Xem Nhiều 11/2022 #️ Tài Liệu Học Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh: Sách Use Of English – First Certificate Skills – Mark Harrison / 2023 # Top 18 Trend | Phusongyeuthuong.org

Xem Nhiều 11/2022 # Tài Liệu Học Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh: Sách Use Of English – First Certificate Skills – Mark Harrison / 2023 # Top 18 Trend

Cập nhật thông tin chi tiết về Tài Liệu Học Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh: Sách Use Of English – First Certificate Skills – Mark Harrison / 2023 mới nhất trên website Phusongyeuthuong.org. Hy vọng nội dung bài viết sẽ đáp ứng được nhu cầu của bạn, chúng tôi sẽ thường xuyên cập nhật mới nội dung để bạn nhận được thông tin nhanh chóng và chính xác nhất.

Lời mở đầu

Theo Wikipedia, “Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh là cấu trúc về ngữ pháp trong tiếng Anh chỉ sự đặt câu đúng trật tự, đúng quan hệ và hài hòa giữa các từ, yếu tố để tạo nên một câu văn hoàn chỉnh, là quy phạm nhằm truyền đạt thông tin một cách chính xác, bài bản và khoa học nhất.” Nếu so sánh việc học tiếng Anh với việc xây một ngôi nhà, ngữ pháp tiếng Anh đóng vai trò là nền móng, thành phần mà nếu được xây dựng chắc chắn thì sẽ được vững bền hơn. 

Tuy nhiên, việc học ngữ pháp là một việc khá là khó khăn đối với đa số những người học ngoại ngữ bởi một số lượng lớn những quy tắc từ đơn giản đến phức tạp của tiếng Anh. Trong quá trình chinh phục ngữ pháp tiếng Anh, người học thường sẽ gặp những vấn đề như:

Không biết sẽ bắt đầu học ngữ pháp từ đâu. Có rất nhiều chủ điểm ngữ pháp người học cần phải nắm như: từ loại, loại từ, cấu trúc câu, thì, …

Không biết lượng kiến thức về ngữ pháp hiện tại của mình đang ở đâu bởi lượng kiến thức ngữ pháp tiếng Anh thì khá lớn cùng với sự không thường xuyên ôn luyện ngữ pháp của một số người học.

Không hiểu cốt lõi về lí do tại sao lại sử dụng điểm ngữ pháp này mà không sử dụng điểm ngữ pháp khác. Điều này về lâu dài sẽ ảnh hưởng không tốt tới quá trình học tiếng Anh của người học bởi khi đó người học không hiểu cốt lõi chỉ nắm chung chung về bề mặt.

Trong bài viết này tác giả sẽ giới thiệu cuốn sách Use of English – First Certificate skills – Mark Harrison với hi vọng sẽ phần nào giúp cho người học giải quyết hai khó khăn nêu trên. Tài liệu này vừa có thể được sử dụng trong lớp học với sự hướng dẫn của giáo viên, vừa có thể phục vụ cho quá trình tự học.

Tổng quan về Use of English – First Certificate skills – Mark Harrison

Đối tượng sử dụng sách

Người học và ôn thi cho kỳ thi FCE (First Certificate in English). Đây là chứng chỉ tiếng Anh tương đương với trình độ Trung cao cấp (B2) trên Khung Tham Chiếu Chung Châu Âu Về Ngôn Ngữ (CEFR-Common European Framework of Reference for Languages).

Người học và ôn thi cho kỳ thi tiếng Anh khác với mong muôn ôn lại kiến thức hệ và hệ thống toàn bộ ngữ pháp tiếng Anh ở mức độ trung cấp – tương đương cấp độ B2 trong thang ngôn ngữ 6 bậc Châu Âu (CEFR).

Người học muốn tự ôn tập tổng quát các kiến thức về ngữ pháp.

Giáo viên có thể tham khảo cấu trúc của cuốn sách để đưa ra lộ trình học ngữ pháp và từ vựng phù hợp cho học viên cũng như rút trích các bài tập trong sách phù hợp với mục đích giảng dạy.

Cấu trúc cuốn sách

Trước khi bắt đầu bài học có phần “Stop and Check”, người học có nhiệm vụ kiểm tra những câu đã cho là đúng hay sai về mặt ngữ pháp. Tuy các câu hỏi đưa ra không quá thách thức nhưng vẫn yêu cầu người làm có sự hiểu biết nhất định về mục ngữ pháp đó. Vì vậy, bằng việc tự kiểm tra, người học có thể nhận biết được liệu mình đã có hiểu đầy đủ và rõ ràng về chủ điểm ngữ pháp đó hay chưa.

Phần lý thuyết được trình bày dưới dạng bảng, một nửa bên trái là lý thuyết và giải thích ngắn gọn, một nửa bên tay phải là các ví dụ để minh họa rõ ràng hơn.

Các chủ điểm của sách bao gồm:

Unit 1: The Present (Hiện tại)

Unit 2: The Past (Quá khứ)

Unit 3: The Future (Tương lai)

Unit 4: Linking words & phrases (Các từ và cụm từ nối)

Unit 5: Reported speech (Câu tường thuật)

Unit 6: Infinitives + V-ing form (Động từ ở thể thêm –ing)

Unit 7: Articles, determiners and pronouns (Mạo từ, từ hạn định và đại từ)

Unit 8: Modals (Động từ khiếm khuyết)

Unit 9: Conditionals (Câu điều kiện)

Unit 10: The passive (Câu bị động)

Unit 11: Relative clauses and participles (Mệnh đề quan hệ và phân từ)

Unit 12: Comparison and degree (So sánh và mức độ)

Đối với từ vựng, người học sẽ tiếp cận với các từ vựng thường được sử dụng với chủ điểm ấy.

Lịch thi thử IELTS (Paper-based) tháng này

Kinh nghiệm phòng thi rất quan trọng và thi thử là cách rất tốt để tích lũy kinh nghiệm. Đề thi IELTS tại ZIM rất sát đề thi thật, đánh giá trình độ chính xác, nhận kết quả ngay sau khi thi, và phần thưởng 1.000.000đ cho giải nhất ….

Ví dụ:

Cuối mỗi unit có một bài test nhỏ để kiểm tra trình độ của người học.

Phần chú giải ở cuối sách tổng hợp các từ vựng xuất hiện trong các unit.

Cách sử dụng

Nếu người học đã có kiến thức nền tổng quát tốt về ngữ pháp, và sử dụng cuốn sách với mục đích ôn tập các phần mình còn chưa vững, người học không nhất thiết phải theo thứ tự trong sách, mà có thể chọn bất kỳ unit nào người học mong muốn hoặc hứng thú.

Người học cần làm phần “stop & check” để kiểm tra kiến thức hiện tại trước khi bắt đầu học phần lý thuyết.

Người học cần đọc kỹ phần lý thuyết và ví dụ để hiểu rõ hơn về bài học. Tác giả khuyến khích người học nên dành khoảng 15-20 phút để đọc kĩ lưỡng và cố gắng nhớ những điểm chính, lưu ý.

Sau khi đọc kỹ phần lí thuyết, người học nên làm bài tập để củng cố thêm về kiến thức vừa được tiếp thu.

Đánh giá

Điểm mạnh

Use of English – First Certificate skills – Mark Harrison là một cuốn sách tổng hợp khá đầy đủ về ngữ pháp. Hầu như các chủ điểm ngữ pháp trong tiếng Anh đều được cung cấp.

Bài tập đa dạng thể loại và theo sát form đề FCE. Người dùng có thể làm quen được với format của đề thi.

Một điểm sáng của cuốn sách là phần “Stop & check”. Bằng việc tự kiểm tra trước khi vào bài học, người học có thể tự kiểm tra được lượng kiến thức hiện tại và đôi chút hình thành ý niệm về chủ điểm ngữ pháp đó.

Các ví dụ đưa ra trong phần lý thuyết khá đơn giản, dễ hiểu và trực quan, giúp người đọc nắm kỹ hơn về mặt lý thuyết. Đa phần các ví dụ đều được lấy từ ngữ cảnh đời thường nên gần gũi với người đọc.

Phần chú giải rất chi tiết và kĩ lưỡng. Phần chú giải được chia ra theo từng unit và chia thành hai cột, một cột là các từ vựng quan trọng xuất hiện trong unit, cột còn lại là diễn giải nghĩa một cách ngắn gọn nhất. Người dùng có thể sử dụng tách riêng phần chú giải này để tự ôn tập từ vựng sau khi học xong.

Điểm yếu

Lượng kiến thức trải dài và rất nhiều cho nên khối lượng bài tập cho mỗi lượng kiến thức chỉ có một bài (tầm 10 – 15 câu) nên người học có thể chưa được trải nghiệm đầy đủ và chuyên sâu về một mặt ngữ pháp nào đó.

Tổng kết

Use of English – First Certificate skills – Mark Harrison là một cuốn sách học về ngữ pháp và từ vựng ở mức độ trung cấp – theo chuẩn cấp độ B2 trong thang ngôn ngữ 6 bậc châu Âu (CEFR). Các kiến thức trong cuốn sách được truyền tải rõ ràng, bao quát và dễ hiểu. Tuy vẫn còn một số nhược điểm nhỏ như khối lượng bài tập khá nhiều nhưng chưa thực sự chuyên sâu, cuốn sách này vẫn có thể là một lựa chọn đáng để cân nhắc cho người học với nhu cầu học và ôn tập ngữ pháp và từ vựng ở trình độ trung cấp.

Nguyễn Lê Gia Khánh

Tài Liệu Ôn Tập Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh / 2023

1. English Grammar in Use (Raymond Murphy)

Có lẽ không phải nói quá nhiều về cuốn sách này. “English Grammar in Use” là một trong những tài liệu học ngữ pháp tiếng Anh phổ biến nhất, đặc biệt cho người mới bắt đầu hoặc ở trình độ sơ cấp.

Sách bao gồm 145 chủ điểm ngữ pháp, được chia thành 16 nội dung chính, bao gồm:

Thì hiện tại và quá khứ ( Chủ điểm từ 1 – 6)

Hiện tại hoàn thành và quá khứ hoàn thành ( Chủ điểm 7- 18)

Thì tương lai ( Chủ điểm 19 – 25)

Động từ khuyết thiếu ( Chủ điểm 26 – 37)

Câu điều kiện và câu ước ( Chủ điểm 38 – 41)

Câu bị động ( Chủ điểm 42 – 46)

Câu gián tiếp ( Chủ điểm 47 – 48)

Trợ động từ và động từ để hỏi ( Chủ điểm 49 – 52)

Ving và To-V ( Chủ điểm 53 – 68)

Mạo từ và danh từ ( 69 – 81)

Đại từ và từ hạn định ( Chủ điểm 82 – 91)

Mệnh đề quan hệ ( Chủ điểm 92 – 97)

Tính từ và trạng từ ( Chủ điểm 98 – 112)

Liên từ và giới từ ( Chủ điểm 113 – 120)

Giới từ (Chủ điểm 121 – 136)

Phrasal verbs ( Chủ điểm 137 – 145)

2. Cambridge Grammar for IELTS

Cuốn sách được xuất bản bởi Đại học Cambridge, với nội dung bao trùm gần hết các kiến thức ngữ pháp cơ bản trong tiếng Anh. Sách bao gồm 25 bài học với 25 chủ điểm khác nhau. Tuy nhiên, mỗi unit đều được xây dựng theo cấu trúc:

Context Listening: ở phần này, bạn sẽ được thực hành với nhiều dạng câu hỏi nghe (điền từ, trả lời câu hỏi, T/F/NG, …). Các kiến thức ngữ pháp đồng thời sẽ được đan cài trong từng câu hỏi để người dùng có thể ôn tập thêm.

Grammar: Đây là nội dung chính và cũng là phần quan trọng nhất trong cuốn sách. Các kiến thức ngữ pháp sẽ được đề cập, phân tích cụ thể đi kèm theo cấu trúc hay công thức sử dụng và ví dụ các trường hợp được áp dụng. Các chủ điểm ngữ pháp được phân tách rõ ràng nên bạn hoàn toàn có thể lựa chọn các nội dung phù hợp để ôn tập.

Test practice: cuối mỗi bài học là bài kiểm tra kết thúc, giúp bạn tổng hợp lại những nội dung vừa được thực hành trong mỗi chương. Điểm số của bài kiểm tra này cũng thể hiện rằng bạn đã thực sự nắm vững ngữ pháp hay chưa.

3. Collins Grammar for IELTS

Cuốn sách này nằm trong bộ sách “Collins for IELTS” của tác giả Collins – tập trung vào các đối tượng ở trình độ trung cấp. Sách được thiết kế thành 5 phần nhỏ:

Các bài học chính: ở đây, nội dung mỗi bài học được thành 3 phần nhỏ hơn bao gồm: Ngữ pháp chính, Bài tập thực hành, Bài kiểm tra.

Các tips làm bài thi IELTS

Phần transcript của file nghe

Phần đáp án cho các câu hỏi và bài tập

Tổng kết ngữ pháp

Cuốn sách của Collins phù hợp với các bạn ở trình độ trung cấp, đã có vốn tiếng Anh nhất định và mong muốn cải thiện, nâng cao thêm các kiến thức ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cũng như IELTS.

4. Học ngữ pháp tiếng Anh với cuốn “Destination Grammar & Vocabulary”

Bạn có thể sử dụng cuốn sách này trong giai đoạn đầu – củng cố các kiến thức nền tảng (ngữ pháp, phát âm, từ vựng).

Trọn Bộ Tài Liệu Tiếng Anh Cambridge English Preliminary Luyện Thi Chứng Chỉ Pet 1 / 2023

Cambrige English Preliminary (PET) là chứng chỉ tiếng anh ở trình độ trung cấp, tương ứng với bậc B1 theo khung đánh giá Cộng đồng chung Châu Âu (CEFR) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

Giáo trình PET được biên soạn nhằm nâng cao tính độc lập của người học, cung cấp tất cả cá công cụ cần thiết để chuẩn bị tốt cho ki thi, lấp chứng chỉ B1.

Pass giải nén nếu có là chúng tôi

Xem HƯỚNG DẪN DOWNLOAD TÀI LIỆU

Preliminary English Test 1 (PET 1)

Download Preliminary English Test 1 – book

Download Preliminary English Test 1 – CD

Preliminary English Test 2

Download Preliminary English Test 2 – book

Download Preliminary English Test 2 – CD

Preliminary English Test 3

Download Preliminary English Test 3 – book

Download Preliminary English Test 3 – CD

Preliminary English Test 4

Download Preliminary English Test 4 – book

Download Preliminary English Test 4 – CD

Preliminary English Test 5

Download Preliminary English Test 5 – book

Download Preliminary English Test 5 – CD

Preliminary English Test 6

Download Preliminary English Test 6 – book

Download Preliminary English Test 6 – CD

Preliminary English Test 7

Download Preliminary English Test 7 – book

Preliminary English Test 8

Download Preliminary English Test 8 – book

Download Preliminary English Test 8 – CD 1

Download Preliminary English Test 8 – CD 2

Xem Tài liệu học thi PET – Nhiều bộ sách luyện thi PET hay 

Xem Bộ đề luyện thi PET mới – Succeed in Cambridge PET – 10 Practice Tests

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi PET – Exam Booster For Preliminary 2017

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi PET – Insight into Pet luyện thi B1

Xem Destination B1 (Grammar and Vocabulary) with answer key thi B1

Xem Check Your Vocabulary for Pet and Pet Vocabulary List

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi PET – PET Testbuilder with Answer Key

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi PET – đề thi mẫu mới PET bản 2020

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi PET – PET Result luyện thi B1

Mời các bạn xem các tài liệu tiếng Anh hay khác

Xem đề thi mẫu Cambridge starters_movers_flyers bản mới nhất 2018

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi Starters – Cambridge tests for staters 1-9

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi Movers – Cambridge tests for Movers 1-9

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi Flyers – Cambridge tests for Flyers 1-9

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi KET – Key English Test 1-8

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi FCE – First Certificate in English 1-7

