vì danh Ta, vì danh Thầy

    Your giving testimony (n): việc làm chứng của các con

    Wisdom (n): sự khôn ngoan

    Adversary (n): kẻ thù

    To be handed over by someone: bị bắt và giao nộp bởi ai đó

    To put someone to death: giết ai đó, làm cho ai đó phải chết

    By your perseverance you will secure your lives: vì sự bền đỗ, kiên tâm bền chí các con sẽ cứu được mạng sống.

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    78. Earthquake

    – Earthquake (n): động đất

    – Feel – felt – felt (v) : cảm thấy

    – Last (v): kéo dài

    – Second (n): giây

    – The whole house shook: cả căn nhà đều rung chuyển

    – Shake – shook – shaken (v): rung, lắc

    – Go (went) off: tắt

    – light (n): bóng điện, bóng đèn

    – Scared / scary (adj): sợ, hoảng sợ, khiếp sợ

    – It was as if a giant hand had shaken her house: dường như có một cánh tay khổng lồ đã rung chuyển căn nhà.

    – The lights came back on: đèn sáng trở lại

    – Damage (n): thiệt hại ; (v): gây thiệt hại

    – No one was hurt: không ai bị thương

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    9. Blue Whale

    – Whale (n): cá voi

    – Planet (n): hành tinh

    – Blue Whales are way larger than the largest dinosaur that ever lived: cá voi xanh lớn hơn loài khủng long lớn nhất đã từng sống.

    – Dinosaur (n): khủng long

    – longer than three school buses put together: dài hơn ba chiếc xe buýt cộng lại.

    – Huge (adj): to lớn, khổng lồ

    – Tiny (adj): nhỏ xíu, bé tí

    – Creatures (n): sinh vật

    – Shrimp (n): con tôm

    – filter the water out of plates in its mouth called baleen: nó lọc nước qua một tấm chắn trong miệng được gọi là tấm sừng hàm.

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 153

    Exercise 154

    Exercise 155

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 009

    WEEK 10 – 11/22

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible

    Luke 23: 35-43

    – The people (n): dân chúng

    – To stand by (v): đứng gần, đứng ngay bên

    – The ruler (n): nhà chức trách, người lãnh đạo,

    – To sneer at him (v): cười nhạo ngài, phỉ bang ngài

    – The chosen one, the Messiah of God (n): Kẻ được tuyển chọn, Đấng Mêsia của TC

    – To jeer at him (v): chế diễu

    – Inscription (n): câu viết, câu khắc

    – Criminal (n): tên tội phạm

    – To rebuke someone (v): khiển trách ai đó

    – No fear of God (n): chẳng sợ TC

    – To be subject to (v): phải chịu, phải gánh lấy, phải theo

    – To condemn (v): kết án – condemnation (n): sự kết án

    – The sentence (n): việc kết án

    – To receive corresponds to…: nhận xứng với…

    – Paradise (n): Heaven, the world to come, everlasting life… Thiên đàng, sự sống đời sau, sự sống đời đời

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    79. A Patient Mom

    – Far away: cách xa

    – Miss (v): nhớ

    – Waitress (n): nữ phục vụ, bồi bàn nữ ; waiter (n): bồi bàn nam

    – Grandson (n): cháu trai

    – Granddaughter (n): cháu gái

    – She wanted May to bring her children back to China: bà ta muốn May đưa những đứa con của May trở về Trung Quốc.

    – Be patient: hãy kiên nhẫn

    – Hurry up: nhanh lên

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    10. American Revolution

    – Battle (n): trận đánh, cuộc chiến

    – the American Revolution (n): cuộc cách mạng Mỹ

    – occur (v): xảy ra, xảy đến

    – colonist (n): thực dân

    – The American colonists were very angry about numerous taxes issued by the British king: thực dân Mỹ rất giận về việc đóng thuế nhiều cho quốc vương Anh.

    – Issue (v): đưa ra

    – the Declaration of Independence (n): bản Tuyên ngôn độc lập

    – outline (n): dàn ý

    – intention (n): ý định, mục đích

    – separate from (v): tách rời, tách biệt khỏi

    – maintain (v): duy trì

    – control (v): điều khiển, kiểm soát

    – vow (v): thề, nguyện

    – war (n): chiến tranh

    – last (v): kéo dài

    – The war lasted eight long years: chiến tranh kéo dài 8 năm.

    – win – won – won (v): chiến thắng

    – important (adj): quan trọng

    – such as: như là

    – hero (n): anh hùng

    – emerge (v): nổi lên, xuất hiện

    – surrender (v): đầu hàng

    – a new nation was born: một quốc gia mới được thành lập

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 156

    Exercise 157

    Exercise 158

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 010

    WEEK 11 – 11/29

    Reading

    Part 1: Reading the Bible

    Matthew 24: 37-44

    – For as it was …., so it will be…: Như đã xảy ra…thế nào, thì cũng sẽ …

    – Flood (n): lũ lụt, hồng thuỷ

    – Marrying and giving in marriage: cưới vợ và lấy chồng (gia đình gả con gái)

    – Ark (n): Tàu ông Nôe

    – To carry them all away: mang tất cả ra đi

    – To grind (v): xay, nghiến răng

    – Mill (n): cối xay

    – Stay awake! Hãy tỉnh thức

    – Be sure of this: Hãy biết chắc điều này là

    – To expect (v): mong đợi

    Part 2: Doing cloze

    80. He Will Work for Gas

    – gas station (n): trạm xăng dầu, cây xăng

    – owner (n): người chủ

    – count (v): đếm

    – Can you put gas in a car?: bạn có thể đổ xăng cho xe không?

    – “There is just one problem,”: có một vấn đề

    – “I cannot pay you with money.”: tôi không thể trả lương cho anh bằng tiền

    – Pay (v): trả tiền, trả lương, thanh toán

    – Gasoline = gas = petrol (n): xăng dầu

    – It’s a deal: đó là một thỏa thuận

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    11. Buffalo

    – Buffalo (n): con trâu

    – Herd (n): bầy, đàn (vật nuôi)

    – Roam (v): đi lang thang

    – Plain (n): đồng bằng

    – Essential (adj): cần thiết, thiết yếu, cốt yếu, chủ yếu

    – Society (n): xã hội

    – The great herds of buffalo that roamed the plains were essential for all parts of Sioux life and society: Những đàn trâu lớn đi lang thang các vùng đồng bằng là cần thiết cho tất cả các phần của cuộc sống và xã hội Sioux.

    – For most Sioux villages: đối với hầu hết các làng Sioux

    – Before the introduction of the horse: trước khi biết đến ngựa

    – Warrior (n): quân nhân, chiến sĩ, chiến binh

    – Hunt (v): săn bắt

    – By dressing up as wolves as: bằng cách mặc đồ giống như sói

    – Trick (v): đánh lừa

    – Cliff (n): vách đá

    – Ledge (n): bờ vực

    – They would also dress up in buffalo skins and make crying sounds like a baby buffalo: họ cũng mặc da trâu và làm những tiếng kêu khóc như những con trâu con.

    – Skin (n): da

    – Investigate (v): điều tra, dò la

    – Kill (v): giết chết

    – Spear (n): giáo mác

    – Arrow (n): mũi tên

    – Indians (n): người Ấn độ

    – Entire (adj): toàn bộ

    – following a kill: sau khi giết

    – Hide (n): da (thú)

    – Tepee (n): lều vải (của người da đỏ)

    – Moccasins (n): giày da đanh (của thổ dân Bắc-mỹ)

    – Robe (n): áo choàng

    – hair (n): lông

    – horn (n): sừng

    – Children fashioned sleds out of buffalo ribs: Trẻ con tạo mẫu xe trượt tuyết bằng xương trâu.