Xem Tài liệu luyện thi IELTS – Cambridge Practice Test for IELTS 1-13

Xem Toefl Primary Step 1 dành cho học sinh tiểu học

Use Of English B2 For All Exames Tb Ocr Mcr / 2023

teacher’s book E. MOUTSOU Use English for all exams QQQQ m m publications Use of English B2 for all exams E. M outsou Published by: MM Publications www.mmpublications.com [email protected] Offices Great Britain – Greece – Poland – France – Cyprus – U.S.A. – Turkey Associated companies and representatives throughout the world. Copyright © 2009 MM Publications All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the publishers. Produced in the EU C 1 103001307-5240 C 1103002007-5239 ISBN: 978-960-443-928-7 Teacher’s Edition ISBN: 978-960-443-929-4 Use of English B2 for the FCE Examination and other exams is intended fo r B2 level students. It system atically eaches gram m ar and vocabulary and prepares students th o ro u g h ly fo r all exams. ” i e FCE Use of English Paper contains fo u r parts and lasts 45 m inutes. The task types and the num ber of questions in each part are presented in the fo llo w in g table. PART TASK TYPE NUMBER OF QUESTIONS/MARKS 1 Multiple-choice cloze 12 (one mark per question) 2 Open cloze 12 (one mark per question) 3 Word formation 10 (one mark per question) 4 Key word transformation 8 (two marks per question) This book is d iv id e d in to 15 units, fo llo w e d by a Final FCE Test and a Final ECCE Test. ~ne v o c a b u la ry and g ra m m a r ta u g h t has been d is trib u te d in 12 u n its (U nits 1-4, 6-9 and 11-14), each o f w hich is divid e d in to tw o sections. In th e firs t section, in u n its 1,3, 6, 8,11,13 th e re is a se le ctio n o f c o llo c a tio n s and expressions, w h ile in u n its 2 ,4 , 7,9,12,14 th e re is a se le ctio n o f p re p o sitio n a l phrases. Phrasal verbs, w ords ith prepo sition s, g ra m m a tic a l s tru c tu re s and key w o rd tra n s fo rm a tio n s are presented and practised in all 12 -n its . This section ends w ith tw o exercises w h ich are s im ila r in fo rm a t to tasks in th e FCE Use o f English paper and ECCE G ram m ar and V o ca b u la ry sections, b u t w h ich te s t o n ly th e item s ta u g h t in th e co rre s p o n d in g unit. In the second section, a n u m b e r o f g ro u p s o f easily confused w o rd s and d e riv a tiv e s are presented and practised, fo llo w e d by tw o exercises w h ich te s t o n ly th e item s ta u g h t in th e c o rre sp o n d in g unit. Units 5,10 and 15 are c o n s o lid a tio n u n its w h ich revise th e m a terial p re v io u s ly ta u g h t. Each o f th e m is a c tu a lly a co m p le te Use o f English Practice Test fo llo w in g th e exact fo rm a t o f th e FCE/ECCE exam ination s, b u t te s tin g o n ly th e item s ta u g h t in th e fo u r u n its pre ced in g it. The Final FCE Test and Final ECCE Test are m o de lled on th e C a m bridge Use o f English Paper and on the G ram m ar and V o ca b u la ry se ction s o f th e U n iv e rs ity o f M ichigan E xam ination fo r th e ECCE. The reference se ction at th e end o f th e b oo k in cludes an o v e rv ie w o f English Gram m ar, v o c a b u la ry notes w ith d e fin itio n s o f easily con fuse d w ords, exam tip s and th re e appendices. These appen dices a lp h a b e tica lly present p re p o s itio n a l phrases, w ords w ith p re p o sitio n s and d e rivatives. The Teacher’s Book consists o f tw o sections. The firs t se ctio n is th e S tudent’s Book w ith th e answers o ve rp rin te d . The second se ctio n inclu de s notes fo r th e te a ch e r and th re e p h o to c o p ia b le Revision Tests w ith Key. U N IT 1 p. 6 UNIT 2 p. 16 UNIT 3 p. 26 UNIT 4 p. 36 UNIT 5 p, 4 6 Section 1 Section 2 Collocations with go, come, reach, get Collocations of the type noun+of+noun Phrasal verbs with come, go and be Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Tenses Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of work and employment) Introduction to Derivatives Prepositional phrases of tim e and place Phrasal verbs with get, pull and throw Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Relative Clauses-Clauses of Time Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of time and viewing) Adjectives in -ful, -less and nouns in -ship deriving from noun roots Expressions with day, year and time Collocations w ith hold, run, catch and keep Phrasal verbs with look, check, watch and show Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Adverbs-ComparisonsArticles-Uncountables Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of people and education) nouns in -hood deriving from noun roots Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with keep, hold, catch, carry, wear, work and move Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Determiners-Pronouns Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of travel and tourism) Adjectives in -ic, -ical, verbs in -ise and nouns in -ist, -ian, -dom deriving from noun roots Consolidation I (Units 1-4) UNIT 6 P.so Collocations with do and make Collocations with break, change, cut, turn and draw Adverbial expressions Phrasal verbs with make, do, grow, pass, fill and leave Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Infinitive /-ing form Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of money) Common negative prefixes UNIT 7 p. 60 Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous), linking phrases Phrasal verbs with break, burn, cut and turn Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Modal Verbs Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of thinking) Verbs in -en and nouns in -ness, -nee, -ncy, -cy deriving from adjective roots UNIT 8 p. 70 UNIT 9 P.so Collocations with leave, put, set, shake, miss and lose Collocations/Expressions with way Sentence linkers Phrasal verbs with put, lay, set, settle Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Passive Voice Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with mix, run, hang, fall, hurry and try Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Pronouns-Causative Form Words easily confused (mainly related to the topic of communication) Verbs in -ise and nouns in -ity, -hood deriving from adjective roots Words easily confused (miscellaneous) verbs Section 1 UNIT 10 p. 90 Section 2 Consolidation II (Units 6-9) UNIT 11 p.94 Collocations with follow, have, take, give, pay, bring and mind Phrasal verbs with take, close, knock, clean, clear and drop Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of crime and punishment) Adjectives in -able, -ible, -ent, -ant and nouns in -ery, -ence, -ance, -ant deriving from verb roots UNIT 12 p.104 Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with bring, give, hand, burst and blow Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Conditionals Words easily confused (mainly related to the topics of health and illness) Nouns in -ion, -ation, adjectives in -ive, -ative and nouns in -al deriving from verb roots UNIT 13 p.114 Adjective + Noun Collocations Collocations with say and tell Idiomatic expressions with all Phrasal verbs with lie, stand, sit, save, dress, pay, end, point, lock and let Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Unreal Past UNIT 14 p.124 Prepositional phrases (miscellaneous) Phrasal verbs with call, speak, tell and count Words with prepositions (miscellaneous) Grammar Review: Reported Speech UNIT 15 p. 134 Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Nouns in -ment, -ure, -er, or and -ee deriving from verb roots Words easily confused (miscellaneous) Irregular Derivatives Adjectives and nouns deriving from the name of a country or continent Adverbs and pronouns ending in -body, -one, -thing, -where, -how, -ever and -self Consolidation III (Units 11-14) Final FCE Test ……………………………………………………………………138 Final ECCE Test ……………………………………………………………………142 Grammar R e v ie w ……….. ……………………………………………………………………147 Vocabulary N o t e s ………. ………………………………………………………….165 Exam T i p s …………………… …………………………………………………………………… 171 Appendix I: Prepositional P h ra se s………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 173 Appendix II: Words with Prepositions……………………………………. …………………………………………………………………… 174 Appendix III: Derivatives……………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 176 Teacher’s Notes ……………… ………………………………………………………….185 Revision Test 1 ……………….. ………………………………………………………… 186 Revision Test I I ……………….. ………………………………………………………………….. 190 Revision Test III ………………. ………………………………………………………… 194 Key to Tests …………………… ………………………………………………………… 198 Collocations/Expressions A Complete the blanks with the verbs go, come, reach or get. get go/get better reach a decision come to sleep get revenge get on sb’s nerves get rid of go red get off sb’s back reach an agreement get down to business to terms with get ready get into trouble get the sack get lost go over the top get dark come in handy get the job get even with B Complete the sentences with the collocations / expressions in the box below. Use each one only once. in somebody’s shoes on top of in charge of 1 Mr Johnson is in search of on the safe side in charge of in trouble with ____the company’s marketing department. the Tax Department. on the safe side 3 The doctor insisted that I should be given a thorough check-up just to be __ their lost dog. on top of 6 After weeks of hard work, Kevin was confident he was finally C the situation. Complete the collocations belo w with the w ords in the box. You may use some of the w ords more than once. In some cases more than one w ord may be correct. bar bunch can clap flash pair of pyjamas sheet flash of lightning bar of beer pair a pint/can a set a bunch flock pair pint set sheet swarm tube pair of scissors flock of sheep of sunglasses set of rules claP of thunder of paper .o f soap of traffic lights flock of birds of flowers tube of toothpaste swarm of bees Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct num ber in the box next to each definition. A COME 1 While cleaning the basement, I came across something I thought I had lost years ago. 2 Joe cam e into a lot of money, which changed his life completely. 3 Why doesn’t Julie come round to our place anymore? 4 The scientists took months to come up with a solution to their problem. 3 stop by, visit 2 inherit 1 find by chance 6 regain consciousness 5 betaken ill with 5 Richard came down with a bad cold the day before his exams. 6 It took the woman a few minutes tocom e round/to after she had fainted. 4 think of and suggest unit 0 1 B GO move / travel around, visit 1 They decided to go ahead w ith th e ir trip despite the bad w eather conditions. match 2 Once you have finished cleaning, you can g o o n w ith your job. explode 3 The d octo r w anted to go over the test results w ith his patient. start sth 4 That tie goeswith yo ur suit nicely. C 5 Luckily no one was injured when the bom b went off. continue doing 6 W hile visiting Rome, we went round all the m ajor archaeological sites. turn sour, start to decay 7 The child went through a lot before recovering com pletely. examine / discuss in detail 8 The m ilk went off a fte r o nly an hour in the scorching heat. suffer 9 W hat’s going on in there? Open the door! happen BE 1 What’s on this weekend at the theatre? 2 We were prom ised th a t the hard tim es w ould be over soon. 3 I was about to leave home when some unexpected visitors arrived. 4 I’m for the mayor’s plan to relocate the tow n hall. 5 What are the boys up to? Don’t tell me th e y’re ruining the garden again! 6 I m ust be off now. My parents are expecting me fo r dinner. Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives excellent at experienced happv in for h a o D V w ith /a b o u t D ro u d responsible Verbs an answer associate an exDert (take)D ride s th a reDlv a reDort for cooperate t0 deal on w ith on sth sb w ith include an o p p o rtu n ity sth on conaratulate sb in praise sb w ith concentrate o n /in /a t sb °f respected Nouns ‘n w ith sth provide sth fo r sb succeed in supply sb w ith sth to sb supply sth G Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. for 2 I would be m ore than happy to provide you 3 We supply all m ajor com panies 4 She takes great pride with in our products. of for the homeless. yourself. W hat you did was w rong! 7 The governm ent supplied food and m edicine 8 The jo u rn a list was praised our com pany’s catalogue. her work. That’s w hy she’s the best in her field. 5 The governm ent w ill provide housing 6 You shouldn’t be proud you and yo ur wife. with for his report to the victim s of the hurricane. on sth provide sb fo r 1 C ongratulations Rodney! I’m so happy fo r the starving children o f Africa. unit 0 1 Grammar Revision (Tenses) See Grammar Review page 147 ^ Read the text below and complete each blank with one word. All missing words are auxiliary verbs (is, was, have, has, had, do, does, did etc.). g ettin g ready to apply fo r another job when one day my boss called me into her office. “Our com pany needing some of o ur best em ployees to su pp ort o ur new you th in k you w ould be interested in a transfer?” N aturally I accepted, although at did the tim e I (9) __________ th in kin g of starting to assistant manager. been By the end of this m onth, I w ill have (11) living in M adrid fo r a year. You can’t im agine how become. B Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple, Past Progressive, Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive and complete the boxes with the time words below. Use each time word only once. fo r While when was having ago already since _ (have) a bath yesterday evening, I was in the kitchen. Mum. I ° iafen lo oking I (look) for m y black belt haven’t found seen for the past hour and Have (not fin d) i t . . ________ you (see) it anywhere? Mother: No, but I th in k you Jim: still When Jim: yet Mary was cooking 2 w hile Oh, you’re rig ht. He hasn’t ciyen/didrrc give (n ot g (ve) jt back to me. I bet he ago nas been wearing (wear) it all week. Where is he now, Mum? 3 | have been w orking I haven’t finished has left already .(ge t) up about an hour before you . (work) on this project (not finish) it did .(leave). . (do). this m orning but yet . What am I going to tell m y boss? & M y sister loves cats. / She loves cats. / She has gone to Italy. (She is still there.) She has been to Italy. (She has returned.) M y s is t e r s h e lo v e s c a t s . I bought this bike tw o years ago. / (Only one subject in each sentence.) (Past Simple + ago) I-h a v e & o u g h tth is bike -two y ears ago. It is Susan’s. I b o u g h tth is b tk e tw o y e a r s b e fo r e . (Use there when m entioning sth fo r the firs t time. I have had this bike for tw o years. / Use it fo r sth already mentioned.) (Present P erfect+for) Ib a v eth i-sb ik e-lo rtw o y ear-s.— – T h ey haven’t got a car. / I have had this bike since 1998. / (have got = own) (Present Perfect + since + time) I have had this bike since I w as sixteen. / They haven’t a car. (Present Perfect + since + Past Simple) ® H e has a bath e v e ry morning. / (have = take) H e doesn’t have a bath e v e ry m orning. J H e has- got a bath e v e ry moTning. (Only one tim e word in each sentence.) I haven’t studied for a w eek , (refers to the past: The last time I studied w as a week ago.) ® Jam es didn’t use to sm oke so m uch. / I have to study for a week, (refers to the future: I Jam es didn’t used to s m o k e s o m u e h . must study fo ra week before I do sth else.) (did/didn’t + bare infinitive) & I do speak French. / I have-had this-bike since two years ago. » I haven’t eaten spaghetti for six months. / (emphasis) Ihavetoeatspaghettiforsixm onths-. He does eat snails. / T h e y did bu y a house. / W e did saw the thief. (do/does/did + bare infinitive) Key Transformations I h ave n ever b e e n to M alta before. It is the first tim e I h ave ever b e e n to Malta. & The last tim e I sa w h er w a s a y e a r ago. I last sa w h er a y e a r ago. I h aven ’t seen h er for a year. I h a d n ever b e e n to M alta before. It w a s the first tim e I h a d e v e r b e e n to Malta. W h e n did he start working? H o w long has h e b e e n working? H o w long is it since he started working? It has b e e n a y e a r since I last sa w her. It is a y ear since I last sa w her. unit 0 1 Examination Practice A Read the text belo w and think of the w ord which best fits each space. Use only one w ord in each space. MONGY w hat There is no d ou bt th a t money, in the form th a t we know it today, (1). keeps m odern econom ic life fu nctio nin g. Yet, th ro u g h o u t history, money, in w hatever form , has provided the barter system as a way of exchanging goods. W ithin this system a person had to exchange one thing tobacco and livestock have all been used as m oney at one tim e or another. It was not until much later easier to handle and carry around. Since then, the use of coins has become widespread. It has made done business w ith before. In recent years, paper m oney has become m ore com m on all over the w orld, as it is easier to use. It __________ not be long, however, before plastic cards take over com pletely, replacing coins and paper money. 6 Complete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar m eaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the w ord given. 1 We last w ent abroad a long tim e ago. not yye have not been abroad for a long tim e. When did they sta rt living in the suburbs? have How long have they been living in the suburbs? It’s the firs t tim e she has ever had problem s w ith the authorities. trouble 4 w ith the a uth orities before. . a holiday camp every summer. A fter the earthquake, the governm ent supplied food and m edicine to the homeless, provided 6 has never had trouble When Carl was young, he w ent to a holiday camp every summer, used 5 She Lucy hasn’t visited me since February. was How long has he had this car? bought 8 is it since he bought this car? I haven’t caught a cold fo r ages, down came down with a cold ages ago. .fo o d and m edicine. unit 0 1 Words easily confused Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may use some of the words more than once. In some cases, more than one word may be correct. job occupation w ork e m ploym ent w ork long hours. – __since January. 5 I was asked to w rite m y present B as a com puter analyst, you need a degree in com puter science. work profession task course d uty task 1 They were set the duty o f cleaning the room after the m eeting. ______ to make the patients feel com fortable. em ployer em ployee assistant 1 The shop 2 The car park colleague assistant clerk o ffice r attendant ___ helped me choose a ju m p e r th a t suited me. 3 All at university. insists on it. fo r a law firm before entering politics. officer 6 Bob is a senior D p arty crew staff staff 2 The teaching party 3 The search _ crew 4 The s h ip ‘s __ aim goal in the arm ed forces. intention party gave a speech in the tow n centre last night. at our school have form ed a basketball team. _ had no luck in fin ding the m issing child, served drinks as the ship set sail. challenge challenge success a m b ition and to ok me over an hour to solve. unit 0 1 am bition 3 People w ith success 4 Their firs t album was a great intention 5 I have no achieve and sold tw o m illion copies w orldw ide. of changing my plans fo r to nig ht. cope fu lfil goals w ill always try to achieve th eir deal face succeed facing 4 The Johnstons are financial d iffic u ltie s after Mrs Johnston lost her job. 5 Kim put a lot of w ork into her project and manage run operate achieved dealt excellent results. w ith students from d iffe re n t backgrounds. undertake 4 The com pany is H skills qualities qualifica tion s experience 1 To get the job you m ust have three years’ experience qualifications 2 Leadership in telecom m unications and the necessary ., one o f w hich is a university degree. qualities __ are required by a Prime Minister, as well as c o m m u n ic a tio n . skills A in bold type? unit 0 1 Each part of speech has a d ifferen t fu n ctio n in the sentence. n u m describe actions, events, feelings or situations. (e.g. The tw o patterns differ from each other.) refer to people, animals, things, actions, situations or ideas. (e.g. There is a difference between the tw o patterns.) JECTIVES2 describe the qualities o f nouns. (e.g. This pattern is different from th a t one.) VERBS (e.g. The tw o patterns have been differently designed.) A lot of English words can be used as roots fo r the fo rm a tion of other words, w hich are called derivatives. careful 4 ca re fully te rrib le 4 te rrib ly d iffe re n t 4 d iffe re n tly B Choose the correct word A, B or C to complete the following sentences. A a ttra ctive ly B a ttractive (c )a ttra c tio n A anger (BJangry C a ngrily A safe B safety (c )s a fe ly A difference B d iffe re n tly C d iffe re n t A) photographer B p ho tography C photographic A a c tiv ity B acting ( ^ a c t iv e A success (B )succe ssfully C successful C Read the sentences below and decide what part of speech is missing. Then, complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. 1 I love sitting on my new sofa. It’s so (Part of speech: 2 She chose light-coloured fu rn itu re to (Part o f speech: COMFORT up her dull flat. 3 It’s ce rta inly (Part of speech: 4 August is a (Part of speech: __ everyone is away on holiday. adjective adjective ) peaceful m onth in our city, as DANGER PEACE unit O f robber noun 5 The (Part o f speech: _ held up the bank and ROB stole £ 20 0 0 0 0 . noun 6 N obody could find the (Part o f speech:. solution to the SOLVE d iffic u lt Maths problem . 7 happily 8 adverb Even th ough they had financial d ifficulties, they were (Part o f speech:. HAPPY ___ m arried. sleepy ) today. I th in k I’ll have SLEEP some coffee. Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A , B, C or D best fits each space. F IN D IN G EMPLOYMENT job My firs t (1)^ assistant was as a sales (2)_ at I w anted to w ork part-tim e, because I was still studying (3). at a large d epartm ent store. ___u niversity and I was only across I came (5). newspaper. I rem em ber the intervie w as though (6 ) m anager sat behind a large desk. He asked me various questions w hich surprised me because all I w anted was to w ork in sales. An hour later, I was told th a t I had g ot the jo b and was given a co ntract to go (7 ) to ok m y post. Also, as a m em ber of (8). s ta ff I was e ntitled to some benefits, including discounts. When I eventually started, I was responsible (9)_ for the to y section. I really enjoyed it there and I loved dem onstrating the d iffe re n t toys. I was surprised at how frie n d ly m y (10) _ ( 12) . forget. got colleagues custom ers who on our nerves. On the whole, w orking there was a great experience which I w ill never 1 A occupation B job C w ork 2 A employee B attendant C o ffice r 3 A in B on 4 A excellent B able C proud D experienced 5 A across B into C on D round B 1 C th a t D there 6 ( A ) it (» a t D em ploym ent ( d) assistant D fo r 7 A on B over C ahead D w ith 8 (f i) staff B crew C team D party 9 A of B at C w ith D fo r 10 A assistants B staff 11 A control 12 A came ( C) colleagues (JB) deal w ith B w ent C manage © got D em ployees D cooperate D were Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. AN UNUSUAL OUTING SUGGEST AMUSE FAVOUR NOISE NORMAL LUCK HELP later am ongst a crowd. Apparently, Alex had seen a fam ous basketball player and APOLOGY ANGER DECIDE Prepositional Phrases A Com plete the blanks with the prepositions in, on or at. on a farm on the right/left in prison in a queue at work in the North at/°n the back of at school in town at 17 W alkley Road at the door in the suburbs at university on the outskirts in the m ountains in rows/a row in the country on an island at in/on Park Avenue B Read the sentences and com plete them with the prepositions in, on or at. 1 My brother is working part-time the corner of the room. 2 There is a TV set 3 Jam es sits 4 They went on a boat ride 5 Hom eless people sleep 6 He had to stay 7 My girlfriend is waiting for me 8 The robbers parked their car C in the front of the class. at the river. on the streets of most m ajor cities. in/ ° n in hospital for a w eek after his operation. front of the bank. in Read the sentences and com plete them with the prepositions in, A tattoo is 3 Kick-off is in tw enty m inutes, so ln for out on/for my birthday, but now I’ve changed my mind. the beginning of the book. at now on, no one is allowed to enter the school building during the lunch break. I haven’t seen Michael aaes. so I’m going to visit him for 9 It’s a pity I have to remain indoors 10 I can ’t talk to you at at such a nice day. on the moment. Ring me back 11 It’s difficult to see the moon in the sky by day. 12 I’m really worried about Sam. He should have been here MB& the very latest. of date. 6 You should read the introduction 8 at the meantime, do your warm-up exercises. in the beginning, I didn’t want to have a party 5 Typew riters are already From Tuesday on on, at, by, for, from or out. life. So, think carefully before deciding on having one done. 2 7 the corner. at/on 1 You can hand in your assignm ents 4 the hospital. at by now. the weekend. unit 0 2 Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by w riting the correct number in the box next to each definition. A GET Joe was a fussy person and difficult to get on / along with. 2 The police surrounded the building, making it difficult for the criminals to get away. 3 He always gets away with his bad behaviour. 4 A large percentage of the population get by on very little money. 5 It took Betty months to get over her father’s death. 1 2 escape 5 overcome 4 manage to live 1 have a good relationship 3 avoid being punished B PULL, THROW 1 The authorities declared the building unsafe and had it pulled down immediately. 2 A strange rattling noise forced the driver to pull over onto the hard shoulder. 3 It was time I threw out / away my old trainers. They were torn. 3 get rid of sth unwanted 1 demolish 2 move closer to the side of the road and stop (for vehicles) Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives a m a zed Nouns at/by Verbs a d e scrip tio n of d istin a u ish betw een with carefu l with/of/about a fa ilu re in e x p e rim e n t cro w d ed a s e a rc h for q la n c e with fed up with ready for sa tisfied a so lu tio n hear to rem in d sb s th sb /sth (=have inform ation about) hear with from sb (=have n ew s from ) ioin reaard sb/sth of smile at/t0 SD ecia lise sta re in at as B Read the follo w in g sentences and com plete them with prepositions. 1 Must I always remind you 2 I haven’t heard 3 4 5 6 7 a b o u t/o f neecj t0 follow sb/sth (= see m sim ilar to sb/sth) vo te for/against in sth (=tell sb again to do sth) rem in d sb at about/of of/about the proper procedure? from Lisa for over two weeks now. The police released a description of the wanted man. The park was crowded w ith enthusiastic teenagers celebrating the end of the school year. your problem. “I’m a failure In some cultures staring unit0 2 8 Have you heard about the latest medical discovery? 9 A final search for evidence at the scene of the crim e proved fruitless. 10 You remind me of m yself when I was yo ur age. Grammar Revision (Relative Clauses – Clauses of Time) See G r a m m a r R e v ie w p a g e 148 A R ea d th e t e x t b e lo w a n d c o m p le te e a c h b la n k w it h o n e w o rd . A l l th e m is s in g w o r d s a re r e la tiv e p ro n o u n : o r a d v e rb s . as “Some Like it H ot”, “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” and “ Bus Stop”. Her film career ended tra g ica lly in 1962, B C h o o se A, B, C o r D to c o m p le te th e f o llo w in g s e n te n c e s . 1 A As soon as C§)As C During D Until A u ntil B w hile © b y the tim e D once A by the tim e (JB)the m om ent C w hile D just (^A) until B by C ju s t as D when A before B as soon as C after © s in c e A during © w h il e C ju s t as D once A by the tim e B the m om ent th a t © w henever D until A ju st as B until C w hile (D )a fte r © assoonas B since C u ntil D w hile A The m om ent th a t B As soon as © B y the tim e D Once he had checked it. & My brother, who j^fis a chemical engineer, works The room (which/that) he works in is small./ for a multinational company, (subject: who) The-foem-in w here he-works is-smaB.– Jennifer’s brother, who you met T-he-foem where he-works-in is-smalt. – at her party last week, is an engineer, (ob je ct: who) Tke-i©©in-in-that- fre-works-fe small.— » (Have o n ly one w ord fo r the subject o r the object o f P I have 3,000 stamps, some of which are valuable. / the relative clause.) (expressions o f q u a ntity+ w h o m /w h ich /w h ose ) Ann-’s father, that w e -meHastweekris-rtl-. -.. (That is n o t used in non -d efin ing relative clauses.) >When I grow up, I want to become a dentist. / Wherrf-will grow -u-pi-f-warrt-iaberomeadenttst:^ & The man with whom she is talking is her He said he would call as soon as he returned. / husband. / Iie-said-ii*.would^ail»aS’-se©H-a-ske-wouklretuFH, (preposition + w ho m /w h ich) (Never use will a nd would afte r tim e words) Theraan w ith who/tha»-3hetstaftcingTSiter-^ >I visited two museums while I was on holiday. / husbandrThe man (who(m)/that) she is talking with is her I visited two museums during my holiday. / husband. / Ivisite^frwe-m-Hsettms-dwingl-wasonh-olid-ay:- — (w h o /w h o m /w h ich /th a t + pre po sition s) (during + noun) & The room where he works is small. / The room in which he works is small. / Key Transformations & Students who wish to go on the day-trip should write their names on this list. She always watched TV after she did /had done her homework. Students wishing to go on the day-trip should write their names on this list. & I will sign the document when I read /have read it. I will sign the document after I read /have read it. @ She always did her homework first and then she I won’t sign the document before I read /have read watched TV. it. She never watched TV until she did /had done her I won’t sign the document until I read /have read it. homework. She never watched TV before doing / having done < q Andrew left after/before breakfast. her homework. Andrew left after/before having (had) breakfast. She would never watch TV before she did /had Andrew left after/before he (had) had breakfast. done her homework. She always watched TV after doing /having done her homework. unit 0 2 Examination Practice A Choose the correct answer. 1 The Smiths b u ilt a huge house on the o utskirts 6 The e le c tric ity w ill be reconnected when you pay o f the town. the bill. a. in Vb; on c. at d. to 2 Once th ey come a. came ( c jc o m e w e’ll ta lk to them about it. 4 ■■ From c. when you are paying d. during you pay b. w ill come on very little money. d. are com ing a. w ith Mrs Davidson’s nephew. c. w ho sittin g b. when you pay 7 There are people w ho manage to get 3 The man who is sitting jn the fro n t row is (a.) w ho is sittin g a. when you w ill pay b. w here is sitting a. in w here d. th a t sitting c. which now 0 n, yOU w on’t be allowed to use b. over c. round 8 The hotel (d )b y in which we stayed was perfect, ( b ) in which d. that 9 The students left as soon as they finished the test, (a ) as soon as your m obile phones at school!” the headm aster warned b. as c. w hile the students. a. By b. For c. At ( d. From “We visited the tow n c. the sleeves of th a t d )th e sleeves o f which where our grandfather grew up. are to o long, b. th a t the sleeves d. until 10 “What did you do on Saturday?” the sleeves 5 My gra nd m o th er knitted me a jum per of which a. w hich the sleeves by a. w hich b. that ( c ) w here d. when B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 Here’s the house w here I lived as a child. in 2 I don’t know w hat made her q u it her job. 3 Passengers w ishing to get up can do so a fte r the seat belt lig h t has gone off. who 4 He d id n ’t study enough fo r his exams, so he failed tw o of them. 5 He always checked his car tyres before setting o ff on a journey. until 6 I’ve read all o f Jane Austen’s novels and there were o nly a couple th a t I did n ’t enjoy. most 7 Dr W illiam s is a ca rd io log ist and has his surgery on the second floor. whose 8 Last week Phil to o k part in a spelling co m p etitio n and won firs t prize, in Phil won first prize in a spelling com petition (that/which) he took part in/in which he took part |ast week. unit0 2 .Vords easily confused . se th e c o rr e c t fo r m o f th e w o r d s in th e b o x e s to c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s in e a c h g ro u p A-G b e lo w . Y o u m a y . s e so m e o f th e w o r d s m o re th a n o n ce . In s o m e cases, m o re th a n o n e w o r d m a y b e c o rre c t. look see w atch notice regard stare glance observe 3 “h e students regarded/watched/observed the new teacher w ith curiosity. ■ ~ Before I bought the magazine, I glanced/looked th rough it quickly. glanced/looked find out invent at his watch and started running. He was late fo r school. discover detect explore investigate look for look up (do) research a tte m p t e ffo rt tria l experim ent unit 0 2 audience spectators view ers sightseers onlookers witnesses F m em orise rem ind recall recognise G view sight image vision scene on w hat we had seen. Derivatives are formed from noun roots, adjective roots and verb roots. In this unit we will deal with Adjective = Noun + -ful Noun Root Adjective = Noun + -less Describing a q uality or Having enough of th a t q uality or Not having th a t q u a lity or characteristic (often abstract nouns) characteristic characteristic care careful careless Adverbs Noun + -fully t Adverb = Noun + -lessly carelessly carefully hope, meaning, pain, p o w e r and use. d o u b t 4 d o u b tfu l 4 d o u b tfu lly – doubtless not both. beauty b e a u tifu l – begs&tess / b e a u tifu lly – b e ^ fig $ s ly – endless / e nitM T y – endlessly end In the same way: delightful, d utiful, grateful, aimless, effortless, heartless, homeless, nameless, pointless and shapeless. • The opposite of some adjectives in -ful is un + noun root + ful, not noun root + less. success 4 successful * unsuccessful skill 4 s k ilfu l t u n skilfu l tru th 4 tru th fu l * u n tru th fu l • Sometimes both adjective form s (noun root + less and un + noun root + ful) derive from the same noun. In such cases the tw o adjectives have d ifferen t meanings. The adjective form un + noun root + ful is the opposite o f the adjective in -ful. h e lp – } h e lp fu l (= sb who gives help) * u n h e lp fu l (= sb who doesn’t give help) helpless (= sb w ho needs help) • The opposite of some adjectives in -less is noun root + -y or noun root + -b le , not noun root + -ful. g u ilt guiltless g u ilty sense 4 senseless * sensible sleep -4 sleepless * sleepy value -4 valueless * valuable (note the changes in spelling) • Be careful w ith the m eaning of the adjectives derived from price. price -4 p rice y (=expensive) 4 priceless (= too valuable to have a p rice) Noun Root 1 Som ebody in a certain position / occupation author 2 Som ebody having a relationship w ith sb else friend Noun = Noun + -ship 1 State of being in certain position / occupation authorship 2 Relationship between tw o people friendship • Some com m on nouns th a t form nouns in the same way as a u th o r are: citizen, leader, m em ber and owner. • Some com m on nouns th a t form nouns in the same way as frie n d are: com panion, p a rtn e r and relation. • Some nouns form nouns in – ship w ith a d ifferen t m eaning: champion, scholar and sponsor. [ J I J J 3 When you are asked to com plete a sentence w ith a suitable w ord deriving from a given root, read the sentence carefully to decide: 1) w hat part o f speech the m issing w ord is (noun, verb, adjective or adverb), 2) if the missing w ord has the same m eaning as the given roo t (e.g. success-successful) or the opposite m eaning (e.g. success-unsuccessful). unit 0 2 C o m p lete th e sentences w ith th e c o rre c t fo rm of th e w o rd s in c ap itals. BEAUTY 2 PEACE _______ sponsorship_________ from a large company. SPONSOR colourful 5 I b ought a 6 I was fined because I was d riving 8 9 being HOME . dress but its colours faded after I washed it. 7 The directions you gave us were rather because I d id n ’t get enough sleep last night. __ w ith my cousin but it ended up HELP SLEEP PARTNER unsuccessful 10 The m usical perform ance was so COLOUR CARE ________unhelpful___________ as we still got lost. partnership CHAMPION SUCCESS powerful . th a t the audience gave POWER the orchestra a standing ovation. 