    – buffalo fat (n): mỡ trâu

    – glue (n): keo, hồ dán

    – buffalo meat (n): thịt trâu

    – provide (v): cung cấp

    – collect (v): tập hợp lại, thu gom lại

    – dry (v): phơi khô

    – pound (v): giã, nghiền

    – pemmican (n): chà bông

    – sort of like modern-day beef jerky): giống như khô bò ngày nay

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 159

    Exercise 160

    Exercise 161

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 011

    WEEK 12 – 12/06

    * Test 2

    Reading

    Part 1 : Reading the Bible

    Mt 3: 1-12

    – To pach (v): rao giảng, giảng dạy

    – To repent (v): sám hối

    – Repentance (n): sự sám hối

    – The kingdom of heaven: nước trời

    – To be at hand!: …gần đến

    – To cry out (v): hô lên, kêu lên

    – Camel’s hair (n): long lạc đà

    – Leather belt (n): dây thắt lưng bằng da

    – Locust (n): châu chấu

    – Wild honey (n): mật ong rừng

    – Whole region (n): toàn vùng

    – To baptize (v): rửa tội

    – Baptism (n): phép rửa tội

    – To acknowledge (v): thú nhận, nhận biết, thừa nhận

    – To produce good fruit = to bear good fruit: sinh trái tốt

    – To psume (v): cho là, coi như là

    – To raise up children: gầy dựng dòng dõi, gầy dựng con cháu

    – Ax (n): rìu

    – Winnowing fan (n): quạt rê lúa

    – Threshing floor (n): sân đập lúa

    – Barn (n): kho

    – Chaff (n): trấu

    – Unquenchable fire (n): lửa không hề tắt

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 162

    Exercise 163

    Exercise 164

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 012

    WEEK 13 – 12/13

    Reading

    Part 1 : Reading the Bible

    Matthew 11: 2-11

    – Messenger (n): thông điệp, sứ giả

    – John the Baptist: Gioan Tẩy Giả

    – To hear of (v): nghe về

    – The one who is to come: đấng sẽ đến

    – Blind (adj): mù; the blind: kẻ mù, người mù

    – Lame (adj): què; the lame: kẻ què, người què

    – Poor (adj): nghèo; the poor: kẻ nghèo, người nghèo

    – Dead (adj): chết; the dead: kẻ chết, người chết

    – To testify (v): làm chứng

    – Testimony (n): lời chứng

    – To go off (v): đi khỏi

    – Royal palace (n): hoàng cung

    – Prophet (n): ngôn sứ

    – To suffer (v): chịu đau khổ

    – Violence (n): bạo lực

    – Violent (adj): bạo lực; the violent: kẻ bạo quyền, bạo lực

    Part 2: Christmas song

    O come, all ye faithful, / Joyful and triumphant,

    O come ye, O come ye to Bethlehem;

    Come and behold him, / Born the King of angels;

    O come, let us adore him, / O come, let us adore him,

    O Come, let us adore him, / Christ the Lord.

    God of God, / Light of Light,

    Lo, he abhors not the Virgin’s womb;

    Very God, / Begotten, not created:

    Sing, choirs of angels, / Sing in exultation,

    Sing, all ye citizens of heaven above;

    Glory to God / All glory in the highest

    O come, all ye faithful, / Joyful and triumphant,

    O come ye, O come ye to Bethlehem;

    Come and behold him, / Born the King of angels

    – Ye = you; Lo: kìa

    – Faithful (adj): trung thành; the faithful: Dân Chúa

    – Triumphant (adj): chiến thắng

    – To behold (v): chiêm ngắm

    – Bore born born (v): sinh ra

    – King of angels: Vua các thiên thần

    – To adore (v): thờ lạy

    – God of God: Thiên Chúa bởi Thiên Chúa

    – Light of light: Ánh sáng bởi Ánh sáng

    – To abhor (v): ghê tởm, chê bỏ

    – The Virgin’s womb: cung lòng Đức Trinh Nữ

    – Very God: Thiên Chúa thật

    – Beget begot begotten: sinh ra

    – Choir (n): ca đoàn

    – Choirs of angels: ca đoàn các thiên thần

    – Exultation (n): vui mừng, hân hoan

    – Citizens of heaven: các công dân nước trời

    – Glory to God: vinh danh Chúa

    Bạn có thể vào chúng tôi để nghe bài này, có lời dịch trong phần lyrics phía dưới.