11 The w itness’ statem ent d id n ’t help the police in the investigation, so it proved to VALUE GUILT to one m onth in prison. SUCCESS PAIN harmless 15 It’s ju st a . dog. There is no need to panic. HARM Examination Practice A R ead th e te x t b e lo w a n d d ec id e w h ic h a n s w e r A, B, C o r D best fits e ach space. A NIGHT AT THE THEATRE . me of m y very firs t perform ance on the party after the opening n ig h t are m em ories which w ill rem ain w ith me fo r (4) _ life I don’t know how we m anaged to do so well. The rehearsals were far from satisfactory because we th o u g h t th a t d id n ’t even w ant to show up on the firs t night. Adm ittedly, I w o u ld n ’t have wanted to either. glancing (12) _ sight . of a fu ll house. Finally, it was tim e fo r the curta in to go up. In the end, we proved the d irector w rong and everythin g w ent like clockw ork. unit 0 2 C recalls D m em orises B when C w here D w ho A onlookers’ B view ers’ C audience’s D spectators’ 4 A life B ages C a w hile D tim e 5 A where B when C which D w henever 6 A images B visions C scenes D sights 7 A attem pts B efforts C trials D tries 8 A by B in C at 9 A When B After C While D Until B noticing C staring D w atching C on D fo r 1 A recognises 2 A w hich 3 10 E :A )glancing 11 A in 12 A view (B )reminds © at B vision © s ig h t i D )w ith D image Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. FRIENDS FRIEND RELATION WONDER VALUE However, it is im p o rta n t to choose friends CARE THOUGHT Of course, there w ill be tim es w hen we m ig ht be DOUBT SENSE way and find a solution to our problems. Moreover, TRUTH W ithout honesty, the bond between friends is I m and when any d ifficu ltie s arise, hopefully be there fo r us. USE Collocations/expressions A The following expressions include the words day, year and time. Complete them with prepositions. ( DAY YEAR in day this day and aae by/after dav TIME all vear vear for round after at year this tim e o f the year V a period of tim e sb’s free tim e from tim e to tim e in for the firs t tim e have no tim e at the riq h t tim e take tim e no tim e f° r off B Complete the sentences with the collocations /expressions in the box below. the o the r day in tim e pass the tim e all day long call it a day ahead of its tim e at tim es tim e and tim e again on tim e fo r the tim e being 2 We’ll be g ettin g a new p rin te r next m onth. So, for the tim e being _we have to put up w ith this one. 8 He keeps m aking the same mistake tim e and tim e again C Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs hold, run, catch or keep. 7 o u r b re ath when the w inn er o f the co m p e titio n was being announced. w ork unit 0 3 ^ ________________ ________ ____________________ _______________ _ Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition. A LOOK 1 We looked after Ben’s house w hile he was on holiday. 7 have a poor opinion of 8 respect, admire 5 warn somebody about potential danger 1 take care of 2 expect sth pleasant to happen 3 investigate 4 inspect quickly 6 try to find in a book or list 3 be careful about 4 care for sb or sth, especially because it 2 We are all looking forward to the opening game o f the season. 3 The auth orities prom ised to look into the claims o f co rrup tion . 4 I looked over yo ur essay and can suggest some im provem ents. 5 Look out! The pavem ent is broken and you m ight trip. 5 Look up the m eaning of the w ord in the dictionary. 7 John looks down on people w ho aren’t as rich as he is. 3 Children often look up to sports heroes. B CHECK, WATCH, SHOW 1 We were told to check in at the a irp o rt as early as possible. 2 Guests are kindly rem inded to check out by 12 o’clock. is your responsibility 3 The to urists were told to watch out for pickpockets. 6 arrive, appear 4 The older children were told to watch over the younger ones. 1 report one’s arrival at a hotel/airport etc. 5 The man was showing off his new sports car to his friends. 2 pay the bill and leave (a hotel/clinic etc.) 6 Everybody showed up at the p arty on Saturday night. 5 try to make people notice and admire Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. familiar to sb (=well known) knowledae familiar with sb (=friendlv) a rise amused be familiar at/with/by astonished un)aware_ crazy, famous of fond to interested about delighted keen witl1 enthusiastic about t° r Dleased w ‘th for a taste of a taste in as a talent for ^or (= liking, preference) (=reaarded) of B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 Did vou know 2 Are you familiar about the surprise party? with __ the com pany’s no sm oking policy? 3 Do you like the taste. 4 He is feared by everyone in the area. He’s known 5 I’m really keen on as involve _ know (=flavour. to ty p ic a l fill sth _ with sth else in brief experience) by/with known of/about (feel) sympathy sth (=know well) on rude about with °f imoressed curious. excited by/at about cruel Verbs Nouns Adjectives ‘The Cleaner’. the idea of spending m y holiday on an island in the M editerranean. in about sth (=have knowledge of) unit 0 3 to 6 This village looks fam iliar. 7 A rise in me. Have we been here before? infla tion w ould have negative consequences fo r the c o u n try ’s economy. 8 I d id n ’t like olive oil but I’ve developed a taste for it now th a t I’m living in Spain. Grammar Revision (Adverbs – Comparisons – Articles – Uncountables) See Grammar Review page 150 ^ A Read the text below and complete each blank with one word. ______ successful fashion designers (2 )_____ of/in developed a personal style, which made him famous. He used bright colours and, over time, his clothes became more and same also paid the (10), . attention to his surroundings (11) _ lots clothes and spent (12) as he did to his ______ of m oney on art and expensive furniture. Versace’s fame, however, is just criticised him for using cheap materials. Nevertheless, he has to be seen as one of the most influential designers of his generation. B Choose A , B, C or D to complete the following dialogue. Jim: Have you made up your mind about where to go on holiday? Mike: I’ve narrowed down my choices to tw o (1) rather large countries, France and Mexico. What do you think? Jim: Well, France is one of (2) the largest countries in Europe. Did you know it’s tw ice (3 ) as big as the UK? Since you’ve got eight weeks off (4) — work, you could go on a cycling to u r of the country. Mike: I’d like to visit (5) the Alps and M ont Blanc, which is (6) higher than any other m ountain in Western Europe. I suppose I could also go on long walks in the country, as the clim ate there is sim ilar (7) to that in Britain. Jim: Really? I th ink it’s (8) much warmer. Especially on the Riviera, the Mediterranean in 1 (A ) rather B m ost C far w inte r is (9) the same tem perature as the 2 A larger B largest C the larger ( D ith e largest British coastal waters are in summer! I 3 A bigger than B as big as C so big as can really picture you, tanned and 4 A a B the C some relaxed, tasting delicious local specialities 5 A an B jth e C some D – (10) 6 (^ jh ig h e r B highest C the higher D the highest 7 A as B w ith © to D of 8 A more B m ost (‘C)m uch D quite 9 A the same B same 10 A such B as © lik e © fa r C the like Cam em bert cheese, froas’ legs and snails! Mike: Come on, that sounds disgusting! Jim: D too ADoarentlv. thev taste (11) far better than they sound. Mike: I don’t know. I’d rather go to Mexico and eat to rtillas and chilli every day! 11 A pre tty C sim ilar D as bigger than ® – D the sim ilar D so D more <9 Mary is the tallest girl in her class. / The train is cheaper than the plane. / 7he train is cheaper from the plane.—- (the+superlative, for several people /things) Both Mary and Sheila are tall, but Mary is the taller of the tw o./ Your story is funnier than mine. / Your story is more amusing than mine. / :out story ic more funnier than mine. – (the + comparative, for only two people / things) Both-Mary and Sheila are-tall, but Mary is the taUost of the two:—- Your house is as big as mine. / ioiir house is asbigger as mine. – © That’s my elder / eldest brother. / (as +positive degree + as) (only for brothers, sisters, sons, daughters) The children were too excited about the trip. That’s my older / oldest brother. / My brother is a year older than me. / (older + than) Myfarother-is-a year elder than-me (negative meaning – excessively) (no than after elder) The children were very excited about the trip. (positive meaning) Lisa is a very / pretty / rather careful driver. (a/an + very/pretty/rather +positive degree of ad] + noun) Lisa is quite a careful driver. © He spoke like a lawyer. / (= as if he were a lawyer; he isn’t) He spoke as a lawyer. / (= he is a lawyer) (quite + a/an +positive degree ofadj + noun) Lisa drives very / pretty / quite / rather carefully. Lisa is rather / much / a little / a bit / a lot / far more careful than Tim. / Lisa drives rather / much / a little / a bit / a lot / far more carefully than Tim. / © John gave me some important information. / Johagave me somo important informations. (Uncountable nouns have no plural forms.) John gave mo an important information. — John gave me an important piece of information. / (No a /an immediately before uncountable nouns.) © The news was really shocking. / T-he-nawswere reaHy-sheek-mg. (Uncountable nouns go with singular verbs.) Key Transformations 6 Fiona is taller than Gina. Gina is shorter than Fiona. Gina is not as tall as Fiona. © Andrew smokes more than John. John smokes less than Andrew. John does not smoke as much as Andrew. John is not such a heavy smoker as Andrew. John is not so/as heavy a smoker as Andrew. & This is the fastest car I have ever driven. I have never driven such a fast car. I have never driven a faster car than this (one). I have never driven a car as fast as this (one). None of the cars I have driven is/are faster than this (one). None of the cars I have driven is/are as fast as this (one). © She is the worst singer I know. She is / sings worse than any (other) singer I know. No other singer I know is as bad as her / she is. No other singer I know sings as badly as her / she does. © The atmosphere is becoming more polluted by the day. The atmosphere is becoming more and more polluted. © His behaviour is becoming more sensible as he gets older. The older he gets, the more sensible his behaviour becomes. The older he gets, the more sensibly he behaves. & He hasn’t got much furniture in his new flat. He has got very little furniture in his new flat. He has got very few pieces of furniture in his new flat. & George is not usually late. It is not typical of George to be late. It is not like George to be late. © Your bicycle looks exactly like mine. Your bicycle is exactly the same as mine. Your bicycle is identical to mine. unit 0 3 Examination Practice A Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. A TALENT FOR LYING Although we are all natural born liars, m ost o f us seem to take it fo r granted th a t lying (1 ) (2 ) five, we have not o nly become quite e fficie n t at lying, but we have also learnt how to read people’s reactions and act accordingly. B C o m p le te th e s e c o n d s e n te n c e so th a t i t h a s a s im ila r m e a n in g to th e f i r s t s e n te n c e , u s in g th e w o r d g iv e n u n c h a n g e d . Y o u m u s t u s e b e tw e e n tw o a n d fiv e w o rd s , in c lu d in g th e w o r d g iv e n . 1 Sarah is a better sw im m er than Jessica. sw im 2 Mark and Tony are equally tall. 3 Jane is more enthusiastic about sports than Brendan is. keen 4 The baby’s te m perature kept rising, so we to o k him to hospital. hospital. 5 Patrick doesn’t usually fo rg e t his appointm ents. like 6 As it g ot darker, we had m ore d iffic u lty seeing. 7 Daniel is the w orst cook I’ve ever known. co o k 8 I co uldn ’t find a bigger house in the area. th e 9 The child re n ’s perform ance made q uite an im pression on us. ra th e r 10 Jeremy doesn’t run as fast as Jonathan. so hjm t0 unit 0 3 .Vords easily confused the correct form of the w ords in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may : t ■e som e of the w ords more than once. In some cases, more than one w ord may be correct. arise raise rise arise : -o u ld the n e e d . 2 lift ‘~ie ch arity o rg a n is a tio n . in the East and sets in the West. 41 r * 6 ______ rise at seven every weekday to get ready fo r school. lift grow , 1i r …….■ , grow up , ________ we’ll order m ore food fo r the extra guests. ____ the table so that I can slide the rug underneath? bring up ……. ,n …………… …………………….. I, (be) born I-.nil, , ir 1ir- – r – r- . L- r , become ■ – ,- – ,- ,- – ^ 5 ^ ^ ^ ^ educate learn teach stu dy read in stru ct everything th a t was required fo r the exams. carefully. 11 behaviour a ttitu d e te m p er m ood m anner m anners unit 0 3 E fa m ilia r accustom ed aware r custom habit fashion trend routine G com m on 2 o rd in a ry usual norm al regular 4 H . eager keen enthusiastic interested w illin g 4 Billy is a(n) enthusiastic / keen tennis player, so he plays tennis every afternoon. unit 0 3 jTB Noun = Noun + – hood Noun Root These nouns describe the state o r period of being w hat Referring to a person the noun root refers to. adult boy adulthood boyhood • Some other com m on nouns th a t form nouns in the same way are: child, man, m other, p a re n t and woman. • Pay atte ntio n to the follow ing: n e ig h b o u r n eig h b o u rh o o d fate, intention, nation, nature, person, profession and tradition. • Note the changes in spelling: com m erce com m ercial 4 co m m ercially finance 4 financial 4 fin an cia lly p a rt 4 p a rtia l 4 p a rtia lly confidence 4 c o n fid e n tia l 4 c o n fid e n tia lly a rtifice 4 a rtific ia l 4 a rtific ia lly essence 4 essential 4 essentially b en efit 4 b eneficial 4 ben eficially Noun Root Adjective = Noun + – y Adverb = Noun + – ily luck lucky luckily and s/eep. • Pay atte ntio n to the fo llo w in g nouns th a t form only adjectives: cloud, dirt, hair, rain, risk, snow, sun, wealth and worth. • Note the changes in spelling: anger a ng ry a n g rily Noun Root h un g e r h u n g ry h u n g rily Adjective = Noun + – ous Having the quality or characteristic of the noun root Referring to a quality or characteristic danger dangerous poison. • Some nouns ending in -ion form adjectives in -ious: am b itio n 4 am bitious caution 4 cautious re lig io n 4 religio us in fe c tio n 4 infectio us • Note the fo llo w in g irregularities: anxiety anxious n um be r advantageous courage num erous p rice + precious courageous Noun Root day daily m on th 4 m onthly: His m o n th ly salary is fa r above the average, (adjective) Complete the sentences with the correct form of the w ords in capitals. fatal 1 Four people died in a icy .a ccide nt due to the angry road conditions. Local residents are . because FATE, ICE numerous ANGER, NUME accidents have occurred there and no measures have been taken yet. ADDITION DELIGHT LUCK hopeless the end of the m onth. I am SUN, RAIN at at c o ntrolling m y m oney over a long period of MONTH, FINAI HOPE tim e. daily ____ ________basis to get to school. He does, however, Parenthood CAUTION can be an enjoyable experience. Yet, m ore and more couples these days childless 8 My frien d David liked going on DAY PARENT CHILD . lately. I hope she w asn’t offended by m y com m ent. FRIEND to h urt her. INTENTION adventurous . holidays until last sum m er w hen he was . snake and nearly died. ADVENTURE POISON Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. THE ART OF BEING A PARENT requirem ents such as love, patience and understanding, a sense of hum our is an im portant feature of any parent’s everyone in the fam ily can live with. A nother aspect of child rearing is teaching children lim its and rules. This means the child needs to be occur on a daily basis. Temporary measures don’t achieve anything but just waste time. A (6) Overall, child rearing is no easy task but it is certainly a challenge and a learning experience. unit0 3 1 A g row B grow up C born ( p.) bring up 2 A rou tin e B p o p u lar C o rd in a ry UD) u su al B But C All in all 3 ( a ) In fa ct 4 A te m p e r B c h a ra c te r 5 A know n B a c c u sto m e d 6 A w illing B fa m o u s 7 A v e ry 8 A k een B eager 9 A by B on 10 A cu sto m B rou tin e 11 A like 12 A le a rn s ( j ) far (Das B e d u c a te s ( c ) b e h a v io u r C fa m ilia r ( c ) co m m o n D A s w ell as D m anner ® a w a re D c o n tin u o u s C q uite D fairly C in te re ste d D w illing ( f i) from D w ith C fa sh io n D tren d C th an D of ( c ) te a c h e s D in stru c ts Complete the text below with the correct form of the w ords in capitals. ARTHRITIS Arthritis is a general term for aches and pains in the body’s joints. Most types of arthritis involve the deterioration of cartilage, which wears out, it becomes rough and this causes pain when the joint moves. This condition is more common among the elderly, but some treatment is available. However, (5) new jo in ts co u ld prove v e r y (8 ). beneficial to a rth ritis ESSENCE HEALTH CHILD TRADITION AMBITION ARTIFICE PAIN BENEFIT su ffe re rs. A lth o u g h so m e b e lie v e th at jo in t re p la c e m e n t m ay be (9 ) (10 ) b rea kth ro u g h . COST ANXIOUS Prepositional Phrases A Complete the blanks with the prepositions in, on, at, for or by. for hire/rent for sure/certain on board in public at least by post/air mail in short in cash in the firs t place on an excursion on one’s own by chance on schedule by accident for instance by cheque for a change in o the r w ords on a trip /to u r in on the move at once in private a g oo d /b i m ood B Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions in, on, at, under or without. 1 All assignm ents are due to m o rro w w ithout in 6 The roadworks __ progress are responsible fo r the tra ffic jams. 7 I can’t go o ut to n ig h t. I’m feeling a b it under the weather. 10 Final – year students are under age. a lot o f pressure to pass th e ir exams. 13 My w ife isn’t here at the m om ent because she’s away on business. C Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases in the box below. at a glance on the road on arrival in order at heart fo r granted in com m on in some respects 1 2 4 At a glance 5 We w e re . 6 ..th e earthquake doesn’t seem to have caused any serious damage. on the road fo r tw o days before we reached our destination. _______On arrival_______ at the train station, they w ent straig ht to the platform . Even though I don ‘t agree w ith yo u r overall argum ent, I do agree w ith you ■ tm m e in some respects unit 0 4 P*ad the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the cr rrect number in the box next to each definition. KEEP, HOLD, CATCH A The governm ent kept back vita l inform a tion concerning the oil spill. ■y 5katers were warned to keep off the thin ice. ‘n e students kept on w orking hard despite the te rrib le heat. 4 •Ve were told to keep out of the abandoned house. 9 rob 7 prevent from being taken away 5 m aintain 1 reserve, not reveal s ‘e d , you got an A in yo ur Biology test. Keep up the good work! 10 reach i 2 stay off, not approach 3 continue 8 delay 6 w ait fo r a sh ort tim e 4 not enter 8 sta rt living in 1 continue 6 find a solution, discover 3 The fans g ot carried away during the concert and clim bed onto the stage. 9 stop living in 4 The tyres of my car have worn out. 1m ust get new ones. 3 over-excited 7 take part in physical exercise 2 perform , conduct 5 tired 4 become thin, weak or unsuitabl fo r fu rth e r use Hold on! I’ll ju st get my jacket and we can leave. Despite his financial problems, he m anaged to hold on to his fortune. ■ Sorry I’m late, b ut 1was held up in tra ffic on the way here. 9 ‘w o men held up a superm arket last n ig ht and stole £ 2 00 0. Even though he was injured during the race, he still managed B 😮 catch up with the o the r runners. c CARRY, WEAR, WORK, MOVE It was im possible fo r Alison to carry on w orking after receiving the bad news. 2 Recent studies carried out by the g overnm ent show th a t m ore and more people are relying on the state health system. m too worn out to go anywhere to nig ht. 5 6 Scientists still haven’t worked out w hat caused the death of the animals. Working out on a regular basis reduces the risk of heart disease. 8 1took a week o ff w ork in order to move into my new home. 9 My landlord w on ‘t renew m y co ntract so 1have to move out by the end of the m onth. Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives Nouns Verbs bad a connection between/with arrive at a buildinq a decrease arrive in a c itv /c o u n trv an increase i i °f a lack depart from a place at bound to close to d ifferent from /to full a reduction of aenerous to sb d iffe r from between/ , . – .» divide sth amona people (=aive each a share of sth) divide sth into inferior to divide a num ber separate from receive sth superior to translate sth te rrified of another sth (=seoarate into small parts) by from from another num ber (Maths) sb onelanauaae into unit 0 4 B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 Can you please translate this docum ent 2 They arrived 3 The lack at from French into English? the hotel a fte r m idnight. of medical supplies made the d o c to rs ‘ta s k even m ore d ifficu lt. between/ 4 The thieves divided the loo t among themselves. 5 He’s very generous w ith 6 The teacher divided the class 7 The m anager is ve ry generous 8 We arrived in his m oney and supports various charities. into to fo ur groups fo r the role-play. all his staff, regardless o f th e ir position in the company. F rankfurt in the afternoon and looked fo r a hotel straightaway. Grammar Revision (Determiners – Pronouns) See Grammar Review page 152 A Read the following text and complete each blank with one word. can be fu rth e r from the tru th . In the late 19th century another French painter, Paul Cezanne, painted a of which greatly influenced Braque (12 ) (13 ) im portance o f this a rt m ovem ent. B Choose A, B, C or D to complete the following sentences. A these (JJjthose C some D someone A none (ji)n o n e of C no one D no one of A v e ry 4 B m uch C lo t (B )lo ts A Either 5 B Either o f ( ^ N e ith e r D N either of A Every B Everyone (c)Each D Anyone A little ( i) a little C few Da few A all 8 B all of (c)/vhole D com plete A Both B Either C Every one (^D)Each one There isn’t anything else I can do. S Either book is interesting. / There is nothing else I can do. / Either of these books is/are interesting. / Neither book is interesting. / noro-isn’t nothing else I can do. — The baby climbed the stairs without any difficulty. / Neither of these books is/are interesting. / The baby climbed the stairs with no difficulty. / None of these books is/are interesting. / The baby climbed tho otairo without no difficulty.— (both +p lu ra l verb, fonly one negative word in each sentence) either/neither+singular verb, either of/neither of/none o f +singular or p lu ra l verb) • There isn’t much milk left in the fridge. / There isn’t many milk loft in the ‘fridge.- You can go to the beach both by bus and by train. / There is (a) little milk left in the fridge. S You can go to the beach either by bus or by train. / There is (a) few milk loft in thofridge. – Youcan go to tho boach-and by bus and-bytfamr- (much, (a) little + uncountable nouns) (both…and «►the one and the other either… o r «* the one or the other) – There aren’t many strawberries left in the fridge. / Ther&aron’t much strawberries left in the fridge. – He can’t sing and he can’t dance either. / There are (a) few strawberries left in the fridge. / He can’t sing or dance (either). / There are (a) littlo strawberries left-m the fridge. – He can neither sing nor dance. / (many, (a) few + countable nouns) Hecan’t noithcr-smg-nordanee: He can noithor cing or danec.- – There is lots /a lot /plenty of information on volcanoes (neither…nor ^ not the one and n ot the other) in this book. There are lots /a lot /plenty of toys in the garden, We were studying all morning. / children. We spent the whole morning studying. / (lots of, a lot of, p le nty o f + countable and uncountable nouns) We-spetrtthe-alhaerfflngstudyffigr- € Both of these books are interesting. / Both of those books is interesting. — Key Transformations 6 There weren’t a lot of things to see in the gallery. Both Jim and Jack like playing tennis. There wasn’t much to see in the gallery. Jim likes playing tennis and Jack does, too. There was little to see in the gallery. Jim likes playing tennis and so does Jack. & Most students didn’t go to the demonstration. Both Jim and Jack dislike football. (Very) few (of the) students went to the demonstration. Neither Jim nor Jack like(s) football. Hardly anyone went to the demonstration. Jim doesn’t like football and Jack doesn’t (like it) either, j Hardly any (of the) students went to the demonstration. Jim doesn’t like football and neither/nor does Jack. unit 0 4 Examination Practice A R ea d th e t e x t b e lo w a n d t h in k o f th e w o r d w h ic h b e s t f it s e a c h space. U se o n ly o n e w o r d in e a c h space. ® S JJ7 lerT ) To have an allergy means th a t a person is affected either by a substance in the atm osphere people suffer from one kind of allergy or another. So, w hat can people do to fig h t allergies? If someone is allergic to chocolate, fo r instance, prescribed m edication. the fam ily. In o the r words, if one parent suffers from allergies, the child has a th irty percent chance of being allergic, too. I (8 ) B C o m p le te th e s e c o n d s e n te n c e so th a t i t h a s a s im ila r m e a n in g to th e f i r s t s e n te n c e , u s in g th e w o r d g iv e n u n c h a n g e d . Y o u m u s t u s e b e tw e e n tw o a n d f iv e w o rd s , in c lu d in g th e w o r d g iv e n . 1 The washing m achine is not w orking properly. w ro n g 2 U nfortunately, m ost people did n ’t have a good tim e at the party. h a rd ly 3 I d id n ’t like a single song from th e ir new CD. none 4 I’m p re tty sure th a t Mary doesn’t like jazz music and Susan doesn’t either. d islike 5 There isn’t enough petrol on the market. lack 6 We realised th a t both cars were expensive. car 7 There aren’t a lot o f th ing s to rem em ber from th a t awful trip. little 8 I’m afraid I can’t study both Maths and Physics to n ig h t – ju s t one of the two. or 9 They were looking fo r th e ir lost dog all week. th e any unit 0 4 W-si the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may some of the words more than once. In some cases, more than one word may be correct. travel transfer tra n sp o rt tran sm it ■ arrive ■ get reach com e approach appear 4 carry fetch deliver 3 voyage jo u rn e y 1 Our class is going on a(n) trip to u r excursion travel e xpedition cruise flig h t th ro ug h Europe. unit 0 4 E guide d ire ct lead ride drive my car there. 5 F address road street way d ire ctio n route path house is on. G site p osition location p o in t place room space H fo re ign strange d iffe re n t peculiar curious everyone. 5 There’s a strange/peculiar smell com ing from the kitchen. Is som ething burning? unit Si This unit deals with more words deriving from nouns. Noun Root Verb = Noun + -ise character characterise • Some o the r com m on nouns th a t form verbs in the same way are: apology, com puter, economy, hospital, m emory, summary, sym bol, sym pathy and victim. • Pay atte ntio n to the fo llo w in g irregularities: criticism -4 criticise emphasis -4 emphasise • Verbs deriving from nouns in -ice are form ed by changing the -c into -s: advice 4 advise device 4 devise p ractice -4 practise Noun Root Adjective = Noun in -ic Adverb = Noun + – ically hero heroic h e ro ica lly 1 enthusiast, hygiene and optim ist. • Nouns in -y usually fo rm adjectives in -etic: apo lo gy 4 a po lo ge tic energy energetic sym pathy 4 sym pathetic • Some nouns form tw o adjectives, one in -ic and the o the r in -ical w ith no difference in m eaning: iro n y -4 iro n ic /iro n ic a l sym bo l 4 sym bolic/sym bolical Noun Root (usually subject of study) Noun (person) = Noun in-ist or-ian Adjective = Noun in-ical or-ic A rt Biology C hem istry Drama Gram m ar Logic M athem atics M edicine Music Politics Psychology Science artist biologist chem ist dram atist gram m arian logician m athem atician artistic biological chem ical dram atic gram m atical logical m athem atical medical musical political psychological scientific m usician p olitician psychologist scientist lo g ic a l 4 lo g ica lly scie n tific 4 scien tifically • Some nouns form tw o adjectives, one in -ic and the o the r in -ical, but th e ir m eaning is different: econom ics 4 econom ic (= related to econom y o r the fie ld o f the econom ics) 4 econom ical (= inexpensive, saving m oney) 4 h isto ric (= im p o rta n t in h istory) 4 h isto rica l (= b elon gin g to history; related to sth that happened in the past) • Very few nouns (eg. physics) form nouns (person) both in -ist and in -ian, but th e ir m eaning is different. physics -4 p hysicist (= a person who has stu die d o r is stu dyin g physics) 4 physician (=a d o cto r) h is to ry Noun Root Noun = Noun + -dom bore king star boredom kingdom stardom • Some nouns in -dom are derived from adjectives, not fro m nouns. The m ost com m on ones are: free ■ freedom wise -4 w isdom ……. — — unit 0 4 C o m p lete th e sentences w ith th e c o rre c t fo rm o f th e w o rd s in c apitals. 1 Melina was very 2 The 3 Howard is a very 4 5 energetic memorise Personally ENTHUSIAST solution to the crisis. POLITICS, DIPLOMAT . person. ENERGY believe that the governm ent should preserve the MEMORY historic PERSON, HISTORY buildings in the city centre. 6 You m ust 7 John had to get very 8 apologise ___ to him for your rude behaviour. psychological APOLOGY help after his m other’s death because he had become PSYCHOLOGY emotional EMOTION heroic . rescue of the little boy from HERO the burning building. 9 SYMBOL ART MEDICINE 12 I don’t know what to do now that my friends are away. I feel that I’m going to die BORE Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. A D 231 EXPERIENCE _ ■ ! Unfortunately, I’m not a very organised traveller and despite m y travel agent’s best efforts, (4) always goes wrong. Last week, while I was heading for the airport, I realised I had left my passport at home. Obviously, I had to go back so I asked the taxi driver to tu rn around and take me home. In the meantime, I crossed my fingers and hoped th a t I per hour. unit 0 4 1 2 A curious B peculiar A travels B excursions C tours D trips 3 A arrive B.) reach C get D approach C everything D nothing B cruise C trip D journey B way C route D direction B on C out D along C transferring D transporting 4 5 6 A anything C c 1foreign (^ so m e th in g / ‘” ‘N (A,; flight A road D strange /■— -N 7 (^A) away 8 A moving 9 A at 10 A hold ( b ) catch C keep D find A many ‘ B ja C a few D some C in D of 11 12 ( b ) travelling B under (A ) to C on little B for 0 in Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. LIFE EXPECTANCY ‘ne longest-living person (1)__ officially .recorded lived to be 122 years and 164 days OFFICIAL OM. -1 general, the number of people who live to be over one hundred is increasing, especially among SCIENCE BIOLOGY -owever, in the developing countries, where (4) SCIENCE medical .records, life expectancy for .reasons are mainly responsible for MEDICINE ECONOMICS :-iis and as a result a high percentage of the population suffers from malnutrition. One must also (7)_ emphasise (8 ) . unhygienic To (9) _ (10) _ summarise nutritious . the fact that sanitary conditions in developing countries are rather EMPHASIS HYGIENE , proper housing and sanitation, adequate healthcare and a(n) .diet play an important part in a person’s life expectancy. SUMMARY NUTRITION SECTION 1 (FCE format) m tk For questions 1-12, read the test below and decide which answer A , B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (O). A far Example: 0 B individual (c )re m o te D separate P A S T M E M O R IE S remote I was raised on a farm in a(n) (0) e verything was covered in snow. I was always (1) arrived When spring (2) _ village in the 1950s. The w in te r m onths were endless and , everythin g came alive – flow ers w ould bloom and the animals w ould come came across an the sight o f the bear I did w hat m y father had told me. I stood still until she stopped grow ling and walked away. The tric k was effective, tim e. exploring the forest, catching fish fo r dinner, flocks _____ o f birds and the insects hopping up and down on the surface of the water. Of course, this was possible only during the warm m onths. When autum n came, everything w ent quiet, w hich was quite the birds flew south and the snow to o k over. The place became deserted once again. 1 A keen (^B) eager 2 A approached 3 A dealt w ith (j5 )cam e across C reached D found out 4 A like ( jj) a s C same as D such as 5 A In B By 6 A very 7 B reached C w illing C appeared D enthusiastic Q arrived © A t D On B quite C so ( j ) far A qualifications B skills C qualities D 1experience 8 A exploring B detecting C researching D investigating 9 A looking B noticing C w atching D observing 10 A swarms B bunches 11 A o rdinary B) usual C fa m iliar 12 A until B after C since © f lo c k s D sets D regular © before unit O S f :: questions 13-24, read the text be lo w and think of the w ord which best fits each space. Use only one w ord in * ic h space. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0). are usually fo r pleasure or sport, but did you know th a t ballooning began th a t smoke could make things rise. They experim ented fo r a year or invention to everyone. On th e ir firs t attem pt, they filled a silk bag in Novem ber 1783, h isto ry was made once more when the firs t flig h t carrying passengers left the ground. The volunteers to ok o ff from Paris and rem ained in the air fo r over tw e n ty minutes. Soon afterw ards, scientists all over Europe became interested (2 0 ) it wasn’t long before the a c tiv ity became very popular. (21 ) w ith ballooning and co ntribu te d to its developm ent. In the 19th century, purposes, the m ost im p o rta n t one being polar exploration. In the tw e ntie th century, hot-air ballooning was re-introduced, due to a m uch im proved propane burner. This has (23 ) generation becom ing interested in ballooning e ither fo r scientific (24 ) uinit 0 5 For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). SKATEBOARDING ■ F coastal In the early 1960s, a new craze swept through the ( 0 ) __ cities of the United States. COAST PHYSICS ENERGY ORIGIN developed by attaching a plank of wood to roller-skates. However, skateboarding has undergone ( 2 8 ) __ dramatic changes since then. DRAMA skateboarders now use plastic and fibreglass, which make the PROFESSION hours perform ing tricks and stunts many of which are (31)__ dangerous END , so DANGER skilful sensible many falls before becoming proficient, so it is (34) ADVICE A skateboarder goes through SKILL ___ to take precautions against SENSE accidents. For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between! two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0 When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used tennis every Sunday. 35 How long have you been living in yo ur new house? moved .y o u r new house? 36 The police questioned all the eye-witnesses but they did n’t find anyone capable of describing what exactly had happened. none of describing what exactly had happened. 37 His com puter game addiction is getting worse. and He is g e ttin g . more and more addicted to .co m p u te r games. 38 She w ent out after finishing the housework. until until she had finished She did n’t go o u t. .th e housework. 39 I heard th at neither of the defendants was found g u ilty in yesterday’s trial, innocent I heard th at both defendants were found innocent .in yesterday’s trial. 4 0 John feels he doesn’t share many interests w ith his new penfriend. little _ his new penfriend. 41 The shop w here he w orks is in the city centre. which . is in the city centre. 42 He is the m ost talented player in the team, as None of the players in the team _ is/are as talented as he is. unit 0 5 SECTION 2 (ECCE format) Grammar Z’-oose the correct answer. t will have finished By the end of next week, I a. will finish my project, 6. Two masked men held downtown yesterday. (l))w ill have finished c. will be finished d. am finishing who ‘his author, is very popular, has b. off c. out (d )u p (a )th e fitte r (jj)w h o c. whom Mr. Jones. He is a the fitte r 8. I found very d. the fittest composition. respectable member of our community, a. looks up to b. looks up a. little (b )fe w c. looks down on d. looks over c. more d. much ve seen two of his movies but neither of them 9. Everybody congratulated Mary good exam results. a. either ( b ) neither d. both c. none S My parents y0u get. b. the more fitte r c. the most fittest d. which X Everybody looks up to 4. a. on 7. The more you exercise, published a new book. a. that UP a bank have been living b. in (c )o n d. of 10. He said that he will rent a bigger house when he here since 1980. a. are living a. for gets (lb) have been living c. live a new job. a. will get d. were living b. is getting (c)g e ts d. will be getting [Vocabulary G o o s e the correct answer. t The businessman owes his success to his a)success b. ambition c. challenge d. goal comm on was an interest in b. progress cycommon d. private don’t hesitate to contact a. rise (b)arise c. raise d. lift d. at random 7. After the operation, the patient was a. transported transferred b. transmitted (c)transferred 8. It is Fay- s d. travelled intention spectators in the stadium applauded the a. challenge t o do well in her exams so line. the country. c. onlookers to ur of Lapland, the northern part of b. audience a. expedition (b )to u r (d)spectators c. excursion d. voyage Parents always say how quickly their children 9 row UP 10. Christine has a habit of running ten kilometres per day. and become adults, a. bring up d. skill 9. While on vacation in Finland, John went on a(n) a. viewers (b )in te n tio n c. qualification winner of the marathon when he crossed the finish c. raise b. in charge that she can study Psychology. me. 5 ( J )in search of gold. another hospital. a. sight 4. All the in search c. at the sight stamp collecting. ^3. If any problems During the gold rush, many settlers travelled to California excellent public relations. 2 What we had in 6. b. rise (d )g ro w up a. trend b. custom (c )h a b it d. fashion {0 Collocations/Expressions A Complete the blanks with the verbs make or do. make fun of progress do a job do wonders make a choice make an offer make a request w ro n g /rig h t make sense make ends meet make a trip/voyagi m atters worse make the m ost of do harm /dam age make noise do one’s hom ew ork an app ointm e nt make an escape make a phone call one’s best make a guess make make/do b etter/w orse make friends (w ith) make certain/sure do make a com plaint make a reservation do an experim ent make a suggestion make a decision make make an excuse (for) one’s d u ty make do do do an exercise do /jo urne y make do w ell/badly make an e ffo rt make money/a p ro fit make an arrangem ent make a fo ol of make a mess (of) make a difference a mistake a favour make up one’s min B Read the sentences below. Complete the boxes with the verbs make or do and the blanks with prepositions make 2 Before signing the contract, the client wished to 3 The university students are going to 4 Bill wanted to make 6 Your plan will only make 7 if we good use make make 10 Why don’t you make trouble .. . of 8 This ugly furniture does not 9 We research a good impression 5 The police officer was instructed to do on for do 12 Everyone stepped aside to make the company’s president. the strange incident. the people you are supposedly trying to help. ___ our resources, we can achieve our goal. 11 Emissions from factories the matter. a considerable contribution make make do this d ifficult situation. home while I get ready? way_ for the environment. the marching soldiers. C Complete the blanks with the verbs break, change, turn or draw. change break turn shoes sb’s heart a page break change draw the law break tra in s /b u s e s change sb’s attention change a habit d irection clothes break _ a prom ise turn change _ a corner the subject D Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs break, change, cut or draw. 1 I’ll try to change Ted’s mind about leaving his job. 3 I decided to make the firs t move and 4 Cowboys were known to _ draw 5 The famous athlete Jesse Owens _a gun on the slightest of pretexts. unit 0 0 dverbial Expressions by and large last b ut not least every now and then ■nake an e ffo rt to visit m y grandparents one by one every now and then on my own as a m atter o f fact . Last but not least Most people are, .th e final contender is from Venezuela…. by and large Asa m atter of fact , creatures of habit. , I d id n ‘t like the present you gave me. 3hrasal Verbs id the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the rect number in the box next to each definition. MAKE, DO, GROW The thieves made o ff w ith all the precious artefacts in the museum. 3 The boy made up a ridiculous sto ry about alien abduction to avoid sittin g go tow ards for the exam. 2 invent ^et’s make fo r the nearest village before it gets dark. 10 become an adult When the baby was born, we made the study into a nursery. 4 transform , convert I couldn’t quite make out w hat she was saying, as her English was very 5 manage to understand poor. 1 steal and run away Even th ough Derek had made up w ith Joanne, the tension between 6 become friends again them was still evident. 9 Women make up a large p ro po rtio n of the w orkforce nowadays. Ever since my salary cut, I’ve had to do w ith o u t many little luxuries. 11 The m anagem ent decided to do away w ith the old m achinery and 8 modernised the factory. 7 get rid of become older and stop a habit endure the lack of constitute, form , be a m em ber of When 1grow up, I w ant to become a singer. n We’ve grown out o f the childish pranks we used to play on our teachers. PASS, FILL, LEAVE 1 Our neighbour, w ho was 75 years old, passed away a few m onths ago. 2 The legends o f this trib e have been passed down from father to son over the centuries. 3 The old wom an passed o u t when she saw the thief. 4 I had to fill in a five-page application form fo r a credit card. 5 Could you please fill up the tank w ith unleaded petrol? 6 Our best player was left out o f the team due to a knee injury. 3 fa int 4 com plete 1 die 5 make com p le te ly full 2 pass from one generation to the next 6 exclude from unit 0 6 Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives Nouns on dependent_ equal sb for a demand of to sth cover sb/sth to apologise. for things sb at aim a difference, between two for of to independent_ grateful_ Verbs sth in a difference of _sth .opinion .doing _ sb sth on in for on spend money/time to on sth waste money/time _ on to contribute pay. re ly . of consist sth __ from borrow confess sth depend invest of (dls)approve. a difference, . sb in/with sth B Read the follow ing sentences and complete them with prepositions. on 1 I found a part-time job so as not to be financially depen dent. 2 The President diplom atically labelled the crisis as a d iffe re n ce _ my parents. of _ opinion between the two nations. to for Susan . her support during my time of need. 6 The difference between the rich and poor Is staggering in most developing countries. 7 My sister wastes a lot of m oney. on _ clothes she doesn’t end up wearing. Grammar Revision (Infinitive, -ing form) See G ram m ar R ev ie w p ag e 153 Complete the sentences belo w with the bare infinitive, the full infinitive or the -ing form of the verbs in brackets. You can use either the Present or the Perfect form. 1 We watched the ship 2 Forgive mv disappear getting 3 She begged her brother. (disappear) slowly over the horizon (get) so upset about such a trivial matter. (lend) her his car, but he refused. living 4 The children were not accustomed to .(live) in a village. having stolen ‘ i/ ‘ 5 The thief admitted stealing (steal) the jewels. driving (drive) as I was really tired. 6 My wife prevented me from 7 My driving instructor encouraged me _ 8 I’m in favour of 9 How about Keeping eaving 10 That man is believed 11 They are unlikely. to take (keep) the environment clean. (leave) on Thursday evening? to have caused (cause) the accident. to come .(come) home early tonight. 12 The traffic was so heavy that it took me three hours house. (take) the driving test. to get .(get) to my country The coffee was too cold for me to drink. / Judy was made apologise for lying. – r he coffee was too cold for me to drink it. – (make+bare infinitive in Active Voice, The coffee wasn’t hot enough for me to drink. / make +fu ll infinitive in Passive Voice) Vhs coffee wasn’t hot enough for me to dri n k it. ■ Helen used to wake up early. / (No object pronouns after too and enough) Helen is used to waking up early. / She objects to staying up late. / Helen w ill soon get used to waking up early. / Subject of-ing form same as subject o f main verb) Helen is used to wake Bp-eariy—- She objects to the children/children’s staying up late. / Helen w ill soon get used to wake apeariy— She objects to their/them staying up late. / (used to +infinitive, be/get used to +-ingform) She objects to thcy-staying up late. – It seems that he hates animals. / Subject of-ing form different from subject o f main verb) He seems to hate animals. / We heard John sing an old song. / Ho scorns that he hatc3 animals— (witnessed the whole action) (It seems/appears + that-clause We heard John singing an old song. / Subject+seem/appear+fu ll infinitive) ‘witnessedpart o f an action) It appears that she didn’t lose m uch weight. / ,Ve heard John to sing an old song. – She appears not to have lost m uch weight. / (Verbs of the senses in Active Voice+bare infinitive/-ing form) She doesn’t appear to have lost much weight. / John was heard to sing an old song. / Sheappears to not have loot much w cighfc— John was heard sing/singing an old song. CVerbs o f the senses in Passive Voice+fu ll infinitive) It is likely/unlikely that John is interested in football. S John is likely/unlikely to be interested in football. / The teacher made Judy apologise for lying. / The teacher made Judy to apologise fo r-tying. Judy was made to apologise for lying. / Key Transformations » It took Susan one hour to dye her hair. There’s no point in discussing this m atter any further. Susan took one hour to dye her hair. It’s no use/good discussing this m atter any further. Susan spent one hour dyeing her hair. It is not w orth discussing this m atter any further. – She found w orking long hours difficult. This m atter is not w orth discussing any further. She found it d ifficu lt to w ork long hours. The clim bers did not manage to reach the m ountain peak. It was d ifficu lt for her to w ork long hours. The clim bers did not succeed in reaching the m ountain She had d ifficu lty (in) w orking long hours. peak. $ I expect that they w ill arrive soon. I expect them to arrive soon. They are expected to arrive soon. 0 I suggest we plan a surprise party for him . The clim bers were not successful in reaching the m ountain peak. The clim bers were unsuccessful in reaching the m ountain peak. I suggest planning a surprise party for him . He prevented/stopped his children from going out alone. W hy not plan a surprise party for him? He prevented/stopped them from going out alone. How about planning a surprise party for him? He prevented/stopped his children’s going out alone. @ I don’t see w hy we should discuss this m atter any further. He prevented/stopped their going out alone. unit 0 6 Examination Practice A Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. HEALTHY HEALTHY have often been used by the ancient Greeks. Thousands of years later, the same idea still applies. According However, water itself is not enough; a balanced diet is essential, too. claim that gyms are just too expensive. Many people also claim that they have difficulty in to one’s well-being. In short, following B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 John is too im m ature to make decisions fo r himself, m ature decisions fo r himself. 2 He can’t get used to travelling abroad every fortnight, . abroad every fortnight. 3 He managed to convince me that it was a safe operation, succeeded . that it was a safe operation. 4 Hearing that a war had broken out was a shock to everyone, shocked ___ that a war had broken out. 5 John told Helen he was sorry he had argued w ith her. apologised w ith her. 6 Nobody liked having a new factory in the area, objected . a new factory in the area. 7 She couldn’t afford to buy a laptop computer, expensive was too expensive for her _________ to buy. 8 More dustbins have been put around so that people w on’t throw rubbish in the streets, prevent rubbish in the s 9 It would be d ifficult fo r me to adjust to a new w orking environm ent, d ifficulty _to a new w orking environm ent. 10 I don’t see w hy we should wait fo r the blood test results all day. point . the blood test results all day. 11 He first told his m other about his success in the exam. know __ about his success in the exam. 12 The police forced the crim inal to get into the car. made the car. unit 0 6 Vords easily confused th e c o r r e c t fo r m o f th e w o r d s in th e b o x e s to c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s i n e a c h g ro u p A -I b e lo w . Y o u m a y u se e o f th e w o rd s m o re th a n o n ce . I n s o m e cases m o re th a n o n e w o r d m a y b e c o rre c t. borrow lend let hire rent ______ borrowed________ m oney from the bank to buy a house. spend waste save afford bill fare fee fin e tic k e t receipt account d isco un t tax ___________ Tax___________is autom atically w ithdraw n from my pay every month. salary wage paym ent incom e bonus allowance award reward d onation 6 Your car payments __are due on the 10th o f each m onth. unit 0 6 E owe own possess owns to? If no one_ it,th e n I’ll. own ________ th e ir house, b ut s till___________ owe__________ some m oney to the bank. _______ all his toys in a box in the attic. prize charge value bargain w o rth prize 1 The National L o tte ry ’s m ain. tip was £ 2 m illion. fo r the waiter. worth of paintings fro m the gallery. _____ of our house has gone up since we renovated it. worth visiting. bargain 6 My new sofa was a real valuable priceless value fo r m oney and . I g ot it fo r half the price. 7 You can have the appliances delivered free of _ precious keep 2 Muham mad AN__ price belong belong 1 Who does this pen keep w orthless econom ic econom ical financial ____ .O n ly a billionaire could afford to buy them . valuable 5 Thank you fo r y o u r. and ju s t to ok up space. H loan debt sum deposit budget 1 We’re on a tig h t and car am ount instalments instalm ent budget this m onth because we have m any expenses. Our housing loan _ are due in the next few days. of £ 20. amount I owe? deposit cheque cash coins currency (bank)notes change 1 2 to the bank and exchange them 3 always w rite yo u r address and sign the back o f it. 4 unit 0 6 ^25S3SB3S3li _____ _______________________________________________ The opposites of many English words are formed by adding a negative prefix to the words. The most common negative prefixes are un-, in-, dis- and mis-. • Most words that derive from the same root take the same negative prefix as the root word: approve 4 disapprove approving ^ disapproving approval 4 disapproval approvingly 4 disapprovingly addition of different negative prefixes: com fort discom fort (noun) fortune m isfortune (noun) equal unequal (adjective) comfortable uncom fortable (adjective) fortunate unfortunate (adjective) • Some words of the same category (verbs, nouns or adjectives) deriving from one root form two opposites using two different negative prefixes -but with a difference in meaning: unable (=not able), disabled (=handicapped) inform ed (adj) uninform ed (=not informed), m isinform ed (=wrongly informed) used (adj) unused (=not used), misused (=wrongly/badly used) attractive attractively certain -*• uncertain unable inability, disability able + ability 252 lock efficient ■ w in iin ii .ii . i n . . i ii .n .ii ‘j! 1uwh mi i wfw i t ? j inefficient unlock efficiently unattractive unattractively certainty-^ uncertainty dress undress inefficiently efficiency inefficiency 1<u 1j n • The prefix in- changes to: /’/- before /-.-legal illegal im- before m- and p-: mature 4 immature patient 4 im patient ir- before r-: rational ^ irrational • The prefix in- is not used to form opposites of verbs. • The prefix in- is not used to form opposites of words beginning with in-: interesting 4 uninteresting interpret 4 m isinterpret integrate 4 disintegrate agree + disagree agreement honesty | disagreement agreeable dishonesty honest judge connect disconnect disagreeable agreeably dishonest honestly disagreeably dishonestly misjudge judgement ^ misjudgement unit 0 6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. MATURE ABLE doubtful _to attend the m eeting because he’s ill. I am a little __ as to w hether this is true or not. DOUBT incorrectly NERVE, CORRECT b ut the teacher asked him to try again. _way. HONEST 6 The teacher expressed her so disobedient dissatisfaction LEGIBLE w ith Tom because he’s SATISFACTION jn class. irresponsible 7 It was illegible OBEDIENT . of you to leave the baby 8 U n fo rtu n a te ly , m any clim bers have been unsuccessful unattended RESPONSIBLE, ATTENDE in th e ir attem pts to clim b SUCCESS Mt Everest. scientific TREAT, SCIENCE research. illegal LEGAL but 11 Her unwillingness SAFE WILLINGNESS 13 She’s a very 14 Don’t sit in th a t im patient AGREE __ person. She wants everythin g done im m ediately. uncom fortable PATIENT arm chair, sit here. COMFORTABLE ) 15 Are you sure you d id n ‘t misunderstand him? He can’t have said that. UNDERSTAND Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. PLASTIC MONEY cash m oney from financial in stitu tio n s and o nly w hen they had (3). borrowed .T h ey rarely (2). the money, did they buy w hat they wanted. Recently, however, there have been great changes in the way people purchase goods. To begin w ith, some people (5 ) (6 ) th a t cred it cards are handy, some stores o ffe r bonus points to people m aking purchases, w hile others give (7) discounts on certain products. On the o the r hand, cred it cards m ust be used w isely because they can prove disastrous. In the long run, consum ers finances spending m ore than th ey should and w ind up not being able to (10) they end up in (11) _ debt and have d iffic u lty (12) _ in paying it back. iiuitOS 1 A change B cash 2 A lent B let 3 A. afforded B owned C saved 4 A sums B deposits C budgets 5 © am ount B debt C bill 6 A Last but not least B One by one 7 A bargains 8 A go (B ) discounts 9 (A )o n 10 A make m atters worse C notes © © borrow ed D kept D possessed ^ in s ta lm e n t s D cost By and large C tips D Every now and then D prizes B make C be (D jd o B in C to D of C do th e ir best D do business D owe ( b ) make ends meet 11 ( a ) debt B loan C charge 12 B to paying C in pay A to pay D currency ( p ) in paying Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. HOMEWORK FORTUNATE 12) APPROVE ______ sapprove_________ 0f the am 0unt o f hom ew ork they are given, and find it p articula rly 3 ) 4 ) sometimes find it (5)_ relieve it’s an act o f (6) _ impossible to com plete th e ir hom ew ork, w hich makes teachers disobedience On the o the r hand, teachers consider hom ew ork (7) „ FAIR ANXIETY POSSIBLE OBEDIENCE beneficial ______ . They believe BENEFIT ORGANISED COMPLETE ADEQUATE Prepositional Phrases A C o m p le te th e b la n k s w it h p r e p o s itio n s . regardless due according to except because for apart to of from ow ing to but for instead of co n tra ry thanks to as to for B C o m p le te th e b la n k s w it h p r e p o s itio n s . in spite in com parison in favour to of in charge of as far in control of in honour on behalf as well of as of as C R ead th e s e n te n c e s a n d c o m p le te th e m w it h th e p r e p o s itio n s in , o n , a t, by, u n d e r o r to . 2 3 7 the im pression you knew how to operate the video camera. 11 Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition. A BREAK, BURN 1 I’m buying a new car because m y old one keeps breaking down. 2 As soon as the governm ent announced the harsh econom ic measures, rio ts broke out th ro u g h o u t the country. 5 in te rru p t 8 be destroyed by fire 1 stop fu nctio nin g 6 end a relationship 2 sta rt suddenly 7 becom e exhausted 3 enter illegally 4 lose co ntrol of one’s feelings 3 The th ie f broke into the house and stole the jewels. 4 She co u ld n ’t handle being under so m uch stress so she broke down and started crying. 5 I started describing w hat had happened to the police o ffice r but m y sister broke in to tell him som ething I had forgotten. 6 They broke up a fter having been to g e th e r fo r three years. 7 If Peter doesn’t stop w orking so hard, he’ll burn out before his time. 8 By the tim e the fire brigade arrived, the b uilding had already burnt down. unit 0 7 B CUT 2 reduce 4 cut into sm all pieces I 3 The speaker w as cut off by protesters m any tim es during her speech. 1 cut from /rem ove | A Alw ays cut up the meat for the dog, otherw ise it w ill choke on it. 6 stop doing 5 During the w inter the island is cut off from the rest of the world. 3 interrupt 5 isolated 1 These pictures of film stars were cu to u t of different m agazines. I 2 The doctor told me to cut down on junk food. I 6 The boys are shouting upstairs. Tell them to cut it out! C TURN ‘ Turn off the heater. It’s v e ry hot in here. 4 a rrive u n exp ected ly I 2 John has turned into a reliable and efficient w orker much to my surprise. 6 reject I 3 It turned out to be a great party. 1 sw itch off I 4 More people turned up at the meeting than I had expected. 7 switch on I 5 Can you please turn down the m usic? I can’t hear you. Z red u ce the am o u nt of sound, D heat, etc. 9 in crea se the am o u nt of sound, I 6 My application for a visa was turned down again. I 7 Don’t forget to turn on the alarm when you leave home. heat, etc. I 8 I want you to know that you can turn to me for help any time. I 9 When Je ssica heard her favourite song, she turned up the radio full blast and started dancing. 3 result in a particular w ay 2 ch a n g e to 8 co m e to and ask for Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives ashamed _ of -usy with :onscious_ •-iendlv Verbs Nouns of je a lo u s, mean to of with/to of an e x a m p le . to __ an opinion of/about/in contrast with a question about decide on a reaction to at sth (=competent) useful to sb rood to sb(=kind) useful for sth good for sb/sth (=beneficial) B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 2 W hv are vou alw ays so mean 3 My friend Giles introduced me the high jump. to to on an excep tio n . good at com m ent .sb 1 W alter is ve ry good in believe Sarah? the fascinating world of classical music, dedicate sth to .sb introduce sb to .sb /sth mean by relate to think of/about unit 0 7 4 The travel book w ill be useful 5 W hat exactly do you mean for by our trip to Paris at the end o f the m onth. saying I’m arrogant and a snob? 6 Most nouns fo rm th e ir plural in -s, but there area lot of exceptions 7 Mrs Ming is a very nice lady. She’s always been good to to me. 8 A glass of orange juice a day is good for 9 This brochure w ill be useful all the to u rists w ho vis it the sights. to this rule. you. Grammar Revision (M odal Verbs) See G ram m ar R e v ie w p age 155 ^ Read the short texts below and complete each blank with one word. All the missing words are modal verbs (can, could, may, should etc.) a to explore it to th e ir heart’s content, as no one else knew about this secret hideaway. They fe lt they b see a doctor, as he (8) O) may/might/could might/could/may jUSt c as children (16) d have taken a taxi instead, as it was a fru stra tin g experience. We were all squashed to ge th er like sardines in a tin and the public tran spo rtatio n system be this bad? unit 0 7 I must wash my car. / I have to wash m y car. / : must to wash my car. You should wash your car. / You ought to wash your car. / You should to wash your car. Peter would wash his car every Saturday. / Peter used to wash his car every Saturday. / Peter would to w ash hip car every Saturday. tModal verbs arefollowed by a bare infinitive (without ‘to’.) Note: have to, ought to and used to.) Jonathan can play tennis very well. Jonathan could play tennis when he was ten years old. If it doesn’t rain, w e’ll be able to play tennis. I haven’t been able to contact Mike this week. (can has no future or perfect tenses so be able to is used in itsplace.) Bill could run quite fast when he was young. (general ability in the past) The injured athlete was able to finish the race. (ability in aparticular situation in thepast, especially a difficult one.) I must go to bed early tonight. I have to get up early every morning. I had to return some books to the library yesterday. I’ve never had to wait for more than ten minutes at the doctor’s surgery. W e’ll have to work hard on our project next week. (must has nopast, perfect orfuture tenses, so have to is used in itsplace.) e He must be home now. / He must be watching TV. S (Positivedeductions about thepresent/future) He must have arrived early. ✓ He must have been working hard lately. / (Positive deductions about thepast) He can’t be home now, he is usually at work at this tim e o ftheda yV He can’t be watching TV. / He mustn’tbe home now. (Negative deductions about thepresent/future) He can’t/couldn’t have stolen the money. / Ilemusttrt-havo stolon t-hemeneyr(Negative deductions about thepast) Ruth needs to see the doctor today. / Ruth nead see the doctor chúng tôi Ruth need to see the doctor today? / Need Ruth see the doctor today? / Ruth doesn’t need to see the doctor today. / Ruth needn’t see the doctor today. / (need is used as a modal verb only in present tense questions and negations.) They didn’t need to return the books to the library today. (=it wasn’t necessary and we don’t know if they didornot.) They needn’t have returned the books to the library today. (=it wasn’t necessary but they did so nonetheless.) You should apologise. / You ought to apologise. / You had better apologise. / (Refer to the present or future) You should have apologised. / You ought to have apologised. / It would have been better if you had apologised. / Youhadbot-ter-haveapologised:(Refer to thepast) Key Transformations 6 Could I (possibly) turn the music down? Do you m ind if I turn the music down? Would you m ind if I turn/turned the music down? Would you m ind m y turning the music down? I wonder if I could turn the music down. & Your room needs tidying. Your room needs to be tidied. You have/need to tid y your room. It is necessary for you to tid y your room. It is necessary that you tid y your room. ® It is not necessary for you to go shopping. There is no need for you to go shopping. You don’t need/have to go shopping. You needn’t go shopping. & It was not necessary for you to go to the doctor. There was no need for you to go to the doctor. You needn’t have gone to the doctor. & My grandfather went fishing every morning. My grandfather used to go fishing every morning. My grandfather w ould go fishing every morning. & The students did not manage to finish the project. The students were not able to finish the project. The students were unable to finish the project. The students did not succeed in finishing the project. & (I think / Perhaps) you should take some tim e off work. (I think / Perhaps) you ought to take some tim e off work. You had better take some tim e off work. The best thing you could do is take some tim e off work. The best thing for you to do is take some tim e off work. unit 0 7 Examination Practice A Choose the correct answer. 1. You needn’t have cooked so much food. There was 7. “Would you mind my leaving plenty of food left over from yesterday. a. cook I must go to the dentist’s.” b. to cook c. me to leave 2. Susan hates Maths and Chemistry but she’ s really good at . awful when she was told that a. feel (b )h a ve felt d. of c. felt d. be felt not go out tonight. It’s raining 9. You ought to drink lots of water when you’re on a diet. ( a ) n o tg o b. n o tto g o c. d o n ‘t go a. should d. to d o n ‘t go 4. The climbers d id n ‘t succeed a. to reach 10. Your jeans need in reaching the washing c. wash Annie’s taller. 11 d. have washed According to t he weather forecast, it will be cold and foggy at the weekend, a. m ustn ‘t (b )c a n ‘t c. w o u ld n ‘t d. shouldn’t a. Owing to ( ji ) According to d. Instead of c. Apart from “When are Michael and Julie getting married?” 12. There used to . be .a coffee shop on that “Well, they w o n ‘t get married after all. They broke corner when I was young, _____ UP a. have been a. out c. off before y0U wear t hem b. to wash (a)w ashing (d )in reaching ca n t d. used for the first time. b. to have reached c. reach b. must (c )o u g h t mountain peak due to extreme weather conditions, 6. have felt she had been fired heavily. 5. It d. me to leaving (b )a t c. for 3. You had better 8. She m ust. Science. a. to b. me leave (a )m y leaving d. to have cooked @ h a v e cooked two months ago!” b. down (b )b e c. were d. being ( d)up B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 I’m sure he hasn’t refused such a good offer. turned 2 There was no need for the climbers to bring so many supplies. not 3 If I were you, I wouldn’t stay in the sun w ithout sunscreen. had 4 Shall I water the plants for you? like 5 It is necessary that he doesn’t eat so many sweets. cut 6 I expect that she has invited everyone to her birthday party. must 7 As a child, David was never in the habit of eating cornflakes. used As a child. David never used to eat cornflakes. unit 07 5-noking is not allowed in the building, ■ m ust must not smoke 19 3erhaps Julie thought that you would check the report. have been under the impression k . that you would check the report. : was wrong of you to steal that book. should r _in the building. should not have stolen _that book, 5ne is not obliged to cook if she doesn’t have time. nave if she doesn’t have time. Vords easily confused ; the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may : some of the words more than once. In some cases more than one word may be correct. th in k ■ – ease. regard consider consider mean . m y o ffe r and call me if you decide to sell. thinking * l have b e e n . believe I deserve it because I’ve w orked _____ of taking a holiday. I _________believe nard all year. regarded The death penalty is _ realise as a barbaric practice by m ost people. . he re a lly . mean recognise understand m eet introduce present appreciate 1 One day I’d like t o . 2 That’s the journalist th a t v [ 4 Aren’t you going to _ introduce. __th a t the students hadn’t understood w hat he was saying. ______ me to yo ur friend? I haven’t ______________[O^t_________ her before. .Jgfg assume guess suppose estim ate guess calculate p re dict ■r most of the answers. the cost of the renovation. calculated unit 0 7 idea view th o u g h t p o in t aspect respect 1 She’s ve ry rude and has no m atter .fo r anyone. aspects respect points . of his proposal, because he made some in te re s tin g . ______ the education system should change. 4 I can’t bear the point ___ in talking to Clark about th is problem , as he has n o __ m atter 6 A s a (n )_ queue idea _o f fact, I hired an in te rio r decorator, w ho gave me some good line aisle c o rrid o r hall about it. ideas row 1 The cornflakes are in the th ird aisle .and the to ile t is the th ird door on your right. hall _____to m y fla t is so small th a t it’s a waste of space. line ____ and w ait yo ur turn, madam! q u e u e /lin e 6 There was such a lo n g . available spare in the bank th a t I couldn’t be bothered to go in. free convenient handy usable handy during the summer. available 3 The Red Dog’s new album is now __ in music stores. . because it is portable a n d . usable .anyw here. 6 A car is a v e ry . absence convenient lack . means o f tra n sp o rt com pared to buses and trains. shortage loss # o f m emory. shortage 4 There’s a w orld __of energy and scientists are looking fo r alternative sources. H sh ort scarce rare inadequate insu fficien t * 3 A(n) _______5 Parking space in the city centre is scarce/inadequate insufficient/ unit 0 7 {^223331. This unit deals with some verbs and nouns which derive from adjectives. Verb = Adjective + -en Noun ^Adjective + -ness Describing the process of acquiring the q ua lity / state o f the adjective The q ua lity / state described by the adjective darken darkness Adjective Root I Describing a quality/state dark Some o the r com m on adjectives th a t form verbs and nouns in the same way are: fresh, hard, loose, quick, sharp, thick and weak. The adjectives broad, deep and w ide form nouns in -th: broad broaden breadth deep 4 deepen 4 depth wide 4 widen 4 width Some verbs in -en do not derive from adjectives, but from the corresponding nouns: Adjective Noun Verb high long strong height length strength frig h t threat heighten lengthen strengthen frigh ten threaten — — The adjective short form s tw o nouns w ith a difference in meaning: short shortness (being sh ort or having little of sth) shortage (lack or insu fficien t q u a n tity o f sth) Noun in-nee or -ncy Adjective Root in -nt Describing a quality / state The quality/state described by the adjective distance intelligence efficiency d istant intellig en t e fficie n t Most adjectives in -ant/-ent form nouns in -ance and-ence. Some com m on adjectives th a t fo rm nouns in -ance are: arrogant, assistant, ignorant, im portant, relevant, reluctant, resistant, significant and tolerant. Some com m on adjectives th a t form nouns in -ence are: absent, confident, convenient, different, evident, innocent, patient, present, silent and violent. Some com m on adjectives in -ant/-ent th a t form nouns in -ancy/-ency are: consistent, efficient, fluent, frequent, pregnant, proficient, redundant, transparent, urgent and vacant. Noun in -cy Adjective Root in -te Describing a q uality / state The quality/state described by the adjective private privacy Some o the r com m on adjectives th a t form nouns in the same way are: (in)accurate, (in)adequate, (il)literate, immediate, intim ate and obstinate. The adjective secret form s tw o nouns w ith a difference in meaning: secret secret (fact known o nly to few people and not to ld to others) secrecy (having/keeping secrets) The adjective fortun a te does not form a noun in -cy but derives from the noun fortune. unit 0 7 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. 1 Despite being a keen camper, I fin d the _ unbearable DARK, BEARABLE BROAD DARK anxious however, rather ____about how dark it w ould become. ANXIETY EVIDENT 5 Being unable to m eet John, I rang to apologise fo r the CONVENIENT 6 FLUENT interpreter. SHORT w ater th a t year. ADEQUATE VIOLENT length DEEP width . by its LONG, WIDE STRONG WEAK food. 14 Many flig h ts were delayed today, causing g row ing _ impatience PATIENT am ong the passengers. is still ve ry high. LITERATE Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. NEW YEAR r New Year celebrations date as far back as 2 0 0 0 BC in Mesopotamia. Yet, the actual date has changed a by the m ovements o f the Sun and Moon w hich allowed room fo r error. To (2). a long sto ry short, it wasn’t until 1582, when the calendar we use today was (3). cut introduced th a t January 1st became New Year’s Day in m ost cultures. Some cultures, however, celebrate the New Year at various times, according to th eir calendar and religious traditions. For example, the Chinese celebrate it between the 21st of January and the 19th o f February. In (4) at the beginning of the year, the Jewish people celebrate it in September or early October. In any case, the New Year is a festive occasion. Some people celebrate at home w ith no (5). shortage may of have (12) To sum „ M M up . bejng that m ost people .bad habits. ., New Year is a tim e of celebration that a large proportion of the people look forw ard to. unit 0 7 1 B assumed ( a ) calculated 2 A break B change 3 A realised B recognised 4 A co ntrary B opposite 5 (A ) shortage C known D introduced © c o n tra s t D difference C absence C possibly A likely B should 7 A aisles ( b ) queues Q. 00 B on D tu rn © cut B loss 6 D considered C supposed D scarce ( d ) may C rows D co rridors C into D o ut D m atter © id e a 9 A view B point 10 A )re g a rd B th in k C believe D realise 11 A cut ( b ) break C change D split 12 A on D in © up B fo r : Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. / financial . help and found m yself in the FINANCE DELIGHT v . friends tried to (3)_ frighten _ me by describing te rrible experiences t j t I was determ ined to go to any (5). PATIENT lengths .•.anted to live close to the city centre so I placed great (6 ). FRIGHT LONG importance on IMPORTANT the location. I inspected num erous houses and fin a lly found one I was happy w ith. I needed considering the short (10) _ .•.hat I had dream ed of. distance unusual . from the c ity centre. It was exactly FRESH QUIET, USUAL DISTANT Collocations/Expressions A Complete the blanks with the verbs le a v e , p u t, s e t or s h a k e . Put a stop to sth set s liake f jre to sth set leave an exam ple set hands w ith sb put pressure on sb a message set fo o t in the table set the alarm clock B Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs p u t, s e t or s h a k e . . ve ry high standards to a ttra ct the best students. 3 Jerry set 6 Mrs Smith . her children the task of clearing o ut the attic. free C Complete the blanks with the verbs m is s , or lo s e lose .in te re st in miss lose .a com p etitio n lose miss lose a chance lose . m oney lose/miss a person a class lose w eight lose a m eeting one’s job lose miss a train/plane etc. miss miss a /you r turn lose _patience .c o n tro l (over) miss . an o p p o rtu n ity one’s tem per lose . one’s way contact lose/miss a m atch D Complete the sentences with the c o llo c a tio n s /e x p re s s io n s in the box below. o ut o f the way u n d e rw a y make our way to 1 “This jo b is going to be done by the way on the way have it yo u r way way ahead com e a long way one way or another one way o r another way o f th in k in g th ere ’s no way way of life said the m anager in a determ ined voice. 3 This school has come a long way 4 We were asked to 5 Can you please move 6 N egotiations are There’s no wav By the way make our way to underw ay ___ ? We w ant to m ove this big box. t< buy a new striker, to im prove the team ’s chances. to _ our parents w ill let us go to the rock festival next weekend. _ , whose tu rn is it to wash the dishes? 9 Once you understand the lecturer’s 10 Why m ust you always _ the dining hall. out of the way have it your way ? it’s not fair! 11 Stop w asting yo ur tim e in class, Michael. The rest of the class is way ahead 12 Teenagers tend to idolise film stars and im itate the way they look and th e ir o f you in M athematics. way of life unit 0 8 Sentence Linkers plete the sentences/paragraphs with the sentence linkers in the box below. fu rth e rm o re besides w hat is more otherw ise nevertheless to be m ore specific not o nly yet likewise to tell you the tru th Not only ‘n e students are not happy w ith th e ir new English teacher. sim ilarly . does he assign them a lot of – omework, but he is also very critica l o f th e ir work. felt like com plaining to the a irp o rt a uth orities the o the r day. Our flig h t was delayed fo r an unknow n reason. s more/Besides/Furthermore the airline d id n ’t bother to apologise fo r th e inconvenience. ‘lin e representative I asked was of no help, if not rude. Furthermore ie inform ation I needed. To tell you the truth , I don’t th in k Adam is very good at his job. To be more specific _he is slow and not Furtherm ore/ Besides/ , he believes th a t he is the backbone o f the company. He is so annoying! What is more Yet/ Nevertheless don’t dare to challenge him because o f his close friendship w ith the manager. .ery creative. Otherwise I w ould not have a problem te llin g him a th ing or two. ‘ you change address n o tify me. Reading books in a foreign language helps you expand yo ur vocabulary. Likewise/Similarly , w atching film s -elps you get used to the pronunciation. Phrasal Verbs ad the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the rrect num ber in the box next to each definition. A PUT 11 devote to • Even though it was summer, I still needed to put on a ju m p e r at night. 1 wear 2 Jane shouldn’t have to put up w ith th a t noisy class. 6 save 4 suffer 3 postpone 8 extinguish sum m er holidays. 9 offer hospitality to Jason put on a lot o f w eig ht over the sum m er break. 2 tolerate 8 The man I was sittin g next to asked me to put out m y cigarette. 7 gain 9 I was m ore than happy to p ut m y friend up fo r the summer. 5 put sth in its usual place 10 connect by telephone 4 establish, create 1 state, establish 2 We have laid o ut the garden. It should look beautiful in spring. g start living a quiet life in a place 3 The stall was set up and ready fo r business. 7 delay 5 begin a Journey 5 The group set o ff/o u t early in the m orning to clim b the treacherous peak. 6 start doing sth 6 I set out this m orning to clean the garden but was inte rru p te d by the rain. 8 become used to 3 make the necessary preparations 3 We w ill have to put o ff the barbecue if the rain continues. i Why m ust you put yourself through all this stress? 5 The students were to ld to put away th e ir books and clear th e ir desks. 5 I put m oney aside every m onth, so th a t I w ould have enough fo r my 7 K) Just a m inute, sir. I’ll put you through to Mr Jones. •1 I have put a lot of w ork in to this project. B LAY, SET, SETTLE 1 As soon as the new teacher introduced herself, she laid down her rules. 4 After years of living w ith friends, Geoffrey decided it was tim e to set up a home o f his own. 7 Technical problem s set us back tw o weeks. 8 It to o k Jill m onths to settle into her new home. for sth to start 9 Carl was not the type to settle down, so his announcem ent th a t he was going to m arry soon to o k everyone by surprise. 2 plan and arrange how sth should appear unit 0 8 Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives afraid Nouns of Verbs (in)caoable of a hope advise sb for confident of/about (be) free from /of handv f° r a result polite to a specialist upset about sth on choose on/about sth between tw o protection from /against choose a reputation collaborate for of from connect cope with with to/w ith to/at to sb to for prevent from tn in (= cause to happen) result to to prepare result explain sth m ention p oint refer with listen prefer com m unicate in occur from (= be caused by) B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. for 1 A compass may come in handy _ 2 Sunscreen offers protection „ our hiking trip next week. from / against 3 We have a va riety o f m aterials to choose the sun’s harm ful rays. 5 You can choose between the red or the blue dress. . a rtificial colouring. from the fire. ___you twice? 9 The local councils decided to collaborate__ on/about the risks involved in sm oking. Grammar Revision (Passive Voice) See Grammar Review page 157 Read the text below and complete each blank with one word. to (6). have . encountered Nessie on January 5th, 1934. Being a ve terina ry student himself, he gave a detailed description o f the animal w hich m atched the p o rtra it o f a p le s io s a u r- a p rehistoric aquatic reptile w hich had any form o f evidence th a t Nessie exists. being _____detected every now and then in several o the r Scottish m illions o f to urists every year. unit 08 ‘poiwrfcs [ ‘ They gave him a puppy for his birthday. 4 He was given a puppy for his birthday. / A puppy was given to him for his birthday. / A puppy was given him for his birthday-* We bought Susan a new camera. 4 A new camera was bought for Susan. / (Use theprepositions to andfo r before the indirect object person – of passive verbs.) | By whom was this essay written? / Who-wa&this essay written? What caused the power failure? 4 What was the power failure caused by? / What wasthe-pewer fatiureeaused? (When asking about the agent of apassive sentence, by must be included in the question.) 0 She couldn’t sleep because she was terrified by the We heard him say that he was guilty. / Weheard him to say that he wasgaflty-^ He was heard to say that he was guilty. / tfowas hoard say that ho was guilty -(see, hear+bare infinitive in Active Voice; see, hear +full infinitive in Passive Voice) horror film./ Terrified by the horror film, she couldn’t sleep. / She couldn’t sleep because she had been terrified by the horror film ./ Having been terrified by the horror film, she couldn’t sle ep./ Joe helped Sue carry/to carry her suitcase. 4 Sue was helped to carry her suitcase. / Suo was holpod carry her suitcase.-. (help +full / bare infinitive in Active Voice; help +full infinitive in Passive Voice) Been-temfied43ythe-h©i¥©riita;shecouldn’t steep. (Past andperfectparticiples may replace clauses in the passive voice.) 0 | i Mary m a d e the children w a sh their handsV Mary m a d e tho children to WQ3h their hands. The children w e re m a d e to w a sh their hands. / Tho children wore made wash their hands:- (make+bare infinitive in Active Voice; make +full infinitive in Passive Voice) They accused Harry of stealing the money. 4 Harry was accused of stealing the money. (In the Passive Voice thepreposition of prepositional verbs goes immediately after the verb.) & We haven’t touched anything. -4 Nothing has been touched. / AnyOriHg-hasnetbeenteHehed: (any+compounds in Active Voice no +compounds in Passive Voice) The dangerous scenes of the film were performed by stuntmen. & They didn’t let me buy a dog. -4 The forest was destroyed by fire. I was not allowed to buy a dog. / The photograph was taken with an expensive camera. Iwa&not4et-toteny-adeg. (by+agent (person or thing), with + instrument) (let in Active Voice -4 be allowed to in Passive Voice) Who wrote this essay? 4 Who(m) was this essay written by? / Key Transformations • I haven’t told anyone the news yet. No one has been told the news yet. Julie is permitted to go to parties. Julie has her parents’ permission to go to parties. • Susan was amazed to find out that her book was missing. To Susan’s amazement, her book was missing. Julie’s parents don’t allow her to go to parties. S We expect that the Australian athlete w ill w in the race. It is expected that the Australian athlete w ill w in the race. The Australian athlete is expected to w in the race. I S Julie’s parents allow her to go to parties. Julie’s parents let her go to parties. Julie is allowed to go to parties. Julie’s parents give her permission to go to parties. Julie’s parents don’t let her go to parties. Julie is not allowed to go to parties. Julie cannot get her parents’ permission to go to parties. Julie is forbidden to go to parties. One must not smuggle goods into the country. It is not allowed to smuggle goods into the country. It is illegal to smuggle goods into the country. It is against the law to smuggle goods into the country. It is forbidden to smuggle goods into the country. unit 0 8 Examination Practice A R ead th e t e x t b e lo w a n d t h in k o f th e w o r d w h ic h b e s t f it s e a c h sp ace . U se o n ly o n e w o r d i n e a c h space. THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA kilom etres long, m aking it by far the longest wall in the w orld. The building of section is close to nine m etres. Over the centuries, the wall has often (7 ) (8 ) invading arm ies such as the M ongols and the Manchus. it is useful fo r d ivid in g the region into cultivated land and chúng tôi Great Wall holds another impressive record greatest to u ris t attraction. 6 C o m p le te th e s e c o n d s e n te n c e so th a t i t h a s a s im ila r m e a n in g to th e f ir s t s e n te n c e , u s in g th e w o r d g iv e n u n c h a n g e d . Y ou m u s t u se b e tw e e n tw o a n d fiv e w o rd s , in c lu d in g th e w o r d g iv e n . 1 They had to postpone the match until next week, put 2 We haven’t told anyone about the change in our plans. informed No one has been informed about the change in our plans. 3 We had to go up the stairs because someone was using the lift. so The lift was being used so we had to go up the stairs. 4 Experts believe that the landslides were caused by recent floods. resulted The landslides are believed to have resulted from recent floods. 5 She doesn’t let him smoke in the house. allowed He is n° t allowed to smoke in the house. 6 We m ustn’t park on the yellow line. forbidden It is forbidden to park on the yellow line. 7 The teacher saw tw o students leave the school. were Two students were seen to leave the school. 8 The coach let the players take the day off. permission Theolavers got the coach’s permission to take the day off. e the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-I below. You may use me of the words more than once. In some cases more than one word may be correct. A choose pick gath er co lle ct choice collection selection election va rie ty o ption C consult advise suggest propose recom m end |y|a|ta f or a a few C]ay S 0ff WOrk due to a persistent illness. D tip clue advice info rm a tio n unit 0 8 E reliable responsible reasonable respectable F m en tion refer express com m ent re p o rt G announce inform confess intro du ce reveal publish H 1 ensure insure reassure make sure co n firm the w indow s before you go. I agree accept a dm it approve This unit deals w ith verbs and nouns which derive from adjectives. Adjective Root Describing a state or co ndition Verb = Adjective + -ise A cquiring the state or cond itio n described by the adjective generalise general • Some o the r com m on adjectives th a t form verbs in the same way are: familiar, fertile, legal, mobile, modern, neutral, special, stable and sterile. • Pay atte ntio n to the fo llo w in g irregularity: stable 4 stabilise Adjective Root in -able/-ible Noun in -ability/-ibility (in)capable (im )possible (in)capability (im )po ssib ility • Some o the r com m on adjectives th a t form nouns in -ability are: available, stable and suitable. • Some other com m on adjectives th a t form nouns in -ib ility are: flexible, responsible, sensible and visible. • The nouns a b ility and sta b ility form opposites w ith the addition o f the prefix -in, not -un. unable 4 inability unstable 4 instability -ous -e -al -ive -or -ar -an -IC -d Adjective Root Noun + -ity generous secure original creative m ajor sim ilar hum an a uthentic hum id generosity security o rig in a lity cre a tivity m a jo rity sim ilarity hum anity a u th e n tic ity h u m id ity • Some nouns w hich derive from adjectives do not fo llo w the rules presented above. Some o f these are: ambiguous 4 am biguity anonymous 4 anonym ity • Note the fo llo w in g irregularities: safe safety various 4 variety Nouns in-hood ferocious 4 ferocity simple 4 sim plicity writ 0 8 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals 1 It is o f vital importance surgical equipm ent IMPORTANT, STERILE before using it. 2 It is yo u r responsibility Visibility . to sw itch o ff the lights when you leave. .w as down to a m etre due to the th ick fog, so we had to drive very cautiously RESPONSIBLE VISIBLE CAUTION 4 Superm arkets o ffe r a variety . o f products to consumers. VARIOUS LIVELY CHEER, PERSONAL w ith alm ost everyone. SAFE PRODUCTIVE CURIOUS 10 Can you sign this docum ent, please? Don’t worry, it’s ju s t a _ the form ality among fo otba ll fans. between this new typ e of engine and fertilise 13 You have to . plants if you w ant them to grow well. FORMAL MINOR SIMILAR CONVENTION FERTILE Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. ADVERTISING In th is day and age, a dve rtisin g is big business. It (1) (2 ) (3 ) the p rin t media, (6 ) t hat we buy this type of ice-cream or that type of trainer. A dvertising com panies use a num ber of techniques to a ttract our attention, including stunning photography, eye-catching graphics, jingles or clever (7 ) th e ir products. unit 08 1 A sets B) puts 2 A introducing B explaining 3 ( a ) va riety 4 (A ) from 5 ( a ) have been E 6 A mean 7 A descriptions 8 A To be more specific C lays D does (C ) inform ing D m entioning B choice C collection D selection B between C th rough D th ro u g h o u t B have C had been D had B approve ( b ) com m ents ( c ) suggest D consult C reports D announcem ents B Vet C Not only D W hat is more 9 (A ) recom m end B suggest D propose 10 B insure ( c ) ensure D confirm A reassure 11 ( a ) Furtherm ore B Nevertheless C Otherw ise 12 B adm it C agree A accept D Likewise ( d ) approve Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. AIR-CONDITIONERS ‘~ e Am erican inventor W.H. Carrier developed the firs t air-con dition ing u nit in 1902. Since then, : ven people’s(3). inability ____to fu nctio n in the heat, air-conditioners provide them POPULAR, RAPID ABLE LIKELY PERSON, PRIVATE :iwn home w ill increase further. But w hat do they do? Their aim is to (7) is accom plished by the (8 ) __ presence stabilise the te m perature in a room. This ____ of a fan, w hich also removes dust and odours o f an air-conditioner air-conditioners on the m arket w hich are bound to cover each person’s needs. STABLE PRESENT EFFICIENT VARIOUS Prepositional Phrases A Complete the blanks with the prepositions in, on, at, by or under. under arrest on . the radio in . return on purpose in reality in . one’s opinion by _force on average on a diet by . heart at . last in conclusion in . a mess in in .a d d itio n on demand on strike on by in on in fire . mistake . general second thoughts .th e long run any case control at television by . oneself in particular in detail on the whole on the contrary at all costs in person in sum m ary in pairs under on first sight B Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions in, into, on, at, by, for or off. in 1 The statue in the square is _______memory of the soldiers w ho fo u g h t in the war. 5 Most people shop 6 BV on . credit nowadays due to the convenience of cred it cards. . all accounts, she is a great perform er. into hundreds o f pieces. 60km/h. ______the sake of yo u r children. street and managed to arrest him. 13 . sale and we’re th in kin g of buying it. unit 0 9 i d the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the ■■Trect number in the box next to each definition. 1/ MIX, RUN, HANG 6 knock down w ith a vehicle 2 confuse 5 m eet unexpectedly 4 He was a restless teenager and kept running away from home. 8 spend tim e at a place not doing anything im p o rta n t 5 You w on’t believe w ho I ran into at the d epartm ent store yesterday! 3 go away 10 w ait fo r a sh ort tim e 4 leave, escape from 1 socialise 7 have no m ore left 9 p ut down the receiver, end a phone call suddenly 11 frequent, go often 1 be stron gly attracted to 1 John is a ve ry good host. He knows how to m ix w ith the crowd. 2 My sister and I are tw ins and people always m ix us up. 3 Run along now, I’m busy; I’ll ta lk to you a fte r the break. 6 My dog Dido was nearly run over by a car yesterday. 7 Gary ran out of petrol in the m iddle o f nowhere. 8 Teenagers tend to hang about/around arcades spending th e ir pocket m oney on video games. 9 The man on the o the r end of the line was so rude th a t I hung up on him. 10 I was told to hang on w hile th ey connected me w ith another departm ent. 11 Jeff doesn’t hang o u t in the city centre anym ore. 5 FALL, HURRY, TRY 1 Frank fell fo r Susan during th e ir final year at university. 2 The m anaging d ire cto r replaced the sales m anager after falling out w ith him over a crucial issue. 5 3 M ost students had fallen behind in th e ir studies because o f the dem anding w orkload. 4 The com pany fell apart w hen the m anaging d irector was arrested fo r fraud. 6 p ut on clothes to see if they fit or look nice 3 n ot make adequate progress 4 stop existing or fu n ctio n in g 7 test 2 have an argum ent w ith 5 If you don’t h u rry up, we’ll miss the beginning o f the concert. 6 While shopping, George has to try on at least five shirts before he makes up his mind. 7 I had the o p p o rtu n ity to try o ut all the latest pow er tools at last week’s do-it- make haste, do sth quickly yourself exhibition. Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Verbs Adjectives anxious about sth (dis)aaree concerned about/for late w ith about nervous about worried about w ith about/on aDDlv institution Nouns acom D laint araue about sb/an for w ith a bout/for sth ask for sb an action to sb bea auarrel for comolain a subject (dis)aaree for sb to about sth comDlain of criticise sb sth speak f° r discouraaesb sth f rom talk to sb/sth sth to/w ith about thank sb w o rrv sb to/w ith w onder doing sth obiect about sb sth w ith sb sb sth for sth about about sb/sth unit 0 9 3 Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 Joe looks very w orried his job. Why doesn’t he ta lk about 2 The captain demanded m ore e ffo rt 3 Most w orkers agreed 5 Jane was late w ith someone about jt? his team. the m anagem ent a com puter com pany for 6 I always quarrel f rom to on f° r having a wage cut to save th e ir jobs. the position o f sales representative on offer. Susan’s b irth da y party on Friday night. w ith my sister 7 Why m ust you always argue about w ith Donald w hat to w atch on TV. about football? Grammar Revision (Pronouns-Causative Form) See Grammar Review page 158 Read the short texts below and complete each blank with one word. a As soon as I got my driver’s licence, I stopped taking the bus to w ork and started driving my mine . He was kind enough to have a look at my car, and after that (9 ) (10 ) having b I was feeling really nervous about (12) _ some medical tests done, but _______that I had nothing to w orry about. When someone to paint our house and she had to be there herself, so I w ent by (15 ) (16 ) makes (18). me feel faint! After that ordeal, I was told th a t I had to (19) _ have m y chest X-rayed, so I w ent to the radiography departm ent. The test results came out a week later and showed that there for a while. unit 0 9 Mary typed three letters yesterday. (Active Voice, she typed them herself.) Mary had/got three letters typed yesterday. (Causative Form, someone else typed them for her.) Three letters were typed yesterday. (Passive Voice, we don’t know who typed the letters; it could have been Mary.) – – & (Reflexive pronouns are not used after the verbs relax, rest, concentrate.) I woke up early this morning. / Iwokemyselfup early thism orning. (Reflexivepronouns are not used after verbs such as wake up, wash, dress, shave, sleep etc.) Mary had some letters typed yesterday. Did Mary have any letters typed yesterday? / Had-Ma^y-aeyjettefstyped yesterday?^ (Questions in the Causative Form areformed with do/does/did in the Present and Past Simple.) The woman was looking right in front of her. / Ttewomafrwas-toekingrighLm front o f herself. (Reflexivepronouns are not used after prepositions of place.) We enjoyed ourselves very much at the party. / We enjoyed the party very much. / Weenjoyed -very much at the party. (Reflexivepronouns are used after verbs such as enjoy, help, teach etc. when the subject and the object of the verb are the same.) She has her children tidy their bedroom every weekend. / (=She makes her children tidy their bedroom.) She hasheteteiM jen^otidytheir-bedroom -every weekend: She got her children to tidy their bedroom yesterday. / (=Shepersuaded her children to tidy their bedroom.) She gothar children tidy th eir bedroom yesterday. – They were looking at each other. / They were looking at one another. / They-were looking at oneother. ■ They had their flat broken into last night. (Their flat was broken into last night.) (The Causative Form is often used instead of the Passive Voicefor accidents or misfortunes.) I’d like another glass of m ilk. / I’d like one more glass of m ilk. / Mlikeone-othergJassofm iik. We drove for another ten miles and then we stopped. / We drove for ten more miles and then we stopped. / W ediovefor tenother m ilesand then we stopped. & I have my own car now, so I don’t have to borrow my father’s. / Not even his own mother recognised him in his disguise. / I weRtsfaopptegwithm yownrnotheronFriday. (Own is usedfor emphasis or to indicate that something belongs only to aparticular person, thing or group.) You need to take some tim e off and relax. / We are meeting the other students at the train station. S We are meeting the others at the train station. / We-are-meetiHgtheet-hersstudentsatthetrainstation. (When other is used before a noun, it does not take an s.) That woman’s cat ate m y pet hamster. / Thacatof-that-womanate m y pet-hamster. The cat of the woman who lives next door ate my pet hamster. / Tfrewoman’swholivesnextdoorcatatemypet hamster. (of+ noun is usedfor people only in longphrases.) Key Transformations & A computer expert must update m y computer. I need to/must have my computer updated. My computer needs updating. I need to have a computer expert update m y computer. I need to get a computer expert to update my computer. The young artists’ exhibition was sponsored by a mobile phone company. ® No one helped me paint my apartment. I painted my apartment on m y own. I painted my apartment (all) by myself. & A mobile phone company sponsored the young artists’ exhibition. The young artists had their exhibition sponsored by a mobile phone company. ® One of m y cousins is a famous basketball player. A cousin of mine is a famous basketball player. ® We made sure that the books were returned to the library. We had/got the books returned to the library. unit 09 Examination Practice A Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. THE VW BEETLE The Volkswagen Beetle is one o f the best known cars in the world. (1 ) ______________ all accounts, it defined a w hole generation (2 ) It all began in 1935 when Ferdinand Porsche designed the car on his (3 ) and its noise level, the car w ent on to become a legend. D uring W orld War II, the Volkswagen fa cto ry was b urnt down, b ut this did not discourage the In 1946, Volkswagen named the car ‘Type I’ to m ark a new sta rt fo r the company. W ithin tw o years, the firs t Beetle Over the years, sales grew dram atically and by 1972 the Beetle had made its way into h istory books as the m ost produced exported to the United States. 1935 model. B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 Someone stole Bill’s briefcase yesterday. stolen Bill had his briefcase stolen yesterday. 2 Our flat needs painting before we rent it out. qet We need to get our flat painted before we rent it out. 3 Sheila, make sure they sign the contracts by the end of the day. siqned Sheila, get/have the contracts signed by the end of the day. 4 My secretary has rescheduled the meeting for Tuesday. had I have had the m eeting rescheduled for Tuesday. 5 Did you know that one of our friends painted this picture? friend Did vou know that a friend of ours painted this picture? 6 Have some more cheesecake. help Please. help yourself to some more cheesecake. 7 Jennifer finally agreed to apply fo r the position. qot Thev finally got Jennifer to apply for the position. 8 He always waxes his car on his own. anyone He never lets/has anyone (else) wax allows anyone (else) to wax 9 The children were told to be well-mannered in front of the guests. his car. unit 09 10 The students were made to do some extra work for the project. had T1 No one helped the children build the treehouse, that’s w hy they were so proud of their achievement, by achievement. 12 We had a very good tim e at the rock concert. Words easily confused Ise the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may =se some of the words more than once. In some cases more than one word may be correct. say tell speak ta lk discuss debate B ask dem and w onder question apply C require request o rd er beg inquire com m and appeal unit 0 9 D advice directions guide instructions manual plan recipe E brochure leaflet handbook catalogue list menu 5 refuse deny regret resist reject G com plain criticise object discourage disapprove p ro test argue quarrel 3 Many teachers 6 Don’t argue/quarrel 7 I trie d not to feel w ith yo ur sister. Sit down and discuss your problems. discouraged by my low test score, b ut it was d iffic u lt not to. 8 John and Kate sp lit up because they were quarrelling/arguing H w o rry m ind b o th e r annoy tro u b le d ou bt fig h t u n itQ 9 When you are asked to form a derivative, first check what part of speech the missing word is; it should supply. • Nouns can be in the singular or plural form . The plural of m ost nouns is form ed by adding the endings -s or -es to the singular form of the noun. Root Word Deriving noun-singular Deriving noun-plural action actions activity activities act degree in -est. Root Word Derivatives Comparative Superlative luck(n o u n ) lucky (adj) luckier more luckily luckiest m ost luckily faster fastest deeper more deeply deepest m ost deeply — deeply Adverbs in -ly and adjectives w ith more than tw o syllables form th e ir com parative and superlative • Verbs can be either in the Present Simple, the Past Simple, the -ing form or they could be Past Participles. Root Word Derivatives Form Present Simple danger endanger Past Simple -ing form mistake Examples -s/-es in the 3rd person singular endanger-s mistake-s -ed irregular fo rm a tion endangered m istook ■ing endangering m istaking -ed irregular form ation endangered mistaken mistake Past Participle • Present participles in -ing and past participles in -ed/ irregular form s are also used as adjectives. interest 4 interesting / interested grow growing / grown u n it 0 9 C o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s w it h th e c o r r e c t fo r m o f th e w o r d s i n c a p ita ls . m ust take on m any MANAGE, SUCCESS SPECIAL CHANCE MEMORY LIVE COUNTRY, MODERN be ————–nations————–.————————————————————————————————————– NATION ___________ parking spaces. LUCK PARK LIKE LIGHT THIRST 12 SCIENCE ______ unsolved__________ SOLVE SPEND, THOUGHT FAST ANNOY CANCEL DISAPPOINT BORE Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A , B, C or D best fits each space. A rth ur M iller was born in New York in 1915. He was the son of a coat m anufacturer who at an early age disturbed M iller and thereafter he was aware of society’s inadequacies. Miller’s m ajor achievem ent came in 1949, when he won the Pulitzer Prize fo r Drama for his play “ Death o f a 0f ^ beliefs and look down on him. the responsibility of the individual and th e ir purpose in life. One way or another, M iller’s plays analyse (11) in detail unit 0 9 1 A failed (JB) lost C missed D wasted 2 (a ) criticise B disapprove C com plain D protest 3 (a ) way B course C approach D m anner D speaks 4 A debates B says 5 A under B out of C by (D)in 6 A argue B d oubt C object (d ) disapprove B On demand C By force 7 /”TA „ (^AjOn average B w onder 8 A apply 9 A of 10 A in B behind 11 A in pairs B in person 12 (a ) question (b ) a bout B inquire © te lls D At firs t sight D talk © d is c u s s D fo r C w ith C out ( d) apart D in half © i n detail C ask D appeal B Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals.