    Oh Come, All Ye Faithful

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    The Mice in Council

    – Mouse (n): một con chuột – mice (n): nhiều con chuột

    – Council (n): hội nghị

    – Call a meeting: triệu tập cuộc họp

    – Plan (n): phương án, kế hoạch, dự định

    – Seem (v): có vẻ như, dường như

    – Hang – hung – hung (v): treo, mắc vào

    – Tie (v): buộc, cột

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 165

    Exercise 166

    Exercise 167

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 013

    WEEK 14 – 12/20

    Reading

    Part 1 : Reading the Bible

    Matthew 1: 18-24

    – To come about (v): diễn ra, xảy ra

    – To be betrothed to: đính hôn với

    – Since (conj): vì, vì chưng, vì lẽ rằng

    – To expose someone to shame: làm cho ai nhục nhã

    – To appear to someone: hiện ra với ai

    – To take Mary your wife: nhận Maria làm vợ

    – To conceive: cưu mang

    – To be conceived: được cưu mang

    – To name him Jesus: đặt tên Ngài là Giêsu

    – To take place (v): xảy ra, diễn ra

    – To fulfill (v): hoàn tất, làm trọn

    Part 2: Christmas song (Ai giải nghĩa bài hát này được có thưởng)

    12 days of Chirstmas – Mười hai ngày trong Mùa Giáng Sinh

    – The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth… twelfth: thứ nhất… mười hai

    – Christmas: Lễ Giáng Sinh, Mùa Giáng Sinh

    – True love: người yêu

    – 12 Drummers Drumming: 12 người đang đánh trống

    – 11 Pipers Piping: 11 nhạc công đang thổi tiêu

    – 10 Lords a Leaping: 10 vị lãnh chúa đang nhảy (lưng tưng)

    – 9 Ladies Dancing: 9 quý bà đang múa

    – 8 Maids a Milking: 8 cô đang vắt sữa

    – 7 Swans a Swimming: 7 con thiên nga đang bơi

    – 6 Geese a Laying: 6 con ngỗng đang đẻ trứng

    – 5 Golden Rings: 5 chiếc nhẫn vàng

    – 4 Calling Birds: 4 con chim cô ly

    – 3 French Hens: 3 con gà mái Pháp

    – 2 Turtle Doves: 2 con chim cu gáy

    – A Partridge in a Pear Tree: 1 con gà gô trên Cây Lê

    Vào link sau đây để nghe bài hát

    Twelve Days of Christmas

    Part 3: Answer the questions

    A Special Christmas Present

    – Christmas psent: món quà Giáng sinh

    – bank account: tài khoản ngân hàng

    – the shopping mall: trung tâm thương mại

    – perfect gift: món quà hoàn hảo

    – brooch (n): trâm (gài đầu); ghim hoa (gài cổ áo)

    – jewelry (n): trang sức

    – Wrap (v): gói lại, bao lại

    – Place (v): đặt, để

    – look forward: mong đợi, mong chờ

    – scream with fright: hét lên với sự sợ hãi

    Writing

    Part 1: Building sentences

    Exercise 168

    Exercise 169

    Exercise 170

    Part 2: Sentence Transformation

    English Sentence Transformation – Basic Level Test 014

    WEEK 15 – 12/27

    Christmas – Relax – Study Review – and Pastoral works

    WEEK 16 – 1/03

    * Final Test

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  • A

    The history of human civilization is entwined with the history of ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.

    Lịch sử của nền văn minh con người gắn chặt với lịch sử các cách thức mà chúng ta đã biết để vận dụng tài nguyên nước. Khi dân cư dần dần mở rộng, con người phải lấy nước từ các nguồn ngày càng xa, dẫn đến các nỗ lực kỹ thuật phức tạp như xây đập và cống dẫn nước. Ở đỉnh cao của đế chế La Mã, chín hệ thống lớn, với một bố trí sáng tạo của ống cống được xây dựng khá tốt, đã cung cấp cho mỗi cư dân Rome lượng nước giống như lượng nước cung cấp cho mỗi người ở nhiều nơi trong thế giới công nghiệp ngày nay.

     

     

    B

    During the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unpcedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation system that makes possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food. Nearly one-fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water.

    Trong cuộc cách mạng công nghiệp và sự bùng nổ dân số của thế kỷ 19 và 20, nhu cầu về nước tăng lên đáng kể. Việc xây dựng chưa từng có với hàng chục ngàn dự án kỹ thuật hoành tráng được thiết kế để kiểm soát lũ lụt, bảo vệ nguồn nước sạch, và cung cấp nước cho thủy lợi và thủy điện đã mang lại nhiều lợi ích cho hàng trăm triệu người. Sản xuất lương thực đã theo kịp với các việc dân số tăng cao chủ yếu là do việc mở rộng các hệ thống thủy lợi nhân tạo để có thể tăng sản lượng lương thực thế giới lên 40%. Gần một phần năm tất cả nguồn điện được tạo ra trên toàn thế giới được sản xuất bởi các tua bin quay bằng sức mạnh của nước.