The New Zealanders Dwayne van der Sluis and Andrew Akers m ust be the happiest people on Earth now th a t th e ir i LATE STAND CONSIST hardened plastic. The zorb is rolled down a hill, speeding at about 50 kilom etres an hour. (4) (5) Participants __can be PARTICIPATE GUARANTEE RISK the 70 centim etres of air between you and the ground make it (7) POSSIBLE POPULAR INVENT PARTNER many countries w orldwide. SECTION 1 (FCE format) ___________________________________________________________________________________________ F o r q u e s tio n s 1-12, re a d th e te x t b e lo w a n d d e c id e w h ic h a n s w e r A , B, C o r D b e s t f it s e a c h space. T h e re is an e x a m p le a t th e b e g in n in g (0). – y ” Example: 0 IJ J (A )o n th e w a y B underw ay C in the way D by the way ____________________ (I ) . U ndoubtedly, exams rather aim low so as not to be disappointed if they get low marks. On the whole, there are many practical things th a t parents can do and w hich may prove invaluable to th e ir children. (II ) e verything w ill be fine w hatever the result. 1 A force 2 A to succeed 3 A richly B set ( jj ) succeeding ———— ® ———- ————– ————–” p ut D bring C have succeeded D been succeeding B econom ically C) fin ancially D valuably 4 (A) intention B dem and C opinion D reaction 5 (A) consulted B recom m ended C suggested 6 A am ount 7 A tim e 8 A Nevertheless 9 (A ) tu rn 10 A approve 11 A clues 12 A ensure B sum (C) va riety D selection (J3) run C term D process (j3) A part from C Instead of D As far as C depend D apply B com m unicate B accept (J3) instructions B insure @ a g re e C announcem ents C make sure D confirm D directions (d ) reassure unit I Q For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). WHY SLEEP is NECESSARY However, he was w rong. Nowadays, we are living in a society w hich is sleeping less than ever and this has resulted 19 ) 20 ) animals co ntin uo usly deprived of sleep has shown that they are likely to die. Of course, experim ents o f this kind are period of wakefulness w hich broke the record was eleven days. This experim ent showed th a t after a few days w ith o u t sleep, the m ind and body w ere unable to fu n ctio n normally. tw enty-four-hour period. unit I Q For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end o f each lin e to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0). SHARKS or DOLPHINS? A m bitious athletes will go to great ( 0 ) __ in order to su cce e d in their of th em participating in the O lym p ic G am es and LONG POSSIBLE even w inning a m edal. training T his is the ca se with the A m erican sw im m ing team w ho are in (26) next y e a r’s O lym p ics. Their co ach has (27) fam iliarised sh a rk s m ove through w ater in ord er to (28) stren g th en TRAIN him self w ith the w ay the sw im m e rs’ stroke and speed. Sw im m ing like sh a rk s FAMILIAR STRONG EFFICIENT could give them the ad vantag e they require, though altering their style m ay seem a(n) (3 0 ) PLEASANT MAJOR e a sie r to adopt. By co pying them , sw im m e rs can co ver a g reater (32) DISTANT th us increasing their (33) likelihood ___ of w inning gold in the next O lym p ics. LIKELY FAST For questions 35-42, com plete the second sentence so that it has a sim ilar meaning to the first sentence, using the w ord given. Do not change the w ord given. You must use betw een tw o and five words, including the word given. There is an exam ple at the beginning (0). Exam p le: 0 W hen I w a s yo u n g er, I played te n n is e v e ry Su n day. used e v e ry Sunday. 35 S p e e d in g in th e city is a g a in st th e law. forbidden 3 6 T h e re w a s no n eed for you to bring an u m b rella. not 37 A b u rg la r e n te re d Mr S te in b erg ‘s o ffice last night, into _____________ last night. 3 8 No o n e help ed u s o rg a n ise th e fe stiv itie s th is year, by yVe org an ised the festivities by o u rse lv e s th is year. 3 9 He failed to d e liv e r th e p a rce l on tim e, succeed He didn’t su cce e d in delivering th e p a rce l on tim e, 4 0 P eo p le e x p e c t h er to e sta b lish h er o w n b u sin e ss so o n , se t h er ow n b u sin e ss so on. 41 I g et th e im p re ssio n th at Je n n y is w o rrie d ab o u t so m e th in g , seem s 4 2 I b elie ve sh e sw itch e d off the h e a te r before going out. turned unit I Q SECTION 2 (ECCE format) Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. The teacher got the students to clean the 6. You should have your hair schoolyard. a. clean © t o clean d. cleaning don t need a. needn’t a. to be painted to Paint the whole camp, has decided to leave her job © t o pick d. to picking 9. You must have had a great tim e on your vacation b. had c. be had d. us run out airport this afternoon.” a. have 5. Could you please go to the grocery store on your way home? We’ve b. turned out ^ )ru n out d. put out will have © h a v e had 10. This project finished bv the end of this month, © w i l l have finished of tomatoes. a. made out Jason up from the You seem happy and relaxed. © o u rs c. ourselves d. is expect to Pick c. pick as a journalist and follow a career in modelling. a. our © i s expected a. picking d. be painted ours is expected to win the elections, c. is been expected © t o paint c. paint © s ty le d 8. “Jim, d o n ‘t forget d. had better not 3. The soldiers were made b. style c. styles a. is being expected b. haven’t © d o n ‘t need a. styling 7. Mr. Blake’s party t0 go t0 the supermarket. I have everything we need for the cake. 4. A cousin of for your sister’s wedding. c. cleaned 2. You styled b. will have be finished c. will be finishing d. will finished Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. i w asn’t satisfied with the salary I was getting, so I decided to quit my job. a. allowance ^ s a la r y 2. It was difficult to b. income a. contact © te m p e r c. chance d. control t ^ e extent of the 7. As soon as I get paid, I will pay all my a. deposits a. predict b. suppose c. assume © e s tim a te available 4. The student , so we decided service. b. insufficient © in a d e q u a te © in d e p e n d e n t b. refused c. incapable d. resisted 10. I want to regardless the d ifficult questions. a. except inadequate c. short cheating on the test 5. The third contestant managed to win © re g a rd le s s the 9. Now that the children had grown up and were although her teacher caught her in the act. c. rejected d. budgets a. scarce b. spare © d e n ie d b. sums © d e b ts d. handy denied 0f make sure b. on behalf b. engaged d. relevant that I turned off all the lights in the house, so I’ll go back and check, a. insure d. thanks debts 8. We complained to the restaurant manager about to go somewhere close. c. ready and started screaming at d. reward damage at first sight. © a v a ila b le tem per her colleagues. estimate 3. We only had a few days 6. Julie lost her © m a k e sure b. reassure d. inquire Complete the blanks with the verbs follow, h a v e or take. A take a photograph/picture take/have a seat have fun take care of action on sth take have a party/celebration take/have a [qq^ (g^ have a meal have/take a rest/break have an araument/a quarrel __________a meeting follow/take orders take a test have trouble with have a headache/toothache follow take take take sb/sth for granted take turns take measures sth into consideration take have/take a bath/shower have instructions the blame for sth a dream follow sbbv surprise take directions take place one’s chance B Read the sentences below. Complete the boxes with the verbs have or take and the blanks with prepositions. 1 Twenty two countries will take 2 Every year we advantage 3 They take have part no respect °f f° r have 6 I have any idea 9 I 10 of the weather conditions th e ir eves take off the performing dolphins. responsibility f° r the company’s disastrous performance. Take no notice have 12 Now that I’m older, I 13 I am a pilot and I °f what she savs. She’s always making up stories. more confidence have take account. how to operate this contraption? have 11 Youneedto into going back to school next year. take 8 David had no option but to the Bank Holiday and spend a long weekend at a seaside resort take no intention 7 The children couldn’t this year’s water polo tournament. their new teacher. 4 Before setting off on a fishing trip, you must 5 Do you in in no interest a lot of pride yourself. in stamp collecting. in mv work. C Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs give, pay, b rin g or mind. 1 It’s been weeks since I last 2 Give Paid Helen a visit. Henry a ring immediately. He said it was urgent. 3 What were you doing hiding behind the door? You 4 The chairperson brought 5 Gerry was kind enough to 6 Passengers are asked to 7 Who can 9ive me a real shock. meeting to an end because the members of the board could not agree on a plan of action. give rnind me a lift to the railway station. the step when disembarking. _ me an explanation for the rising sea waters? 8 The teacher got angry because nobody was ft gave paying attention to him. unit 11 -“fvmf: | ,V’■ Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition. A TAKE 5 1 The custom ers were asked to take th eir shoes off before entering the leave the ground 10 fu lly understand Japanese restaurant. 4 look like, resemble 2 Susan decided not to take on any new responsibilities. 3 The video recorder I bought wasn’t w orking properly, so I took it back. 7 gain control of 4 Everybody says I take after my mother. 9 fill, occupy 5 The passengers had to w a it over th irty m inutes before the aeroplane fin a lly 3 return took off. 6 begin, become interested in 1 remove 3 leave suddenly w ith o u t telling anyone 2 accept 4 demolish 6 After retiring, Steven took up bow ling to keep him self occupied. 7 My brother w ill take over the com pany now th a t my father has passed away. 8 Why did you take o ff w ith o u t saying goodbye last night? 9 The fu rn iture takes up too much space and the kids have nowhere to play. 10 He m ust have been tired because he didn’t seem to take in anything I was saying. B CLOSE, KNOCK 1 The police had closed off the highway in search of the escaped prisoner. cease, stop operating 2 The fu nfair was closed down because of its terrible safety record. isolate, prevent from being used/accessed 3 The force of the ball h itting his head knocked him out cold. 4 They had no choice but to knock down the old warehouse. make unconscious 5 Cycling on the footpath is prohibited due to the danger of knocking down/over hit and cause to fall down pedestrians. C CLEAR, CLEAN, DROP 6 visit w ith o u t warning 1 The m isunderstanding w ill be cleared up as soon as he gets here. 2 Students are asked to clean out their lockers at the end of the school year. 2 3 We were detained after school in order to clean up the laboratory. 4 leave somewhere 4 Could you please drop me off at the railway station? 1 resolve, explain 5 He had a big fig h t w ith his parents because he decided to drop out of college. 3 em pty and clean clean thoroughly 6 You w ouldn’t believe w ho dropped in yesterday at m y place! leave w ith o u t finishing the course Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives disgusted envious Verbs Nouns by/at of a reason a threat for to put the blame for sb on lie sth auiltv of/about patient popular shocked suspicious for Verbs with w ith by/at of forget sb accusesb sentence sb dream about/of of sth arrest sb for sth blame sb for sth escape fiaht from w ith sb about about to sth sth sb about to unit I f B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 Why do I always get the blame for 2 The w hole co u n try was shocked by/at 3 Both parties put the blame on 4 Jane’s friends were envious of 5 Don’t blame me 6 The w ell-know n businessman was sentenced 7 People are usually suspicious for e verything th a t goes wrong? the president’s sudden death. each o the r for the collapse o f peace negotiations . her rise to fame and fortune. the m isunderstanding. I tried my best. of to three years in jail fo r fraud. politicians m aking promises during election tim e. Grammar Revision (Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result) See G r a m m a r R e v ie w p a g e 1 6 0 A R ea d th e t e x t b e lo w a n d c o m p le te e a c h b la n k w it h o n e w o rd . The production of items made of gold dates back to ancient Egyptian and Minoan would slowly wash away and the gold particles would collect at the bottom of the pan. it became the basis for international transactions. Over time, new m ining techniques developed and elaborate methods (9 ) (10 ) Gold is stored in reserve by many governments. In Fort Knox, USA, alone, there are thirty-eight billion dollars w orth of gold lost much of its glitter. B R e w rite th e f o llo w in g s e n te n c e s so th a t th e s e c o n d s e n te n c e h a s a s im ila r m e a n in g to th e f ir s t . B e g in w it h th e w o rd (s ) g iv e n . 1 They never help the poor even though they are very wealthy. Despite the fact that they are very wealthy, they never help the poor/being very wealthy, they never help the poor 2 However well he performed, he didn’t win the first prize. 3 Even though I was sick, I tried not to fall behind w ith my homework. 4 In spite of his disability, he managed to get on w ith his life. Although 5 She is so friendly that everyone wants to hang out w ith her. 6 All flights were delayed yesterday because there was an accident on the runway. In spite of / Despite the cold weather, they went swimming. / In spite of / Despite the fact that the weather was cold, they went We carituse-the company car for to goo a tin the evenings We can’t use the company car for going out in the evening. / sw im m ing./ Wecan!t use the company car for to going out in the cvcning.(to+infinitive, fo r+-ingform, expressingpurpose) In spite of / Despite the weather being cold, they went swimming. / © He wakes up early so as not to be late for work. / In spite of/Despite the weather was cuhl, Uieywenl Hewakes up eariy so as to not be lateforwerk. ■ swimming? He wakes up early in order not to be late for work. / Despite of the cold weather, they went swimming. Hewakesupearly-inordeFtonotb e-latefor-wefk. (in spite of/despite+noun/the fact that/-ingform) He wakes up early not to be late for work.— (so asnot to and in ordernot to expressnegativepurpose.) q Although the weather was cold, they went swimming. / Though the weather was cold, they went swimming. / & I’m going to buy a car so that I can get to work faster. I bought a car so that I could get to work faster. Even though the weather was cold, they went swimming. / (so that+can/may/will expresspurpose with present/ Rvfin although the wpathpr was rnlri they wpnt swimming future time reference.) Although /Though /Even though the cold weather, they went (so that+could/might/would expressespurpose with past swimming. time reference.) (though /although/even though+clause) & The flight was cancelled because the air-traffic controllers were ® I’m taking an umbrella in case it rains. / I’m taking an umbrella, in case it will rain: on s trik e ./ I took an umbrella in case it rained. / The flight was cancelled because of the air-traffic I took an umbrella, in caseit would rain. controllers’strike. / (Do not use will/would after in case.) The flight was cancelled because of the air-traffic controllers being on strike. / The film was so boring thatlnearly fell asleep. / The flight was cancelled because uf Ule aii -Ualflc controllers It was so boring a film that I nearly fell asleep. / were on strike. It was such a boring film that I nearly fell asleep. / (because+clause of reason, because of+ noun/-ingform) The film was suchboring that I nearly foil asleep It was such boring film that I nearly fell asleep. & We can’t use the company car to go out in the evening. / 0 Key Transformations Q Although/Even though/Though it was raining heavily, they went on a day trip. In spite of / Despite the fact that it was raining heavily, they went on a day trip. In spite of / Despite the heavy rain, they went on a day trip. project on time. However hard they worked, they didn’t manage to finish the project on time. No matter how hard they worked, they didn’t manage to finish the project on time. & Jane wasn’t feeling well, so she didn’t go out. Jane didn’t go out because/as she wasn’t feeling well. Since/As Jane wasn’t feeling well, she didn’t go out. Not feeling well, Jane didn’t go out. Jane didn’t go out because of / due to not feeling well. Jane didn’t go out because of / due to the fact that she was not feeling well. & The child was rescued because the lifeguards acted immediately. The child was rescued due to / thanks to / owing to the lifeguards’ immediate action. & Whatever he tells me, I don’t believe him. I don’t believe him no matter what he tells me. © We arrived at the airport early because we did not want to miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early in order / so as not to miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early so that we wouldn’t miss the plane. We arrived at the airport early for fear of missing the plane. We arrived at the airport early for fear (that) we might miss the plane. & We left early in order to / so as to / to get there in time. We left early so that we could/would get there in time. We left early w ith a view to / w ith the aim of getting there in time. & There was so much smoke that we couldn’t see anything. There was such a lot of smoke that we couldn’t see anything, g) His heart was so weak that he didn’t survive the operation. He had such a weak heart that he didn’t survive the operation. He had so weak a heart that he didn’t survive the operation. His heart was too weak to survive the operation. His heart wasn’t strong enough to survive the operation. unit I f Examination Practice A C hoose th e c o rre c t answ er. 1. The church has set up a charity with the aim of raising 6. She was heavily dressed funds for the refugees, a. of raise @ o f raising a. due to d. to raising c. because of to send them 7. He walked in quietly to my friends abroad. a. to sending c. I can send ( d ) to send yourself if you want to succeed. b. in c. at d. of likes them. (jj^such c. so b. such a d. a so 5. “ Look at Sheila! She’s so beautiful, is n ‘t she?” “ Yeah, ( a ) after c. on b. despite (c£)for fear of so as not to fa/iso as not to b. I could send a. for catching a cold. b. raising 2. I took photos of the baby so as for fear of b. over c. so as d o n ‘t 8. wake up the baby, b. so as to not d. so as to d o n ‘t ________ the weather was fine, we decided to go for a swim. ( a)As c. While b. Because of d. Due to 9. “You know I have nothing to do with all this mess! Don’t a. in (b )o n c. at d. for colder at night, a. will get (c/igets b. would get d. getting d. up B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 Although the police suspected him, they didn’t arrest him. suspicious 2 However busy she is, she always makes tim e for exercise. m atte r 3 There was so much traffic on the road that I was an hour late. lo t 4 The operation was cancelled because it was considered risky. due 5 The puzzle was not easy enough for them to do. so 6 He wants to buy a new computer, so he is saving up. aim 7 He braked suddenly to avoid hitting the old man. as 8 He is proud of his work, but he is not arrogant. p ride 9 That accident was so frigh tfu l that I’ll never forget it. such 10 He uses tw o alarm clocks in order not to wake up late. th a t unit 11 Words easily confused Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A -I below. You may use som e of the words more than once. In some cases, more than one word may be correct. stop avoid fo rb id 1 Smoking has been p ro h ib it ban banned/prohibited prevent escape in all public places. 5 For reasons of hygiene, animals are forbidden/prohibited to enter hospitals. blame accuse arrest a conviction fo r shoplifting. charge co nvict sentence co m p la int annoyance accusation disa pp oin tm en t 2 Despite the media hype, the concert was a real 3 I wish to make a(n) disappointm ent . chase pursue h un t fo llo w cause excuse reason purpose aim unit 11 F rob steal burgle hijack deceive cheat lie s h o p lift blackm ail G attack knock h it beat blow strike intervene. H robber th ie f burglar kidnapper co n vict crim inal pickpocket vic tim hostage people. I fo rg e t leave ignore neglect o m it unit 11 i Verb Root Adjective = verb + -able accept acceptable • Many adjectives in -able sign ify th a t w hat the verb describes can be done. believe 4 believable = that can be believed • Some adjectives in -able deriving from verb roots have a d iffe re n t meaning: agree -4 agreeable (=pleasant) consider -4 considerable (=great in am ount, substantial) predict, prefer, recognise, remark and respect. • When the verb root ends in -ate, the -ate is replaced by -able. irritate 4 irritable tolerate 4 tolerable • When the verb root ends in -e, the -e is dropped before the ending -able, unless there is a vowel, a c or a g before the -e. admire 4 admirable notice 4 noticeable change 4 changeable Verb Root Adjective = verb + -ible access accessible o ° • Many adjectives in -ible signify th a t w hat the verb describes can be done. accessible = that can be accessed • Some o the r com m on verbs th a t fo rm adjectives in the same way are: convert, digest, resist and sense. • When the verb roo t ends in -d or -de, the -d / -de changes into -s before the ending -ible: comprehend 4 comprehensible divide 4 divisible • When the verb roo t ends in -mit, the -t changes into -ss before the ending -ible. perm it 4 permissible sense -4 sensible -4 sensibly Verb Root Noun = verb + -ery cook cookery • Some o the r com m on verbs th a t form nouns in the same way are: rob and trick. • When the verb ends in -e or -er, the -e/-er is replaced by -ery. discover -4 discovery Verb Root confide ignore forge -4 forgery Adjective = verb + < — -ent — -ant ___ – -ence Noun = verb + CT —- ance co nfid en t ignorant confidence ignorance • Some other com m on verbs th a t form adjectives in -ent and nouns in -ence are: correspond, depend, differ and exist. • A nother com m on verb th a t form s an adjective in -ant and a noun in -ance is: resist • When the verb roo t ends in -ate, the -ate is replaced by the -ant and the -ance: tolerate 4 tolerant -4 tolerance • Some verb roots form o nly nouns in -ance, not adjectives in -ant: assist 4 assistance attend -4 attendance Some adjectives and nouns w hich derive from verb roots do not fo llo w the rules presented above: appear 4 apparent 4 appearance perform 4 perform ing 4 performance insure 4 insured 4 insurance please -4 pleasant 4 pleasure interfere 4 interfering 4 interference signify 4 significant 4 significance obey obedient obedience Verb Root …………….. ……— ………— ……….. chúng tôi (person) =verb + -ant assist assistant — • Nouns in -ant referring to people signify a person th a t does w hat the verb describes. • Some other com m on verbs th at form nouns in the same way are: account, attend, consult, contest, defend, depend, inhabit and serve. • When the verb root ends in -ate or -y, the -ate/-y are replaced by -ant. immigrate 4 im m igrant occupy -4 occupant • Be careful w ith the noun (person) deriving from the verb apply. apply 4 applicant Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. noticeable 2 There has been a 3 My friend was in fo r a(n) __change in his behaviour lately. NOTICE PLEASE BURGLE 5 I can’t stand this COOK, HOPE tolerable unbearable 6 This disease is still incurable , but the service was awful. TOLERATE . heat! I have to buy an air-conditioner. BEAR CURE, ADVISE careful. 7 Many students lack i n __ confidence speaking .w hen it comes to CONFIDE, SPEAK English. 9 Some students are to ta lly .cle ve r fo r his age. REMARK OBEY ACCEPT insured . against fire, so the insurance INSURE, INSURE com pany w ill not pay fo r the damage. and was im prisoned fo r six years. . I had an enjoyable FORGE tim e. 14 Despite his young age, he behaved very sensibly FORGET, ENJOY APPLY SENSE Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. A WILD HUNT Living in a modern society, we cannot (1). ignore the acts of crim e that take place every day. Criminal activity ranges from stealing to the more serious crimes of kidnapping and murder. an off-licence in broad daylight. The shop owner tried to call the police, but he received a severe blow to the back of his head, which left him unconscious. It appears that the tw o situation on the police and (11) responsibility for the setbacks. 1 (A ) ignore 2 A stole B neglect ( b ) robbed C fo rg e t D o m it C shoplifted D hijacked C pickpockets D burglars 3 (A )crim in a ls 4 A escaped (B) avoided C prevented D stopped 5 A arresting (B )chasing C hunting D fo llo w in g 6 A Despite 7 A down 8 (A ) taken 9 B convicts B Therefore C Although ( d ) However C up D away B follow ed C put D made A w ith B about C from D by 10 A fa u lt B accusation 11 A charged 12 A got (B )° ff © b la m e (jja c c u s e d B recognised C blamed © to o k D cause D convicted D received B Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. ANTIBACTERIAL SOAPS A (1)_ considerable no real (5)_ preferable num ber o f people feel that washing w ith antibacterial CONSIDER SENSE _ has led them to believe that these soaps are IGNORE _ to normal ones. However, research has shown that there is PREFER proved that being too clean actually has (7) effects, as our (8) _ (9 ) resistant bodies undesirable ______do not become has come as a surprise, especially to those who believe th a t bacteria ( have to be fo ug ht w ith every means known to man. DIFFER CONTAIN DESIRE BODY RESIST, DISCOVER Prepositional Phrases A Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions on, at, by or to. 3 B Complete the blanks with the prepositions in and out of. In some cases both prepositions can be used. fashion in /o u to f prjn t out of .w o rk in/out of business in /o u to f tQUch out of date in/out of danger out of reach in /o u to f in /o u to f control in /o u to f stock in debt sight in/out of season co m fo rt in /o u to f order the o rd in a ry in/out of practice in/out of out of in in in/out of . breath in .pain out of .d iffic u lty in/out of in /o u to f place use o u to f the question C Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases in the box below. out of season in shape o ut o f reach o ut o f control o ut o f the question o ut o f place o ut of date in touch 2 We looked 6 My parents told me th a t taking the car on Saturday n ig ht was out of the question . Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition. A BRING, GIVE 1 Bringing up children is a full-tim e job. 2 You can bring your friend along to the party on Saturday. 7 stop having or doing sth 10 reveal 2 take with you 4 cause 3 recall, remind 11 return 8 distribute 6 give free of charge 1 raise 3 Looking through old photograph albums brings back many memories, i 4 The greenhouse effect has b rought about a change in our climate. 5 When she fainted, we all tried to bring her round. | 6 The new airline was giving away free tickets to many lucky passengers. 7 My doctor told me to give up coffee for health reasons. passers-by. 9 When we moved to Scotland, I had to give up my job. 12 admit being defeated 11 Have I given you back the money that I owe you? 5 make conscious again, revive 12 A good tennis player never gives in no matter what the score is. 9 quit, resign from 7 destroy by explosion 6 suddenly begin to laugh, cry etc. 3 They handed the m oney over to the police. 1 give to sb in charge 4 The secret know ledge of the profession was handed down from father to son. 3 deliver to sb in authority 5 The child was know n to burst in to tears fo r no apparent reason. 8 extinguish 10 The review didn’t give away the end of the book, so I’m curious to read it. B HAND, BURST, BLOW 1 The students were told to hand in th e ir assignm ents at the end of the lesson. 2 Before handing out the test papers, the teacher asked us to be quiet. 5 The students burst out laughing when the teacher slipped and fell down. distribute 7 The te rro ris t’s initia l plan was to blow up the plane. pass on 3 We blew o u t the candles before leaving the room. break into tears, laughter Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. harmful mad mad to at/w ith Sb (=angry) about/on Sb/sth for sb (=sympathetic) (feel) sorry for/about sth (=regret) damage weak. at shame on w ro n g . about shelter from sb head for lean on/against from (feel) sorry of of bew are. to tired _ protect from /against (=interested in) safe Verbs Nouns Adjectives recover from to reduce sth _ rescue sb from save _ from steal from suffer. from unit 12 B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 7 I’m really sorry 9 Lean the paintings on/agas* ;st fo otba ll and sports in general. Grammar Revision (Conditionals) See Grammar Review page 161 Rewrite the following sentences so that the second sentence has a similar meaning to the first. Begin with the word(s) given. 1 They w ant to travel abroad next m onth, so they have to renew th e ir passports. 2 I th in k th a t you shouldn’t drive so carelessly. If I 3 The reason w hy the dog attacked them was because they h it it w ith a stick. 4 I m ig ht not manage to repair the leaking tap on my own, so I’ll ask my bro the r fo r help. 5 In ord er to hire a car, you need to have a d rivin g licence. 6 I w ant to buy a big house w ith a garden, but I can’t afford it. 7 The burglars broke into my house because the burglar alarm didn’t go off. Had 8 Not having heard th a t his flig h t was boarding, he missed the plane. 9 The buses may be on strike, so you m ig ht have to catch a taxi to work. 10 My parents encouraged and supported me after the accident, so I recovered quickly. But fo r my parents’ encouragement and support, I w ouldn’t have recovered quickly after the accident 11 We feel so tired th a t we can’t continue our journey. 12 You can borrow m y bike, but you m ust prom ise to take good care of it.’ 13 She m ust do her hom ew ork, otherw ise her parents w on ‘t let her go to the party. On co ndition (that) she does her homework, her parents will let her go to the party . PC.OA’tS’tC He w ill buy a car if he saves enough money. / Ho will buy a car if ho will-savc enough moneys n i buy a car provided (that) I save enough money. / 111buy a r ar prmriripri (that)-U faall save enough money.— He would buy a car if he saved enough money. / He w ould buy a car if he would save enough money. – (will, shall and would are not used after linking words/ phrases introducing conditional sentences.) | – I won’t go to the party if they don’t invite me. / I won’t go to the party unless they invite me. / I won’t go to tho party unless they don’t invite me.— (unless=if not) I’ll buy a bottle of water in case I get thirsty. (=111buy it before I get thirsty; I might not use it.) I’ll buy a bottle of water if I get thirsty. (=77/ buy it when I get thirsty; I’ll definitely use it.) If he was taller, he could join a basketball team. If he were taller, he could join a basketball team. (were can be used instead of was in allpersons in If I had been the Prime Minister, I would have-given lots ~ Qf-monoytothopoor. ~ (We use Conditional Sentences Type 2 for unreal situations in thepresent orfuture.) > If I had studied harder last semester, I would have passed m y exams. / If I studied harder last semester, I woukipass-ffly~ -examsT (We use Conditional Sentences Type 3 fo r unreal situations in thepast.) > If you should need me, don’t hesitate to call me. / Should you need me, don’t hesitate to call me. / If should you need me, don’t hesitate to caHmc.— If she needed your help, she would call you. / Were she to need your help, she would call you. S If woro she to nood your help, she would csfryottrIf she had needed your help, she would have called you. / Had she needed your help, she would have called you. / If ha&sha-neaded your holp, sho would have-eatledyou. – (if is not used in conditional sentences starting with Conditional Sentences Type 2.) should/ were/ had+ subject.) | £) If I were the Prime Minister, I would give lots of money to the poor. / Key Transformations I & If you see Harry, ask him to return the books to the Your application w ill be considered on condition (that) you submit it on time. library. If you should see Harry, ask him to return the books to the library. & If he hadn’t helped me, I wouldn’t have finished m y essay. Should you see Harry, ask him to return the books to the Had he not helped me, I wouldn’t have finished m y essay. library. If it hadn’t been for his help, I wouldn’t have finished m y essay. But for his help, I wouldn’t have finished m y essay. © If he doesn’t study hard, he won’t pass the exam. I wouldn’t have finished m y essay w ithout his help. He won’t pass the exam unless he studies hard. He has to / must study hard, or else / otherwise he won’t pass the exam. & Your application w ill be considered only if you submit it on time. Your application w ill be considered provided / providing (that) you submit it on time. Your application w ill be considered as long as you submit it on time. <0 We might go swimming, so bring your swimsuit. Bring your swimsuit because we might go swimming. Bring your swimsuit in case we go swimming. & What would you do if the lights went out? Suppose/ Supposing the lights went out, what would you do? What would you do were the lights to go out? unit 1 2 Examination Practice A R ead th e t e x t b e lo w a n d t h in k o f th e w o r d w h ic h b e s t f it s e a c h space. U se o n ly o n e w o r d i n e a c h space. TAKING TO THE SKIES percentage of passengers go weak at the knees ju s t thinking about flying, So w hat can be done to prevent problems? If you move about as often as (4 ) (5 ) problem o nly if you increase yo ur oxygen intake before boarding. A good th irty -m in u te brisk walk should help. it’s safe fo r you to (11 ) (12 ) flying. B C o m p le te th e s e c o n d s e n te n c e so th a t i t h a s a s im ila r m e a n in g to th e f i r s t s e n te n c e , u s in g th e w o r d g iv e n u n c h a n g e d . Y o u m u s t u se b e tw e e n tw o a n d fiv e w o rd s , in c lu d in g th e w o r d g iv e n . 1 Paying in cash entitles you to a special discount. 2 They didn’t go on a picnic because it was raining heavily. rain 3 It is possible that your fligh t w ill be delayed, so take a book to read. case 4 John had better call the police if he notices any suspicious characters. should characters. 5 It would be foolish of him not to consider this opportunity. if 6 With your encouragement, the players w ill improve. long 7 They missed the turn because they didn’t see the sign. w o u ld 8 The d octor warned him to q uit smoking so that his health w ouldn’t deteriorate. up smoking. unit12 Sectriah Words easily confused Use th e c o r r e c t fo r m o f th e w o rd s in th e b o x e s to c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s in e a c h g ro u p A -I b e lo w . Y o u m a y u se so m e o f th e w o rd s m o re th a n o n ce . I n s o m e cases m o re th a n o n e w o r d m a y b e c o rre c t. A p ro te ct rescue save su pp ort secure defend guard ________ save___________ the passenger, w ho had been seriously injured. rescuing/saving B inju re w ound h u rt collapse harm ______ hurt/injured________ . C dam age in ju ry w ound pain ache _______ wound___________ stitched. D endanger risk threaten warn unit 1 2 illness disease infection sickness weakness accident , I suggest you clean and dress the wound. diseases 2 Penicillin has been used to fig h t many in fe c tio u s . sickness incident at many m ountain ski resorts. illnesses 4 Young children come down w ith m a n y . _____when they firs t go to school. cure heal trea t recover overcome 1 It to ok me m onths t o _ treated Mavis w a s . overcom e my grandm other’s death. heal fo r her w ound and w ith in days it began t o . recovered ___from her illness after being confined to bed fo r a fo rtn ig h t. however, his condition d eteriorated after a few days. G sensible sensitive sensational em otional 31 sensible 2 Buying a cheaper car was a (n )_ sensational 4 You look decision considering you had a lim ited budget. and cries if you raise yo u r voice. _ in th a t dress. You should buy it. H produce develop increase build up create 1 If we take out another loan, w e’ll ju st Ita ly . produces M edicine has create support. progress advance im prove financial d iffic u ltie s fo r ourselves. ___ some o f the m ost stylish cars on the market. advanced 5 My French has students. progressed/improved so much th a t I can have a conversation w ith a native speaker. 7 The w eather has reduce decrease improved destroy q uite a lot lately. drop low er dem olish fall 1 ___________Lower_________ yo ur voice. The baby is asleep in the next room. 2 3 4 The village was co m pletely _ 5 6 The old b uilding w as. 7 Peak season is over, so all the hotels in the area are destroyed by the earthquake. ______ the eggs, otherw ise the w hole kitchen w ill stink. lowering/decreasing th e ir rates. unit 12 This unit deals w ith nouns and adjectives which derive from verb roots. V e rb R o o t N o u n = v e rb + -io n » A d je c tiv e = V e rb + -iv e impress im pression im pressive • Some other com m on verbs th a t form nouns and adjectives in the same way are: act, attract, collect, connect, construct, direct, express, instruct, invent, object, possess, prevent, p ro te ct and select. • Some verbs form o nly nouns in -ion, not adjectives in -ive: complete, contribute, discuss, inspect, pollute, predict, reject, revise and suggest. • Verb roots ending in -m it change the final -t to -ss before the endings -ion and -ive: p e rm it 4 perm ission 4 perm issive om it 4 om ission • Verb roots ending in -d or -de, change the -d/-de to -s before the endings -ion and -ive: extend 4 extension 4 extensive explode 4 explosion -4 explosive • Pay atte ntio n to the fo llo w in g irregularities: attend -4 attention 4 attentive defend 4 defence 4 defensive • The adjective (in)expensive derives from the noun expense. offend -4 offence 4 offensive V e rb R o o t N o u n = v e rb + -a tio n A d je c tiv e = V e rb + -a tiv e inform inform a tion inform ative • Some com m on verbs th a t form nouns and adjectives in the same way are: conserve, im agine and represent. • Some verbs form only nouns in -ation, not adjectives in -ative: combine, invite, oblige, observe, organise, realise, relax, starve and transform . • Pay atte ntio n to the fo llo w in g irregularities: prepare 4 preparation 4 preparatory, sense -4 sensation 4 sensitive, compare 4 comparison 4 comparative V e rb R o o t in -a te N o u n in – a t io n A d je c tiv e in -a tiv e appreciate appreciation appreciative • Some com m on verbs th a t form nouns and adjectives in the same way are: communicate, create, decorate, operate and relate. • Some verbs in -ate form only nouns in -ation, not adjectives in -ative: calculate, celebrate, dictate, fascinate, investigate and separate. • The verbs educate and hesitate form nouns in -ation, but the corresponding adjectives do not end in -ative. educate 4 education 4 educational hesitate -4 hesitation -4 hesitant • Pay atte ntio n to the fo llo w in g irregularities: V e rb N oun add com pete consume describe destroy explain addition com p etitio n consum ption description destruction explanation A d je c tiv e — com petitive — descriptive destructive explanatory V e rb N oun introduce oppose produce receive reduce repeat in tro d u ctio n opposition p roduction reception reduction repetition | in tro d u c to ry — productive receptive — repetitive • Certain nouns in -ion and adjectives in -ive do not derive from verbs: aggression -4 aggressive mass -4 massive V e rb R o o t N o u n = v e rb + -al betray betrayal • Some com m on verbs th a t form nouns in the same way are: approve, arrive, deny, dismiss and rent. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals. PERMIT 2 Steven’s CONTRIBUTE, DISCUSS APPROVE _______ approval_______. RENT 4 The student was given back her assignm ent as it was obvious no tim e had been spent in its 7 He’s g ot such an 8 9 It to ok a lot of been little of fine art. calculations com m unication between them fo r years. COMPETE IMPRESS, COLLECT ADD) CALCULATE PERSUADE COMMUNICATE RECEIVE EXPLAIN 11 Many animals are HESITATE DESCRIBE ______ descriptive______ account o f her holiday. 6 Sandra chose aerobics because she doesn’t like PREPARE, RELATE ACT OBJECT Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. A DEADLY JOB Welirang Volcano. Once there, they use metal bars in order to break the sulphur into blocks that will fit into their baskets. themselves. This work (6) endangers (9 ) (10 ) continue to do it. unit12 1 A support 2 ( a ) produced B’ secure C protect D defend B increased C developed D b uilt up C into D at 3 A on 4 A sicknesses 8 diseases C injuries D infections 5 A guard B rescue C support D protect 6 A risks S ‘ endangers C decreases D warns 7 (A )p a in B ache C d iffic u lty D illness 8 A injure B hurt ( c ) suffer D collapse 9 A overcom e B cure ( c ) recover D heal 10 A h urt B injured ( c ) harmed D w ounded 11 B away C in B Unless C Even if ( j) fo r A back 12 (A )A s long as ® u p D In case B Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. HURRICANES A hurricane is a (1) destructive storm which is always accompanied by torrential DESTROY rain and winds that can reach speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour. Hurricanes form over warm expanses of water and increase in (2) STRONG as they make their way towards the mainland. COAST INTENSE EXTEND houses and (6) CONSTRUCT right out of the water. So, it is crucial that m eteorologists keep constant (7 ) OBSERVE hurricanes. If a hurricane is approaching inhabited areas, the authorities issue (8 ) WARN, INSTRUCT ARRIVE Collocations/expressions A Complete the collocations below with the adjectives in the box. You may use some of the adjectives more than once. In some cases more than one adjective may be correct. long secret com m on lig h t a light/heavy meal com m on/ a fatal mistake a common sight heavy traffic a close relative weak eyesight throat a light/strong colour a strong rule a long/short tim e heavy/light rain a long/short iournev astrong/weak personality common sense a a strong/weak coffee com m on/ wide knowledge com m on/ close friend fatal/ a comm on accident a sore a comm on secret aaent heavy sore w ide weak sh ort heavy schedule close/long/ a short relationship aweak/strong argum ent fatal close strong influence B Read the sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs say or tell. hello to John when you see him, w ill you?” said Camille as she waved goodbye. The last thing she does before she lies down to sleep is We could never tell My fa th er still tells me to the difference between our cousins because they were identical twins. saY It’s so hard nowadays fo r people to Mr Grimes w ill begin by “if I tell yOU saying thank you, and I’m fo rty years old! a few words and then proceed to show ing the slides, a story, w ill you go to sleep, then?” the m other asked her child. My friends trusted me because I w ould never 9 You should have said tell C saYs anyone th e ir secrets. tell something. Now the police w ill suspect you. . the tim e or is he still to o young fo r that? 11 The hardest thing he’s ever had to do was 12 If she the truth. Everyone is frigh ten e d o f tru s tin g each other. tell 8 10 Can Tim a prayer. saY sorry. saY so, then it m ust be the tru th and we have to believe her. Complete the sentences with the expressions in the box below. all of a sudden 1 The child spilt the m ilk . all in all all over all over a fte r all n ot at all once and fo r all all the same __the expensive rug. 2 I don’t care w here we go on holiday. Majorca, Ibiza, th e y ’ re 3 The old train was m aking good progress, when all the same all of a sudden 4 Janet expected to get a high m ark on her project. After all 5 This argum ent has been going on fo r far too long. Let me settle it _ to me. _ a loud clank was heard and it grinded to a halt. __ , she had w orked very hard. once and for all 6 Most m em bers of the school com m ittee believed th a t all in all . the fete was a great success. 7 “Is m y request to o dem anding?” asked the cu sto m e r.”. Not at all .,” replied the salesperson. unit 13 Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition. A LIE, STAND, SIT, SAVE 1 I th ink I’ll lie down for a w hile before going out tonight. be ready for action 2 I hate it when you leave your shoes lying around! 3 Brendan was the only friend w ho stood by me during those d ifficu lt months. ;ettle com fortably in a chair 4 The w orkers were encouraged to stand up fo r their rights and demand a pay be noticeable rise. 5 Shawn really stands out w ith that strange haircut. economise 6 Although the fire was under control, the fire brigade in the city was support standing by. defend 7 What do the initials MJB stand for? leave sth somewhere untidily 8 I’ll drive – you just sit back and enjoy the view. represent 9 Neil saved up a considerable am ount fo r his summ er holidays. 4 give back all the money one owes 5 find oneself in a situation, usually w itho ut planning to 2 Jerry w ent to the party dressed up as Superman. 8 disappoint 3 I’ll pay you back on Monday. 6 draw sb’s attention to 1 dress form ally 3 give back money one owes 7 make a building safe by B DRESS, PAY, END, POINT, LOCK, LET 1 Everyone was to ld to dress up fo r the school dance, as it was a form al occasion. 4 Harry finally paid o ff his car loan last week. 5 Sue never expected to end up as sales manager so soon in her career. 6 The doctor pointed out all the com plications involved in the treatm ent. 7 Don’t forget to lock up before leaving. locking doors and windows 8 The voters felt they had been let down by the governm ent. 2 disguise for fun Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Verbs Adjectives Nouns careless about/of adelav faithful an influence to frightened a need serious the opposite surDrised about at/by benefit in boast on of a relationship w ith a relationship between tw o people or things sb mistake sb/sth about/of pray for for w ith (=be concerned) suspect sb of care take care about for sb/sth sb sb/sth else sb/sth replace sth care for from of sth else sth sb/sth (=be fond of, love) wait exchanaesth warn sbabout/against/of sth else hooe for insist on for for unit 13 B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 If you are not satisfied with the gift, you can exchange it 2 Graham still cares for/about you, you know. 4 I warned Luke about/of 5 The relationship the bad weather conditions but he insisted on leaving. between 7 Jane’s relationship w ith her mother is based on mutual respect. 9 She wanted to replace the antique furniture with more contemporary pieces. 11 There was a great need 12 Martha sounded more serious than ever before 13 I hate it when he starts boasting about about leaving her job. his achievements. 15 In what way is the company going to benefit from installing this new software? stealing the money, but they said nothing. Grammar Revision (Unreal Past) See Grammar Review page 162 Complete the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Camping can be seen as an alternative to taking a holiday in a five-star hotel. Here are som e p eople’s view s on this form of holiday making. “When it comes to camping, I wish (1) _ to make (make) “I really don’t mind camping, that is, if it’s in a well-organised something clear. I am not a fan! I’ve only been campsite. You see, it’s a matter of safety. Supposing camping once, and it was a horrific experience. I’d rather (2) not have gone I (8) alone out in the mountains, what would 1do? I hear some peo: * insisted that I go with them. I was reluctant at first, but I ended up talking about camping as though it (10) going. I wish I (3) chance to endure hardship. It’s a holiday, for Pete’s sake!” had trusted (trust) my instincts. Our first mistake was to set off without listening to the weather 9Qt (get) injured and (9) was/were were/was Kelly Sutherland, 28 forecast. Well, two days later it started to rain so heavily that our tents somehow flooded! We had taken so many things with us “ I really enjoy camping. It gives you a chance to become one . that it took hours to pack up and leave. It was as if we nature and live the way you were meant to live. If only I (4) (11) could get away had taken (take) half of Selfridges with us! It was awful, and on top of that, I caught a cold. If only I (5). had known (know) (get away) more often! Most people at a luxurious resort with swimming pools and the lot. But it’s better! Camping is not for me. about time they (13) I prefer (6) it is to experience the freedom camping has to offer. There’s c e j to stay realised (realise) how i m p o r : r (stay) in a cosy hotel room and relax more thing I would like to point out. I wish people who actua! camping (14) wouldn’t/didn’t leave (not leave) their rubbish ! (pitch) a tent.” when they pack up their tents and go home. I mean, if we al Wayne King, 23 a huge rubbish tip!” Ben Cosworth, 18 He speaks as if he were a chúng tôi isn’t.) / Hespeaks as if he is a chúng tôi isn’t.)—He spoke as if he had known me for years. (He didn’t.) / Hespokeasifhaknew.me for years. (He didn’t.) (as if+PastPerfect refers to unrealsituations in thepast.) He acts as if he was rich.=He acts as if he were rich. She wishes she was rich.=She wishes she were rich. (were can be used instead of was in all persons in Unreal Past.) Q I wish to speak to the principal. / (=1want to speak to the principal). & I wouidratherlhadn’tstayedathome yesterday. (would rather+PastSimple refers to thepresent/future would rather+PastPerfect refers to thepast Thesubject of would rather is differentfrom the subject of the second verb.) Q I prefer coffee to tea. / He prefers swimming to scuba diving. / HeprefersswimmingfromscubaeUvmg. (prefer+noun/-ingform to noun/-ingform=generalpreference) @ He prefers/would prefer to swim rather than scuba dive. / He prefers/would prefer to swim rather than to scuba dive. (prefer/wouldprefer +fu ll infinitive rather than +bare infinitive) <S He would rather swim than scuba dive. / (wish +full infinitive= want; the subject of wish mustbe the same as the subject o f the infinitive.) 0 I wish I smoked/could smoke less. / I wish you smoked / could smoke less. / twishyeusmokeless. (wish+ unrealpast/could + infinitive; the subject of wish ® can be the same as or differentfrom the subject of the second verb.) & I wish you would smoke less. / He-woaidrather-toswimthanscubadive. He would rather swim toscubadive. (would rather+bare infinitive+than+ bare infinitive). You had better see a doctor. / Td rather you saw a doctor. / I hadbetteryousaw a doctor (The subject of had better mustbe the same as that of the verb.) (wish+ would + infinitive; the subject of wish must be ® You had better see a doctor. / Youhadbettertoseeadoetor. & You should have seen a doctor. / It would have been better if you had seen a doctor. / Youhadbetterhaveseen a doctor. — differentfrom the subject of would.) & I would rather (not) stay at home tonight. / I would rather not to stay at home tonight. (had better +present bare infinitive refers to thepresent/future) I wowM-ratheF-notstaymgathome-tonight: I would rather (not) have stayed at home yesterday. / I would-rathor stay a theme-yestefetey. I wouldrather not had stayed at home yesterday. @ (would rather+presentbare infinitive refers to thepresent/future would rather +perfect bare infinitive refers to thepast Thesubject of would rather is the same as the subject of the second verb.) & I would rather we stayed/didn’t stay at home tonight. / Xwould^aftepid^rit^Fathemetenightr— (It would have been better if+PastPerfect refers to thepast) It’s time we bought a new car. / It’s time webuy anew car It’s time for us to buy anew car. / It’sabout/hightimeweboughtanewcar. / It’s about /hightime for us tobuy a new ear. (It’s time+unrealpast =for sb +fu ll infinitive; it’s high/about tim e+unrealpast) I would rather we had (not) stayed at home yesterday. / Key Transformations & I wish /If only you didn’t/wouldn’t speak so loudly. I would rather/sooner you didn’t/wouldn’t speak so loudly. I would prefer it if you didn’t speak so loudly. iQ Iwish/Ifonlyw ehadhiredacar. I would rather/sooner we had hired a car. I would have preferred it if we had hired a car. I would prefer us to have hired a car. It’s a pity we didn’t hire a car. We regret not hiring/having hired a car. & You ought to/had better/should wash the dishes now. I wish /If only you washed the dishes now. It’s (about/high) time you washed the dishes. It’s time for you to wash the dishes. © She pretended to be working. She acted as if / as though she were working. If you saw her, you would think that she was working. If you had seen her, you would have thought that she was working. By her behaviour, you would assume that she was working. & He prefers going out to watching TV , He prefers to go out rather than watch TV. He would prefer to go out rather than watch TV. He would rather/sooner go out than watch TV. unit13 Examination Practice A Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY CARS (5 ) heavy . range of problems caused .vehicles. These include air and noise pollution, cities around the w orld face considerable environm ental damage (6) because of this and are in need of serious measures to reverse this trend. ___w ith such a problem? There are no simple answers to this question and no however, that our generation got serious any e ffo rt necessary to change the situation. Many environm entalists believe that we could help by using our (11) common sense. Car pooling, for instance, co ul: be a solution to the problem. This simple program m e calls fo r people to share their car w ith fellow workers to and from work. A lot of interest has been shown in car pooling and other more am bitious program m es are planned fo r the future. participate actively for the com m on interest. B Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 You ought to return the money you owe. back tim e you paid back . the money you owe. 2 We regret not having installed an alarm system, wish We wish we had installed .an alarm system. 3 If you had heard him speak, you’d think he had studied the subject extensively, if ______ the subject extensively. 4 Dennis doesn’t feel like playing football today. rather .football today. 5 It’s a pity we can’t visit the gallery, only only we could visit .th e gallery. 6 Julie doesn’t like playing the guitar as much as she likes singing, rather .th e guitar. 7 Michael didn’t want to spend his holidays in London, but in the end he did. rather Michael would rather not have spent . his holidays in London. 8 Please don’t disappoint me this time, let didn’t let me down this time. I can’t stand Ronnie complaining about everything. wish .about everything. Words easily confused Use th e c o r r e c t f o r m o f th e w o rd s in th e b o x e s to c o m p le te th e s e n te n c e s in e a c h g ro u p A -I b e lo w . Y o u m a y u se som e o f th e w o rd s m o re th a n o n ce . I n s o m e cases, m o re th a n o n e w o r d m a y b e c o rre c t. A a tte ntio n care notice w arning signal caution organised. suspended. ________ B insist persist continue last rem ain m aintain p ro te ct keep popular. C convince persuade urge impress a ttra c t appeal 3 A fter a lot of discussion, I was able to ___________ appeal________ to her. D win beat gain earn defeat fail defeating/beating Brazil. unit 13 E appeal a pp lica tion a ttra ctio n interest F result e ffe ct a ffe ct consequence influence ______ consequences______w hen m y teacher saw me. 0 n our health. G allow let p e rm it accept make oblige force 6 Students are permitted/allowed to enter the lab o nly under teacher supervision. H postpone cancel delay I guest host v is ito r c lie n t custom er This unit deals with nouns which derive from verb roots. Verb Root Noun = Verb + -ment The process or the result of doing w hat the verb describes develop developm ent • Some o the r com m on verbs th a t form nouns in the same way are: achieve, agree, amaze, amuse, announce, appoint, argue, arrange, employ, entertain, excite, im prove, punish, replace and require. Verb Root Noun = Verb + -ure depart departure • Some o the r com m on verbs th a t fo rm nouns in the same way are: expose, fail, please and press. • The verb create form s a noun in -ure, but its m eaning is different: create creature • Pay atte ntio n to the fo llo w in g irregularities: m ix 4 m ixture proceed ^ procedure sign 4 signature Verb Root Noun (Person)= Verb + -er /-or The person w ho does w hat the verb describes train operate train er o perator hunt, insure, interview , observe, organise, own, perform , produce, re p o rt and work. • Some other com m on verbs th a t fo rm nouns in -o r are: act, collect, construct, contribute, create, decorate, direct, govern, inspect, instruct, invent, investigate and protect. ! Verb Root Noun (Thing)= Verb + -er /-or The th ing th a t does w hat the verb describes record calculate recorder calculator • Some o the r com m on verbs th a t form nouns in -er are: blend, compute, cook, m ix and p rin t. • Some o the r com m on verbs th a t form nouns in -or are: react, refrigerate and sense. —–Verb Root Noun (Person)= Verb + -ee The person w ho receives the action described by the verb em ploy employee • Some o the r com m on verbs th a t form n ouns in the same way are: examine, interview, pay, refer, train and trust. unit 13 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in capitals regulations may FAIL, REGULATE fatal prove FATE disagreement 2 We already had a(n) AGREE ______ argum ent_______ , so let’s just drop the subject. 3 Many people’s purchases are influenced by ARGUE advertisements . ADVERTISE CREATE hunters 5 What HUNT requirements employees . must potential have in order to get REQUIRE, EMPLOY this job? 6 Scientists have proved that too much exposure to the sun is EXPOSE harmful HARM actors 7 A lot of directors .film producers and __________singers______ had been invited to the cocktail party. 8 His SING safety DEPART, SAFE What type of ACT, DIRECT, PRODUCE PLEASE trainers he INSTRUCT, TRAIN recommended. Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, 6, C or D best fits each space. A IR P O R T DGLAY5 Although the plane is the fastest means of transport, the idea of because of the frequent delays. It is extrem ely frustrating when you that there is a problem w ith your flight. The staff at the check-in are trying to (4) before the problem is solved. Yet, hours later you feel let , as you (6) continue to wait patiently for your boarding call. Of course, you won’t (7 ) By this stage, you realise you are going to miss your connecting fligh t and now you must change your bookings. You feel (8 ) one of the lucky ones spending the night at a top class hotel at the expense of the airline that caused your problem in the first Regular (10) unit 13 D affect C impress JJ) appeal 1 A a ttra ct 2 A let B keep 3 A care B w arning C interest © a t t e n t io n 4 A insist B a ttract C urge © c o n v in c e 5 A o ff 6 © c o n t in u e C away D o ut B persist C insist D remain C earn ©dow n 7 A win B result 8 A if only B though 9 (A ) be D make © a llo w © g a in D if © a s if B to be C had been D to had been 10 A guests B.) custom ers C clients D visitors 11 A effect B influence C appeal D affect B general C wide D strong 12 © com m on B Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. THE MODEL T-FORD One of the m ost im portant (1) achievements the history of the m otorcar was the (2) jn ACHIEVE development DEVELOP of the Model-T Ford in 1913, which was the first car to be INVENT of this m ethod of production was Henry Ford, the founder of the Ford M otor Company. The production line, as it came to be (4) known .offered (5) employm ent KNOW, EMPLOY well, making cars affordable to (7) consumers WORK . CONSUME In addition, the replacement of old w ork practices made RELY (9 ) IMPROVE improvements t0 t he interio r of the car made driving a pleasure. So, car (10) OWN Henry Ford to thank fo r his enorm ous co ntribu tion to the car industry. M n m Prepositional Phrases A Complete the blanks with the prepositions in, on, at, for, of, with or to. at . the expense in . the m ood on the p o in t. in of need with .c o n ta c t in in for of .c o n n e c tio n __ in in with with in .a d d itio n . to in _support_ of in in of with touch at .th e age. of in answer to to relation with B Read the sentences and complete them with the prepositions in, on, for, of, with, to or as. as 1 Mr Kingston is disabled a result 2 We lost the bid to a rival com pany 3 I stack all m y m agazines 5 Sally b ought an old house 6 I’m w ritin g in/with on account top on 4 Tom w ith d re w his objections of a view w ith reference a silly m istake th a t Roy made. the bookcase. the sake for of of the team’s unity. to renovating it in the future. C Complete the sentences with the prepositional phrases in the box below. in captivity in haste under repair under strain in aid of in the first place in exchange fo r in court in w riting ahead of schedule out of hand in instalments inflam es in demand behind schedule 3 I gave m y bicycle to m y friend 5 The delay at the a irp o rt has p ut us _ 6 If you had asked fo r directions in exchange for in haste his ele ctric guitar. . after the concert to avoid th e ir fans. behind schedule in the first place _we w ould not be lost now. 10 The c o u n try ’s econom y is s till. under strain ___and the econom ic situation w ill not im prove soon . 11 To the surprise o f everyone, the pro je ct was com pleted ahead of schedule . 13 The man decided to settle his claim 14 Don’t you th in k th a t infla tion is g e ttin g __ in court out of hand ? . by the tim e the fire brigade arrived on the scene. unit 14 Read the sentences on the left and match the phrasal verbs with their definitions on the right by writing the correct number in the box next to each definition. A CALL 2 return a phone call 1 Why don’t you call your mother up and surprise her? 5 pay a short visit 3 The celebrations were called off after the tragic accident. 4 shout loudly 4 I heard someone calling out my name from a distance. 1 make a phone call 5 I called at the office to pick up my laptop before coming here. 3 2 The bank manager said he would call back after lunch. cancel B SPEAK, TELL, COUNT 1 Speak up please! I can’t hear a word you’re saying. :: 1 I speak loudly 2 I could never tell the two identical twins apart. 5 rely on 2 distinguish 3 include 4 exclude 3 Joe said to count him in for this weekend’s fishing expedition. 4 I guess we will have to count Dave out of tomorrow’s match if he doesn’t feel better by tonight. 5 Rob can always count on his brother to help him with the gardening. Words with Prepositions A Complete the blanks with prepositions. Adjectives anarv Nouns Verbs w ith/at sb a comparison anarv about/at sth an understanding annoyed w ith about sth bored with between of combine w ith compare w ith/to competewith/against Sb for sb/sth Sb sth describe sb/sth to certain about/of sb (=say what they look like) identical excuse sb to similar to suitable f° r be made p ro te s t sure about/of terrible at for/from of/from about/against/at shout at/to sth B Read the following sentences and complete them with prepositions. 1 Many new paper products today are made of/from 2 The copy o f the m asterpiece was identical to 3 The m anager was ve ry angry at/about 4 Dennis has a good overall understanding recycled paper. the one in the museum. the way things turned o ut at yesterday’s presentation. of 5 In next m onth’s athletics m eeting I w ill be com peting .th e subject. fo r the gold m edal w ith/against mv arch-rival, Gary Flash. 6 My d octo r was annoye d. with me when I told her I wasn’t taking m y m edication regularly. unit 14 7 Leone is not sure 8 I was bored about w ith her new jo b offer. She needs tim e to th in k it over. 9 Erica was absolutely certain about/of w hat she saw th a t night. 10 Dan and Carole are a lovely couple because they’re so suitable 11 For the firs t tim e in years, farm ers aren’t protesting 12 Many students are te rrib le at a 9 amst ^°r each other. t[ie decrease in th e ir income. Maths and English. Grammar Revision (Reported Speech) See Grammar Review page 163 Change the following sentences into R e p o rte d Speech. Use one of the reporting verbs in the box below. suggest advise warn prom ise explain com plain a dm it ask deny threaten 1 “ You’ll sprain your ankle, Celia, if you run in those shoes,” said her mother. 2 “ Stand still or I’ll tie you up!” shouted the kidnapper at the man. 3 “ You’re late again, Fay!” said John. 4 “ I w on’t tell you another lie, M um ,” said Ben. 5 “ I did n’t steal your wallet, Betty,” he said. He denied stealing/having stolen Betty’s wallet 6 “ Take the pills for three days and visit me again next week, Mr Farrow,” said the doctor. 7 “ Let’s go on a boat trip ,” my brother told me. 8 “ Yes, I did ruin the printer,” my colleague said. 9 “ Why did n’t you do your hom ew ork yesterday, Mary?” the teacher wanted to know. 10 “ I need the m oney because I m ust fly to London to n ig h t,” she said. She explained that she needed the money because she had to fly to London that night © “You should speak more politely,” he said to me. 4 He told me to speak more politely. / He told to ma to spook more politely. (tell someone something; say something to someone) © “If she phones, r 11let her know” said John. 4 John said that if she phoned, he would let her know. (Conditional Sentences Typel usually change into Conditional Sentences Type 2 in Reported Speech.) “I’ll drive you to school,” said m y father. 4 My father promised to drive me to school. My father promised that he would drive me to school. (agree, claim, promise, threaten, warn + full infinitive or that-clause) © “I’m sorry I’m late,” she said. 4 She apologised for being late. / Sheapologised-that-Ghc wasl ater (accuse of, apologise for, blame for, insist on etc. + ing form) © “If I had money, I would go abroad,” said Kim. 4 Kim said that if she had money, she would go abroad. g “My coffee is too cold,” she said. 4 “HI had had money, I would have gone abroad last year,” said Kim. 4 She complained about her coffee being too cold. Kim said that if she had had money, she would have She complained that her coffee was too cold. gone abroad the previous year. (admit, complain, deny+ -ingform or that -clause) (Conditional Sentences Types 2 and 3 do not change in Reported “Let’s go for a walk,” said Peter. 4 Speech.) e Peter suggested going for a walk. / P p tp r c n g g g g tp H t n g n f n r a w a l k © “I wish I didn’t have to work late,” she said. She said she wished she didn’t have to work late. / Peter suggested that we go for a walk. / She said she wished she hadn’t had fo-work late.Peter suggested that we should go for a walk. ✓ (Unreal Past Tenses do not change in Reported Speech.) < “Do you like your job?” he asked me. © “Please, fasten your seatbelts,” said the flight attendant. 4 He asked if/whether I liked my job. / The flight attendant asked us to fasten our seatbelts. / Ho ackod mo did I like my-job. “Please, don’t smoke,”said the flight attendant. 4 He asked me if did I like my jeb.—The flight attendant asked us not to smoke. / “What are you going to do?” she asked me. ^ The flight attendant askod us to not smoke. She asked me what I was going to do. / She asked me what was I going to do. ~ object +full infinitive) When can we see the principal? Could you tell us when we can see the principal? / © “I’ll drive you to school,” said my father. 4 Could you toll us whoB can-wo see the principal?— My father offered to drive me to school. / (In Reported and Indirect questions the verb is always in M y f a t h e r n f f p r p r l t h a t h g w r t n l r i r ir fa /o m a t n c r h n n l the affirmative form.) (offer, refuse +full infinitive) Key Transformations © “You should exercise more,” the doctor said to me. 4 The doctor said that I should exercise more. The doctor suggested that I (should) exercise more. The doctor insisted on my exercising more. © “Don’t move the desks,” said the teacher to the students. 4 The teacher told/ordered the students not to move the desks. The teacher forbade the students to move the desks. The teacher didn’t let the students move the desks. The teacher didn’t allow the students to move the desks. © “We missed the plane and you’re responsible for that,” said his wife to him. 4 His wife blamed him for missing the plane. © ‘Til do the shopping,” said Mike. 4 Mike offered to do the shopping. Mike promised to do the shopping. Mike promised that he would do the shopping. Mike agreed to do the shopping. Mike agreed that he would do the shopping. © “If only I knew how to operate the machine,” she said. She wished she knew how to operate the machine. © “Have you ever been to Japan, Julie?” asked Ben. 4 Ben asked Julie if / whether she had ever been to Japan. Ben wondered/wanted to know if/whether Julie had ever been to Japan. © Could you tell me the way to the beach? Could you tell me how I can/could get to the beach? Could you tell me how to get to the beach? unit 1 4 Examination Practice A R ead th e t e x t b e lo w a n d t h in k o f th e w o r d w h ic h b e s t f it s e a c h space. U se o n ly o n e w o r d in e a c h space. A CAREER AT HOME Jodie Sutter is th irty-e ig h t. She has tw o daughters and has recently changed her abandoning th e ir careers to become fu ll-tim e homecarers. Jodie w orked fo r ten years as a successful law yer in a large legal firm in the city. She loved her jo b and had. Twelve-hour days were not uncom m on and her weekends were always busy. Her husband also had a dem anding job and they soon realised th a t there was m ore to fa m ily life than th ey had imagined. latter is m ore im portant.” B C o m p le te th e s e c o n d s e n te n c e so th a t i t h a s a s im ila r m e a n in g to th e f i r s t s e n te n c e , u s in g th e w o r d g iv e n u n c h a n g e d . Y ou m u s t u s e b e tw e e n tw o a n d fiv e w o rd s , in c lu d in g th e w o r d g iv e n . 1 “He stole my money!” shouted the old lady. accused 2 “I th ink you should stop eating so many sweets,” Mary’s sister said to her. advised 3 “Don’t cancel your trip because of us,” we said to John. o ff 4 “I’m sorry I didn’t tell you the truth,” Peter said to us. apologised 5 Is the gallery open in the afternoon? know Do you know if/w hether the gallery is open in the afternoon? 6 “Why don’t you try on a pair of jeans?” Peter asked Mary, suaaested Peter suggested (that) Mary try/should try on a pair o f jeans. 7 “You really must let me cook dinner,” said Anne, insisted Anne insisted on cooking dinner. 8 “What does he want to tell me?” Julie asked herself, wondered Julie wondered w hat he wanted to tell her. Words easily confused Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may use some of the words more than once. In some cases, more than one word may be correct. A like alike unlike likely common 1 It’s v e ry . as same sim ilar com m on to see people asleep on the train when travelling to work. When I’m tired I do the same like 2 My cousin John looks ju s t__ unlike alike B suit fit similar habits. his brother w ho is really rude. ______ and often I can’t tell one from the other. his father. They even h ave . likely to be late, so le t’s start eating dinner. match combine compare y0ur clothes either. C punctual accurate correct exact sharp __ person. He is never late. D rem ain reveal review revise relieve release ________remain__________ in hospital fo r four weeks before he could b e _________ released________ . John Astor. unit 14 E 1 o utcom e o u td o o r o u tfit o u tle t o utsid er F p erfect ideal fine th orou g h detailed d e fin ite certain p a rticu la r special sure w an opposite the door. m any people are com ing to the restaurant. very tasty. G stand resist to lerate suffer SUch behaviour. H o ffe r provide supply cater 3 The airline provided/offered lunch fo r the passengers of the delayed flight. 5 The injured clim bers were supplied/provided Wjth food and w ater until help arrived. unit 14 In the previous units we dealt w ith derivatives which are form ed according to certain rules. There are, however, some less predictable form ations. The m ost com m on o f these are: V e rb N oun bear behave choose com plain die hate heat laugh lose m arry pride prove pursue relieve see sing solve speak succeed th in k — b irth behaviour choice co m p la int death hatred heat laughter loss m arriage pride proof pursuit relief sight song solution speech success th o u g h t youth A d je c tiv e I behavioural choosy — dead hateful hot — lost m arried proud — — relieved — — – speechless successful th o u g h tfu l young • You may be asked to form an adjective or noun w hich derives from the name o f a co u n try or continent, e.g. England 4 English Europe 4 European or -self. some any every else * som ebody anyone everything elsewhere any anyhow when 4 whenever one oneself Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in bold type. 2 My parents have had a long and happy _ 3 I need somebody/someone I’ve looked everywhere British rainy marriage MARRY missing .docum ents, as and can’t find them . .people like to make LOSE SOME, MISS EVERY complaints .a b o u t London’s BRITAIN, COMPLAIN weather. RAIN HATE PRIDE, ADMIT SEE, DIE 8 Wherever _ we go, we manage to enjoy ourselves WHERE, OUR 10 The Italian .am bassador is giving a HOT speech .to n ig h t. ITALY, SPEAK 11 He _ 12 The _ somehow thought mixed w ith behaviour 13 His proof . managed to find th a t he was innocent. SOME, PROVE _ o f leaving my hom e tow n and going to live in the c ity filled me THINK MIX, CHOOSE .w as BEHAVE, ACCEPT unacceptable again. 14 It is com m only accepted th a t laughter is the best m edicine fo r stress. 16 The imm igrants 17 It was such a crossed the relief Mexican 19 They th in k very highly o f _ w jth 20 The _ anybody/anyone success PROUD border. ____fo r her when she found her dog. themselves LAUGH t0 every problem . .and prefer not to associate .th e y consider inferior. IMMIGRATE, MEXICO RELIEVE SOLVE THEM ANY .o f yo ur book w ill depend on how well you prom ote it. SUCCEED Examination Practice A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. A BIG DECISION When Lucy (1) she had been talking about moving to a warm er country for ages, one which would interview fo r a job she was sure of getting. Of course, her parents were annoyed w ith her decision, but I had to adm it that I age, so I supported her all the way. I even helped her decide on a suitable destination. It was near an ancient site which, given Lucy’s academic background in archaeology, was small towns are friendly and she w ouldn’t feel lonely for too long. parents who were crying and couldn’t bear to see their daughter leaving. Seeing her Lucy to leave. To tell the truth, however, I’m glad to have influenced her decision to move abroad. unit 1 4 1 © announced B to ld C agreed D claim ed 2 © w ith B fo r C about D at B offer C reveal D cater C com bine D m atch B up C fo r D o ff B com m on C same D likely 3 A supply 4 A fit 5 A o ut © s u it 6 © s im ila r 7 A )ideal B special C p articula r D fine 8 A insisted B explained C said © w a rn e d 9 A as B alike C like D unlike 10 A o u td o o r © o u t s id e r C outcom e D o u tfit 11 A not alike B unlikely C not as D unlike 12 A a dm itted B denied © a p o lo g is e d D accused E Complete the text below with the correct form of the words in capitals. A TENNIS STAR IS BORN Whenever the tennis star Richard Krajicek stepped onto the court, his opponent WHEN FAST PRIDE, SUCCEED the court could be partly attributed to it. Without doubt, Krajicek can be described as (5) w)l0 was jn pursujt Gf SOME ^ Wimbledon in 1997, bad weather conditions didn’t dampen his EXCEL THINK spirits. The only (7) somebody/someone trophy. Krajicek had a lot of (8) determ ination American opponent three sets to love. Many considered Krajicek to be the next great (10) _ tennis champion following in the footsteps of Boris Becker. European DETERMINE, AMERICA EUROPE SECTION 1(FCE format) For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0 (A)heading B counting C increasing D progressing POPULATION FACTS into account th a t each w om an on the planet w ill give b irth to tw o children. (4 ) the b irth rate has decreased from 6.6 to 5.1, in Asia from 5.1 to 2.6, in Latin Am erica from 5.0 to 2.7 and w ith (5 ) people being born fo r every elderly person. For instance, by 2050, Spain risks being the oldest co u n try in the w orld. The up m any children and being o ut o f w ork fo r long periods of tim e. ageing population. This w ill happen because o f an overall rise in life expectancy, especially in the developed countries. nowadays. In view o f these facts, experts argue th a t 8.9 billion people is m ore than our planet w ill be able to take. Others w ho have j sustain the current population. 1 A com bined B unlike C com peted 2 A brings B has C takes 3 A as B alike C likewise B give away C describe D speak out 4 (A ) reveal (o )c o m p a re d D gives ( p ) like 5 A connection B view C relation D respect 6 A given B made C supported D told 7 A chase B create C pursue 8 A prevent B o m it 9 ( A) All the same ( c ) avoid B A fter all C All in all D p ro h ib it D Once and fo r all 10 A whereas B although C even th ough 11 A healed B cured C defeated D beaten B accuse C threaten 12 ( a ) warn ( 5 ) in spite of For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. J L O W E : Flowers grow everyw here in the w orld b ut (0) _____people th in k o f tulips, they th in k true, then flow ers really love the Dutch, as flow ers have been cu ltiva te d in the N etherlands fo r hundreds boosting the Dutch econom y since the seventeenth century. Recently, however, the Dutch flo w e r growers have been (15) having d ifficu ltie s in coping w ith the tough com p etitio n from abroad. The Colombians, fo r instance, have W ithin a few sh ort years, the Colombians have b ro ug ht Holland’s dom ination o f the flo w e r in d u stry to an end. control o f over sixty per cent of the w orld’s flo w e r m arket. In (20) order to help the Dutch growers, the European Com m ission has decided to prom ote the flo w e r industry, w illing to cu t costs and become more com petitive. All this in the hope o f m aking people buy m ore flow ers than they used to. Today the average Dutchm an buys 150 stems a year, (22) the English only 50 stems. These num bers are constantly declining. (23 ) * * * * * u n itf 5 For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (O). DESERT ANIMALS u n in h a b ite d Deserts are not (0) INHABIT places as many people believe. Although the daytime air temperature may reach a(n) (25) BEAR ; SURVIVE (27 ) dependent . on them being able to get the water they need. DEPEND (28) Observation _of desert animals has revealed a lot about the strategies they OBSERVE employ to achieve this. (29) Researchers RESEARCH have found that beetles, for example, get their daily REQUIRE (30) drip down into their mouth. solution Larger desert animals have come up with another (31) source of water. For example, (32) (33) creatures SOLVE to the problem of finding a CREATE like hares or rats get their supply by eating CONSIDER However extreme the conditions may be, desert animals (34) SOME For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0 When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used .te n nis every Sunda. 