     

     

    C

    Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population till suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve their problems.

     

     

    D

    The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in part of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

    Hậu quả của chính sách về nước của chúng ta đã lan rộng đến mức gây nguy hiểm cho sức khỏe con người. Hàng chục triệu người đã bị buộc phải di dời khỏi nhà của họ – thường chỉ được địa phương cảnh báo hoặc bồi thường qua loa – để nhường chỗ cho các hồ chứa đằng sau đập. Hơn 20% của tất cả các loài cá nước ngọt đang bị đe dọa vì đập và việc xả nước đã phá hủy hệ sinh thái sông “có dòng chảy tự do” nơi mà các loài này đang sinh sống. Một số tập quán tưới tiêu làm suy giảm chất lượng đất và làm giảm năng suất nông nghiệp. Các tầng chứa nước ngầm đang được khai thác nhanh hơn lượng bổ sung tự nhiên ở một số nơi như Ấn Độ, Trung Quốc, Mỹ và các nơi khác. Và tranh chấp về tài nguyên nước dùng chung đã dẫn đến bạo lực và tiếp tục tạo ra những căng thẳng ở địa phương, quốc gia và thậm chí quốc tế.

     

     

    E

    At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as a top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organizations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pssing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from pventable water-related illness.

     

     

    F

    Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some pdicted. As a result, the pssure to build now water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen.

    May mắn thay và bất ngờ là nhu cầu về nước không tăng nhanh như một số dự đoán. Kết quả là, áp lực để xây dựng các cơ sở hạ tầng về nước đã giảm trong hai thập kỷ qua. Mặc dù dân số, sản lượng công nghiệp và năng suất kinh tế vẫn tiếp tục tăng cao ở các nước phát triển, tỷ lệ mà mọi người rút nước từ các hồ chứa nước, sông và hồ đã chậm lại. Và ở vài nơi trên thế giới, nhu cầu này đã thực sự giảm.

     

     

    G

    What explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have pd out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20% from their peak in 1980.

    Điều gì giải thích về sự thay đổi đáng ghi nhận này? Có hai yếu tố là con người đã tìm ra cách để sử dụng nước hiệu quả hơn, và cộng đồng đang suy nghĩ lại về ưu tiên của họ khi sử dụng nước. Trong suốt ba phần tư đầu tiên của thế kỷ 20, lượng nước ngọt được tiêu thụ trên đầu người trung bình tăng gấp đôi; như ở Mỹ, lượng rút ​​nước tăng gấp mười lần, trong khi dân số tăng gấp bốn lần. Nhưng kể từ năm 1980, lượng nước tiêu thụ mỗi người đã thực sự giảm, nhờ vào một loạt các công nghệ mới giúp tiết kiệm nước tại nhà và tại các xưởng công nghiệp. Ví dụ năm 1965 Nhật Bản sử dụng khoảng 13 triệu gallons nước sản xuất 1 triệu đô sản lượng thương mại; năm 1989 lượng tiêu thụ này đã giảm xuống còn 3,5 triệu gallon (thậm chí hơn do lạm phát) – khoảng bốn lần lượng nước tiêu thụ năm 1965. Ở Mỹ, lượng ​​nước tiêu thụ đã giảm hơn 20% so với mức đỉnh vào năm 1980.

     

     

    H

    On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.

    Mặt khác, các đập, cống dẫn nước và các loại cơ sở hạ tầng khác sẽ vẫn phải được xây dựng, đặc biệt là ở các nước đang phát triển, nơi nhu cầu cơ bản của con người đã không được đáp ứng. Nhưng các dự án như vậy phải được xây dựng hiện đại và có trách nhiệm hơn với người dân địa phương và môi trường của họ so với trong quá khứ. Và ngay cả trong các khu vực có các dự án mới có vẻ đảm bảo này thì chúng ta vẫn phải tìm cách để đáp ứng nhu cầu với ít nguồn lực hơn, tôn trọng các tiêu chuẩn sinh thái và với ngân sách ít hơn.

    --- Bài cũ hơn ---

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