35 We took the ring road because we did n’t w ant to get caught in tra ffic in the city centre. as We took the ring ro a d . so as not to get . caught in tra ffic in the city centre. 36 “ Why don’t we participate in the game?” my friend said. part .th e game. 37 By the look on th e ir faces, yo u ’d assume they had seen a ghost, though a ghost. 38 A lthough he smokes heavily, he refuses to go fo r a check-up. smoker ., he refuses to go fo r a check-up. 39 You m ig ht get lost and need to ring us, so take yo ur m obile phone w ith you. in . and need to ring us. 40 They had better dem olish th a t old b uilding on Kensington Road. down 41 “ Do you speak Spanish fluently, Vanessa?” he asked. 42 Fortunately, the m o to rcyclist was w earing p rotective clothing, so he got away w ith m in or injuries, injured The m oto rcyclist unit 15 SECTION 2 (ECCE format) Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. Suppose David asked y0u to marry him, what would you do? 6. Despite being seriously injured in the car accident, the man managed to survive. a. asks (c)asked 2. it’s time for the children b. will ask a. Although d. would ask c. In spite to start doing their homework. 7. We’d better b. Though ^ D e s p it e repair the car before Dad returns home. a. started b. had started c. to have started (d )to start c. have repaired 3. “Have you heard the news? Our neighbour has been a. told to me not b. of (o )to ld me not to d. from ( c )fo r 4. I would rather he dark. (b^lhadn’t lied a. was c. hasn’t lied b. told me to not d. told me to d o n ‘t 9. Wayne complained about the room h a d n ‘t lied to me yesterday, a. d id n ‘t lie d. to have repaired 8. Jonathan told me not to reveal his secret to anyone, forgery.” a. on b. to repair ( a^lrepair d. co u ld n ‘t lie 5 . Had I known how boring this course was going to be, I w o u ld n ‘t have enrolled. c. be being too b. had been ( d)being 10. The bank manager forbade the employees to smoke in the building. a. If had I known b. If I knew (c)H a d I known a. of smoking d. Did I know b. of smoke d. smoking @ t o smoke Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. Alex is envious 0f his brother’s success. He always says unkind things about him. ja ; envious c. annoyed 2. The effect 6. We delayed our departure on a. relation d. disgusted (c.)account b. order d. condition 7. The moment the teacher gave out as it’s still in the trial process. papers, I was filled with anxiety. a. result b. consequence a. gave away d. affect c. handed down 3. “Which dress should I buy? The blue or the red one?” “Well, I think the blue one a. compares fc )s u its suits you better”, prevent d. combines c. progressed 9. The defendant tried to b. forbid ( a.)convince c. prohibit d. avoid c. appeal remain reading to you. quiet while I’m ( d.)gave out increased b. developed ( d)increased convince the ju ry of his innocence. ( ji ) prevent 5. I would like everyone to b. handed over our city. burglars from entering. the exam 8. According to police reports, crime has b. matches 4. We have had security locks installed on all doors and windows to of the bad weather. b. suspicious of this new drug is not known yet, f c ) effect account b. urge d. oblige 10. It took Steve three weeks to recover illness and return home from the hospital, a. maintain ( ^ re m a in a. heal c. tolerate d. notice c. cure (bjreco ver d. overcome from his jn f For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A , B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. Example: 0 A first B ideal C special B 1 D best THE BEST STUDENTS w orking and become a ctively ( 1 ) __ involved students because they are hard- _____ in all aspects of the learning process. exceptionally well at te rtia ry level. ( 3 ) __ (4 ) Although to do m any o f them have a m ortgage, a jo b and children to (5 ) (7) (8 ) m any o f life’s pleasures, th ey are content w ith th e ir lives and this has a positive from anxiety. The fa ct th a t th ey have made m any sacrifices to get into u niversity puts extra pressure on them to succeed. (11) , com pleting a degree gives m ature students a sense o f achievem ent, boosts th e ir ANSWER SHEET 1 A included B related C involved D com bined 1 A B C D 2 A able B succeed C manage D capable 2 A B C D 3 A Although B Despite C However D In spite of 3 A B C D 4 A grow B develop C rise D raise 4 A B C D 5 A in B over C o ut D up 5 A B C 6 A fu lfil B achieve C reach D earn 6 A B C D 7 A known B experienced C found out D recognised 7 A B C D 8 A effect B affect C conclusion D consequence 8 A B C D B anxious C interested D im patient 9 A B C D 10 A tolerate B resist C suffer D com plain A B C D 11 A Likewise B Furtherm ore C Nevertheless D Otherwise 12 A creates B im proves C progresses 9 A eager 11 A B C D 12 A B C D FCE test For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your word on the separate answer sheet. dozvn 0 Example: 0 TV RATINGS down As you settle (0) ever ____in fro n t of yo ur television, have you (13) w atched w hile we’re out ___ the ratings for from a sample o f viewers, w ho receive a small paym ent fo r (17) their cooperation. To gather the required inform ation, the researchers connect the vie w e r’s TV set and video recorder to electronic m eters w hich record when these appliances are turned on and o ff and w hat is being viewed. when the video is watched does the program m e recorder on the m eter become activated. It sounds com plicated but (21 ) (22 ) when Finally, (23) in all the figures are collected, they are com pared to the TV guides and the end the national view ing figures are calculated. ANSWER SHEET DO NOT WRITE HERE 13 13 ever 14 being 14 15 out 15 16 do i— i i— i 17 their 18 between 19 However 19 20 from 21 Another 21 22 more 23 when 23 24 in 16 17 18 20 22 24 FCE test For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your word on the separate answer sheet. philosopher 0 Example: 0 0 PYTHAGORAS Pythagoras was a (0) philosopher He was well known as a great (25) _ _ born on the Aegean island of Samos. m athematician ancj his academic PHILOSOPHY MATHEMATICS RESPECT GREAT REMARK Over time, he made (29) ideas he came across in Egypt and Babylon. extensive __mathematical investigations, EXTEND DISCOVER stating that the square of the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is equal to ADD SCIENCE revolving around a (3 2 ). ANSWER SHEET central fire. W ithout doubt, his to the scientific world will always be acknowledged. DO NOT WRITE HERE 25 mathematician 25 26 respected 26 27 greatly 27 28 remarkable 28 29 extensive 29 30 discovery 30 31 addition 31 32 scientists 32 33 central 33 34 contribution 34 CENTRE CONTRIBUTE FCE test For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write only the missing words on the separate answer sheet. Example: 0 When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used 0 .te n n is every Sunday. 0 used to pCaif 35 Judy is as old as Helen, same is the same age as Helen. better You had better apologise for .y o u r mistake. 37 Take a coat because it m ig ht get colder in the evening, case _ _ _ _ colder in the evening. 38 They had to postpone the m atch until Friday. off had to be put off The m atch _______u ntil Friday. 39 A lthough he tries hard, he never manages to w in a game, matter no m atter how hard . he tries. 4 0 ” No, I w on’t pick you up from the airport,” said Nick to James, refused .fro m the airport. 41 You w on’t become fitte r if you d on ‘t exercise more, unless unless you exercise more. 42 You should learn how to operate the washing machine. about ANSWER SHEET DO NOT WRITE HERE 35 35 is the same age as 36 had better apologise for 37 in case it gets 37 38 had to be put off 38 39 no matter how hard 39 40 refused to pick James up i 36 ii i 40 41 unless you exercise 41 42 about time you learnt 42 . how to operate the washing machine. 1. a d octo r’s appointm ent tomorrow? a. Have got a. had been b. Do you have b. would be c. you have c. were d. You have d. have been a. will finish summer. b. will have finished a. been painted (c jin is h d. am finishing a. which b. that (1^;be painted c. being painted d. have been painted (a)do c. whom b. to do d. whose c. done a. to d. doing b. with a. you c. like b. your c. yourself 5. “ I want to go to Eurodisney this year.” a. wants (b^does c. is d. will dishes. a. to wash (dTyours 12. When the firefighters arrived, the fire was out of control but a. off (b)out c. up d. through ( a ) if I had received b. washing b. if had I received c .to washing c. whether did I receive (d)wash d. whether have I received a. as big as a. somewhere b. bigger than b. nowhere c. big to c. everywhere d. more bigger than (d)anywhere ECCE test 15 . earlier about your coming, we would have prepared something to eat. a. to not go a. If we had informed b. not to go b. If we were informed c. Had we informed d)Had we been informed great after the renovation. (cpnot go d. d o n ‘t go a. has ever tasted ( b.)had ever tasted a. such a nice c. ever tastes b. so a nice d. was ever tasted c)such nice a. far much d. so nice b.)too much driver. c. such much aj)can’t d. a lot much b. m ustn’t c. did n ‘t have to d. w ouldn’t (a )to his going b.him going c. him to go d. his to go a. is reading c. has read a. when (d)has been reading (bybefore c. just as d. as soon as a. to visit b. us to visit c. us visit changes in the co un try’s economy. d)visiting (a )a b o u t b. up a. as c. along b. such as d. back c. the same like a. starts ( jj) like the hotel was very luxurious, Alan was not ( b ) started satisfied with anything, c. has started a. Despite d. had started (b)Eventhough c. Despite of behaviour. d. In spite of a. apologise 22. She was so beautiful in that dress that I couldn’t take my b. to apologise c. apologised a. from d. have apologised b. out of c. by Q o ff E C C E test carry cash on me. © of a. by b. for b. with c. about (c )o n d. in d .to should definitely get the job. a. to go a. of b. to going b. from © go d.going ©t° d. on a. will write b. have written © w r it e d.wrote VOCABULARY about my promotion. ; a. detected © usual b. regular b. found out c. typical c. discovered d. ordinary d. invented 41. Over the years we have grown rather fond of foreign demonstration. a. expedition a. witnesses b. excursion b. sightseers © o n lo o ke rs d. viewers paint. a. learnt b. educated c. instructed © ta u g h t © tr a v e l d. voyage a. strange b. peculiar © fo r e ig n d. unaware who finds my Siamese cat. a. bonus natural habitat. b. donation a. attitude c. award © b e h a v io u r c. mood d. temper reward ECCE vacuum cleaner during the sales. did you mean by that? a. account a. reported (b)m entioned b.fee c. referred c. receipt ^ d is c o u n t 45. 1 test Craig th irty dollars, but I c a n ‘t pay him back d. expressed until I get paid. machine. a. borrow a. directions b. let b. recipe (o)owe d. own card. a. change constructions evidence. (a ) rejected b. currency b. resisted c. budget c. denied d . cash d. refused 47. Famous people know that even when they wear dark a. prevented a. realised b. convicted (^re cog nised c. distinguished d. neglected because you have installed a burglar alarm. a. guess (bj)assume c. estimate d. appreciate (^ p ro h ib ite d d. sentenced down the alley. a. hunted ((b)chased c. banned d. forbade 5 6 .1pretended to be sick so that I w ou ldn ‘t have to do my a. selection her. b. choice a. cheat (c)election d. option y o u’re only fifteen.” a. responsible b. blackmail c. pursue (djde ce ive ( a. hitting b. reliable b. knocking c. relevant c. beating d)reasonable d. om itting ECCE test eats at least four bars a day. a. secure a. fond b. defend b. keen ( c.) protect c.iaddicted d. save d. adjusted say. a. put a.sensitive b. kept b. sensible c. sensational d. emotional 60. The police officer waved her hand as a _ _ _ _ _ fo r the Q set d.got promoted. driver to stop. a. went over a. notice b. put up b. warning c. caution d.signal 61.1have never played golf, as it’s never _ _ _ _ _ to me. (c )to o ko n d. got over room. a. impressed a. identical b. appealed b. same c. attracted c. equal d. urged d. engaged 62 . __ me to show you the way. a. Accept just to keep them company. b. Oblige a. give c. Allow b. have d. Let c. take s a.;results d. pay b. effects of pickpockets. c. influences a. beware d. consequences b. warn c. compete (a ) come b. get c. be d.go d. distinguish THE PRESENT SIMPLE IS USED: • for habits, permanent situations and general truths in the present. 1usually travel alone. Water boils at 100° C. • for future actions related to timetables and programmes. The ship sails at 9 o ‘clock. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE IS USED: • for temporary states and actions / events happening at or around the time of speaking. We’re staying at my grandmother’s at the moment. • for planned future actions related to personal arrangements. I’m going to the cinema tonight. now usually always often never sometimes rarely seldom hardly ever every day/week etc. THE PAST SIMPLE IS USED: • for completed actions that happened at a definite time in the past. When 1was five, my father gave me a bicycle. • for habits, repeated actions or permanent situations in the past. Last summer we went swim m ing every day. at the moment tonight at present nowadays this month etc. THE PAST PROGRESSIVE IS USED: • for actions that were in progress at a definite time in the past. / was washing my hair at 9:00 o ’clock last night. • for lengthy past actions that were interrupted by short sudden ones (Past Simple). 1was driving along the street, when a rabbit jum ped in fro n t o f m y car. • for actions happening at the same time in the past. While my sister was cooking, 1was reading a magazine. • for background scenes to a story. • for temporary past states or actions. while yesterday then ago last month/night/week etc. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE IS USED: • for actions which started in the past and are still happening or have just finished. I’ve had this car since 1995. ■ with adjectives in the superlative degree or expressions like: the only/first/second etc.. This is the best film I’ve ever seen. • for past actions the results of which are connected to the present. Mum! The dog has sp ilt the m ilk on the floor! (The floor is dirty). • to announce news, changes or events that affect the present. etc. THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IS USED: • to emphasise the duration of actions that started in the past and are still happening or have just finished. Ian has been watching TV a ll day. • actions the results of which are obvious in the present. Her car is so shiny!She’s been waxing it all m orning! how long since for just yet already how long ever never etc. THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE IS USED: • for past events that were completed before other past events or by/at a definite time in the past. By Monday, we had finished rehearsing the school play. as for since all day/morning etc. THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IS USED: • to emphasise the duration of actions that had been in progress up to a time in the past or before another past event. He had been driving fo r 20 years when he had his first car accident. for lengthy past actions with visible results in the past. The children were exhausted because they had been playing football a ll morning. by + time after before when by the time etc. by when for since after before how long etc. Grammar Review THE FUTURE SIMPLE IS USED: THE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE IS USED: • for decisions made at the m om ent of speaking. • fo r already planned future actions or events that w ill be in progress at a specific tim e in the future. 1like this dress. 1think I’ll buy it • to make predictions based on personal opinions; promises; requests or offers. This tim e next month, 1w ill be sending you a postcard from Hawaii. 1think Grandpa w ill live to be 100. next week m onth/year etc. tom orrow in a w eek/m onth/year etc. THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE IS USED: THE FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IS USED: • fo r actions that will be completed by a specific tim e in the future or before another future action. / w ill have finished this project by next week. • to emphasise the duration of actions up to a point of tim e in the future. by by the tim e before By next July, they w ill have been living in this house for ten years. by ……..__ _ THE FUTURE “Going to” IS USED: WAS/WERE “Going to” IS USED: • for predictions based on evidence. • fo r actions that had been planned in the past BUT did not eventually happen. The acrobat is losing his balance; he’s going to fall. • fo r plans or decisions that have already been made. We ‘re going to renovate our summer house during the holidays. They were going to go to Chris’party, but they changed their mind. Stative Verbs The following groups of verbs express states -not actions- and are not used in the progressive tenses. • verbs of the senses (feel, hear, see, smell, taste etc.) • verbs o f em otions and preferences (like, dislike, love, hate, fear, mind, want, wish, need, prefer etc.) • verbs o f perception, belief, knowledge and ownership (think, believe, know, understand, expect, remember, forget, hope, have, own, belong (to) etc.) • other verbs which describe permanent states (be, cost, weigh, seem, appear, consist (of) etc.) This pizza tastes delicious. It costs £10. A t the moment, I think we should keep calm. • Some stative verbs are used in the progressive form s when they express actions rather than states. I see you’ve cut your hair. I’m seeing an old friend tonight. I think her cooking is delicious. I’m thinking o f m oving into a new apartment. • Listen, look and watch, though verbs of the senses, are used in the progressive tenses because they describe voluntary actions. I didn’t hear the telephone ring because I was listening to music. Unit 2 Relative Clauses – Clauses of Time RELATIVE CLAUSES Defining relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses • provide inform ation which is essential to the meaning of the sentence. • are not put between commas. PEOPLE | • provide additional inform ation which is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. • are put between commas. • the relative pronouns cannot be om itted; neither can we use ‘that’ instead of them. ANIMALS/THINGS The man who/that is standing next to her is her father. (Defining) | The man, who was found g u ilty o f m any crim es, was sentenced to life im prisonm ent. (Non-Defining) Her parents gave her a cat which/that had lovely grey fur (Defining) Her cat, which had lovely grey fur, was a gift from her parents (Non-Defining) The man who/whom/that (*) she is expecting is her father. (Defining) Her father, who/whom we met at the party last week, is sick. (Non-Defining) (*) The pronouns may be omitted. The cat which/that (*) she is holding has lovely grey fur. (Defining) Her cat, which was given to her six m onths ago, has already had kittens. (Non-Defining) (*) The pronouns may be omitted. I met a girl whose father is a pilot. (Defining) Coco Chanel, whose original first name was Gabrielle, was the first to design simple women’s clothes. (Non-Defining) I’ve ju s t finished a novel whose main character/the main character of which is an animal. (Defining) His latest book, whose main character/the main character of which is an animal, im m ediately became a best-seller. (NonDefining) MM Grammar Review He was born on the day w hen/that/on which (*) his father died. (Defining) W A new age in space exploration started in 1969, when Neil Armstrong walked on the moon for the first time. i in I- (Non-Defining) GO X (*) may be omitted. L L l i Q u This is the house where/in which John lives. (Defining) < u This is the house w hich/that (*) John lives in. (Defining) Ll I < > _i One of the most famous areas in China is the Forbidden City in Beijing, where the emperors used to live. (Non-Defining) H a. (*) may be omitted. < 1 -1 aajgas 1u Z 1K o in There must be a reason why he always wears black. (Defining only) < u BC … 1 That is used only in d efining relative clauses and can replace: • w ho/w hich/w hom when they refer to the object of the verb. • when. • where (’that’ must be followed by a preposition) That is never used after a comma. 2 Which sometimes refers to the whole previous sentence and cannot be omitted. He never tidies his desk, which really annoys me. 3 Prepositions are used: • before or after which and whom. The hotel at which we stayed/which we stayed at was not very expensive. • only after who and that. The man who she came to the party w ith is her husband. • never with when, where, why. 4 Expressions of quantity+of (some of, all of, many of, any of, much of, each of, a few of, most of, half of, either of, neither of, none of, a number of, one of, the majority of etc.) can be used before whom, which and whose. They have three children, tw o o f whom have already finished school. 5 Present and past participles can be used instead of relative clauses. • Present participles (-ing) replace relative clauses in the active voice. The man who is cleaning the garden is the gardener. 4 The man cleaning the garden is the gardener. • Past participles (-ed/irregular form s) replace relative clauses in the passive voice. Cars which are produced in Germany are rather expensive. 4 Cars produced in Germany are rather expensive. LAUSESOFTIME Clauses of time are introduced by when, while, as, just as, the m oment (that), till/u n til, as soon as, before, after, once, whenever, every tim e etc. Clauses of time go before the main clause (separated by a comma) or after the main clause (no comma). Meaning Exam ples Use/Significance T im e w ords when, as, while for two events happening at the same time W hile m y b ro th e r was waxing the car, 1 was preparing dinner. just as, the moment (that) for two short actions happening at the same time Just as 1entered the room, the phone rang. when, as soon as, before, after, once for events happening one after the other They le ft as soon as they heard about the accident. by the time “not later than” You should have finished by the time we return. till, until “up to a point of time” I’ll stay at the office until 1finish m y work. • Will and would are ne’i/er used in clauses of time. • The present participic ; (-ing) can be used instead of clauses of time. a • Will can b( used after when only if it is a question word. Call me when yousvifl get back, (clause o f time). When w/ill you get back? (question) Exam ples S ignificance As she was drivin g hom e, she had a te rrib le acciden t. 4 Driving home, she had a terrible accident. a lengthy action interrupted by a short/sudden one. As I was walking along, I fe lt that someone was follow ing me. 4 Walking along, I had the feeling that…. an action happening at the same time as another one. As I closed the door, I rem em bered where m y keys were: an action happening immediately before another one. 4 Closing the door, I…. I – Grammar Review Unit 3 Adverbs-Comparisons-Articles-Uncountables ADVERBS Special Cases —— P osition | Exam ples Adverbs of frequency always, occasionally, often, rarely, seldom, etc. • before the main verb • after the (first) auxiliary • after the verb “to be” We often play basketball together. I’ve never liked yoghurt. She is always late fo r school. Adverbs of degree absolutely, hardly, quite, rather, very, etc. • usually before the word they m odify • a+rather+adjective+noun • rather+a/an+adjective+noun • a+quite+adjective+noun • quite+a/an+adjective+noun • a+fairiy/pretty+adjective+noun He was partly involved in this. It was a rather d iffic u lt subject. It was rather a d iffic u lt subject. It was a quite d iffic u lt subject. It was quite a d iffic u lt subject. It was a fairly d iffic u lt subject. COMPARISONS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Formation Degree of comparison Positive Typesof Comparative Superlative one-syllable clean long (a d j/a d v) shy clean-er long-er shy-er clean-est long-est shy-est two-syllable ending in-y heavy (adj) heav-i-er earl-i-er heav-i-est earl-i-est more-than-one syllable creative (adj) m ore creative m ore creatively m ost creative m ost creatively Pay attention to fat-fatter-fattest close-closer-closest dry-drier-driest quiet-quieter-quietest or quiet-m ore quiet-m ost quiet But: recent-more recent-most recent Irregular form s Positive good/well bad/badly old far much/many little Comparative better worse older/elder farther/further more less Superlative best worst oldest/eldest farthest/ furthest most least … — Elder/Eldest describe close fam ily relations. Elder is not followed by than. My elder sister is a vegetarian. My sister Ann, who is older than me, is a vegetarian. Comparative+than The+superlative-M Farther/Farthest is used for distances only. Further/ Furthest is used for distances or additional information. Pluto is the farthest / furthest planet from Earth. For further inform ation please contact 9312. Jim is fatter than Peter. * of all/period „ in+place/group of people The+comparative to compare tw o people or things. Other forms of comparison She’s the m ost famous runner o f ail/the decade, in her country/her team. Nicky is the more beautiful o f the two sisters. Examples • chúng tôi not so/as…as or not such (a)+…+noun+as • the same as • tw ice/three times as…as • less…than She’s as good a painter as her father. The weather today is the same as yesterday. An ostrich’s egg is five times as big as a chicken’s egg. A sports car is less economical than a city car. • the least • the+comparative…the+comparative (cause-result) This is the least practical machine 1have ever used. The more we learn, the wiser we get. • comparative + and + comparative (continual change) As 1grow up, 1get wiser and wiser. Grammar Review EBIH 33 Examples Use Structures like+noun/pronoun/-ing form as+subject+verb sim ilarity He waved the flag like a sword. as+article+noun Description of sb’s job or of the function of something She works as a nurse at the local hospital. He used his coat as a blanket. • Like and such as are used to give examples. Many o f the earth’s largest forests, such as/like the tropical rainforests, have been destroyed to a large extent. before the positive degree before the com parative degree very*, too*, pretty, most, rather, quite, fairly Considering you’ve ju st had an operation, you look fa irly well. a bit, a lot, even, far, much, rather * very + adjective = positive meaning * too + adjective = negative meaning Your employer is even stricter than you told me. She’s a very good student. She’s too good fo r her class. m n ssm The indefinite article a/an is used before singular countable nouns or adjectives followed by singular nouns. Examples A/AN is also used: • before a noun which is mentioned for the first tim e and is not specific. They own a house in the village. • before a noun representing a group of people, animals or things. A dolphin is faster than a shark. • to show somebody’s character, job or nationality. Her brother is a doctor. • w ith expressions of quantity and numbers. A couple of friends came by the house yesterday. The definite article the is used before countable and uncountable nouns both in the singular and the plural. Examples THE is also used before: • specific nouns or nouns that have been mentioned before. She bought two T-shirts and a dress yesterday but she likes the dress best. • names of seas, rivers, groups of islands, mountains (plural), ranges, countries (plural), cinemas, theatres, museums, restaurants, hotels, institutions. the Black sea, the Netherlands, The Odeon Cinema, The Archaeological Museum, the Steak House, the Holiday Inn, the University o f London, the Alps • names of families and nationalities. the Johnsons, the Japanese • adjectives referring to classes of people. the underprivileged, the deaf • musical instruments, dances, inventions. the piano, the mambo, the fax machine Examples THE is not used before: • nouns referring to something general or not mentioned before. llik e tea. • names of people, streets, cities, islands, countries, continents, mountains Alain Delon, Regent Street, Paris, Sicily, Germany, (singular), religious holidays, days of the week, months, squares, parks, Africa, M ont Blanc, Easter, Monday, July, Trafalgar lakes, stations, m agazines, sports, games, colours, school subjects, Square, Hyde Park, Lake Victoria, Euston station, Vogue, tennis, cards, red, Psychology, Spanish. languages. • meals. 1always have breakfast. • means of transport. She goes to work by bus. • the words bed, court, church, home, hospital, prison, school, university, She went to bed early because she was exhausted. She always makes the bed early in the morning. w ork when they are used fo r the purpose for which they exist. • pubs, restaurants, hotels, shops, banks whose names include the name Mandy’s Bar, G iovanni’s Restaurant, Burberry’s, Harvey Nichols, Barclay’s bank. of their founder or another proper name. NOTE: A/an is used when we don’t specify the kind. She brought me a magazine. One is used when we emphasise the quantity. She brought me one magazine (only one). Grammar Review UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Uncountable nouns cannot be counted and have no plural form. Some, any, (a) little etc. can be used with most of them, but not a/an/ Uncountable nouns describe food (e.g. meat, cheese, etc.), liquids (e.g. milk, water, etc.), material (e.g. glass, wood, etc.), natural phenomena (e.g. weather, heat, etc.), languages (English, German, etc.), diseases (e.g. chickenpox, cancer, etc.), sciences and school subjects (e.g. Physics, Literature, etc.), games (e.g. football, cards, etc.), abstract nouns (e.g. freedom, dignity, knowledge, etc.) and some concrete nouns (e.g. money, luggage, etc.). U n it 4 Determiners – Pronouns Determiners are: articles (a/an, the), possessive adjectives (my, your, etc.), demonstratives (this, that, etc.), numbers (one, two, etc.), quantifiers (some, any, no, each, every, much, many, a lot of, plenty, a little, a few) and the words both, either, neither, most, all, none, whole. Some, any and no are used w ith countable and uncountable nouns. Each and every are used only w ith singular countable nouns. The compounds of some, any, no and every cannot be used w ith nouns. SOME (someone/somebody/som ething/somewhere) are used in: • affirm ative sentences. ANY (anyone/anybody-anything-anywhere) are used in: • questions. Did you see anyone running? • negative sentences w ith not or other negative words (hardly, never, rarely, etc.). • polite requests and offers. Would you like some tea? You haven’t done anything terrible. • questions (a positive answer is expected). Could 1help you w ith something? • affirmative sentences, meaning “no matter who/which/where”. You can buy this magazine anywhere. NO (no one/nobody/nothing/now here) are used in: • negative sentences instead of not any. No other negative words can be used (never, not, etc.). You have nothing to do w ith m y problems. EVERY (everyone/everybody-everything-everywhere) are used: • for people or things considered as a group. Every student needs books. • w ith nearly and not. EACH is used: Not everybody can do a cartwheel. • for people or things considered separately. Each athlete received a medal. Every one of + plural noun. Every one o f the children came up with an excuse. Each (one) of + plural noun/pronoun Each one o f you m ust go out. m any + countable nouns / m uch + uncountable nouns are used: • in questions and negations. • in affirm ative sentences w ith too, how, so and as. • at the beginning of a sentence (formal English). Are there many cars in the street today? I’ll do as much as 1can. Much trouble has been caused by this war. a few + countable nouns a little + uncountable nouns few + countable nouns little + uncountable nouns • show a very small am ount (positive) and can be used w ith • show a very small am ount (negative) and can be used with very, so, too, as and how. only. I’ve only read a few pages. There’s very little cheese in the fridge. a lo t (of) – lots (of) – plenty (of) + countable nouns and uncountable nouns are used: • in affirm ative sentences before nouns and pronouns. A lo t o f people like chocolate. A lot, lots and plenty can be used w ithout nouns. D on’t buy any more cheese; we’ve got a lot. FOR TWO PEOPLE OR THINGS FOR MORE THAN TWO PEOPLE OR THINGS BOTH (OF): MOST (OF)-ALL (OF): • is used w ith a plural verb. • are used w ith a plural verb. They both know how to dance the tango. EITHER (OF) • Either means “any of the tw o ”. Skiing o r snow boarding? Either sport is enjoyable. • Either o f is used w ith a singular or plural verb. Either o f these sports is/are enjoyable. Most teenagers like pop music. Most o f m y schoolmates are noisy. A ll o f my children enjoy picnics. • all + that clause + singular verb = the only thing.. A ll I want is a little peace. Grammar Review FOR TWO PEOPLE OR THINGS FOR MORE THAN TWO PEOPLE OR THINGS NEITHER (OF) • Neither means “not one and not the other”. Neither dress fitte d me well. • Neither of goes w ith a singular or plural verb. N either o f m y cousins know(s) how to swim. NONE (OF) • None is not followed by a noun. Which book did you like best? None. • None of is used before nouns or object pronouns w ith a singular or plural verb. None o f the film s 1saw in the past five m onths was/were interesting. WHOLE (=COMPLETE) • Whole is used between a determ iner and a singular countable noun. The whole world knows that China has the biggest population. A ll (o f) the w orld knows that China has the biggest population. • chúng tôi ■ • either…or ■ are used as linkers. • chúng tôi < Both Kate and Peter are good students. You can either go skiing or m ountain climbing. Neither John nor Paul like chocolate. • So/neither + auxiliary verb + subject i • 1think/hope/believe etc. so show agreement. • either at the end of the sentence J 1love the opera! – So do 1. Jim didn’t go swimming. – Neither did 1. Is Mike com ing to the party? -1 think so. 1don’t like fish! -1 don’t either. Unit 5 Consolidation I Unit 6 Infinitive, -ing Form Examples -ing fo rm verb+ing taking (present form ) having+past participle (perfect form) • as a noun (subject or object of a verb) • after a preposition or verb+preposition • after the verb go, indicating physical activities • after the verbs need, want, require etc., with a passive meaning • after the object of the verbs catch, find, leave • after be busy, spend/ waste+expression of We go fishing in the summer. Your room needs cleaning. (=Your room needs to be cleaned.) I caught him listening behind the door. I used to spend hours looking at the sea. money/time having taken possessive adj/case { object+from+-ing • after excuse, forgive, pardon, r pOSSessive prevent, understand + dislike enjoy fancy finish imagine involve keep (on) mention mind miss postpone practise prefer quit His m other prevented him (John) from getting hurt. Excuse my being late, b ut I got stuck in traffic. { I adjective/case • after certain verbs and expressions listed below adm it appreciate avoid consider delay deny discuss Hitch-hiking can be dangerous. I’m thrilled about going to that party. recall recommend resent resist risk suggest tolerate be/get accustomed to be/get used to in addition to look forward to object to take to I quit smoking last year. as well as be in favour of can’t stand/help feel like have difficulty (in) have a hard tim e have trouble how about it’s no good/use it’s w orth there’s no chance of there’s no point in w hat’s the point of…? What’s the use of….? Examples to express purpose after would like, would love, would to be+past participle (simple) I went home to check if everything was alright. I would prefer to stay home than go to that prefer party. after the first/second/last/best etc. Laika was the firs t dog to travel to the moon. after some, any, no and their compounds She looks like she doesn’t have anything to do. after it+be+adjective(+of/for+object) It was generous o f her to host us fo r the night. after too/enough This coffee is Too hot fo r me to drink. after it+take+expression o f time It takes me h a lf an hour to walk home. after certain verbs and expressions listed She refused to come to the party. to be taken below Present Infinitive Active Voice to+bare infinitive (simple) to take to be+verb+ing (progressive) to be taking Present In finitive Passive Voice Grammar Review A fte r these verbs follow ed by who, w hat, which, where, how but not why. ask decide explain forget know learn remember show tell understand wonder teach, etc. As the object o f these verbs afford agree appear arrange ask beg claim decide demand deserve expect fail forget happen hesitate hope learn manage Forms mean need offer plan prepare pretend promise refuse regret remember seem swear tend threaten volunteer want, etc. A fte r the object o f these verbs advise allow ask beg cause challenge convince encourage expect Use Bare In fin itive remind require teach tell urge want warn, etc. Examples after most modal verbs after these verbs in the active voice: hear, take forbid force hire instruct invite need order perm it persuade let, listen to, make, notice, observe, see, watch etc. after why….?/why not…..? anything, but evervthina + 1J everything , except ‘ nothing f Perfect In fin itive Active Voice after modal verbs after the verbs promise, seem, (to) have+past participle (simple) appear, claim, expect, hope, happen, pretend (t o ) have taken after these verbs in the passive voice: (to) have been+verb+-ing (progressive) believe, say, think, consider, suppose, understand I may be late tomorrow. I heard her scream. BUT She was heard to scream. Why not go fo r a picnic? / did everything but clean the bathroom. I would have finished by now if he hadn’t called. She claimed to have clim bed Mount Everest. She seemed to have been crying all night. He is thought to have stolen the emerald. The emerald is thought to have been stolen. (to) have been taking Perfect In finitive Passive Voice (to) have been+past participle (t o ) have been taken full infinitive { . *. . . bare infinitive My brother helped me (to) prepare lunch. Subject + seem + full infinitive = It (impersonal) + seems + that clause. He seems to be intelligent. = It seems that he is intelligent. -ing • Advise, allow, encourage, permit, recommend, require ire+ J *r object + full infinitive l ot The doctor encouraged exercising.(=The doctor encouraged him to exercise.) Prefer can also take a full infinitive. Ip re fe r to drink coffee in the morning. Prefer+full infinitive+rather than+bare infinitive. I prefer to walk rather than drive. likely/unlikely + 1full infinitive John is likely to come to the party. It is unlikely to snow tomorow. , that clause It is likely that John w ill come to the party. The in fin itive o r the -ing form are used w ith no difference in m eaning a fte r these verbs: like, love, hate, begin, start, continue, intend, prefer, can’t bear etc. He began to run as soon as he heard the shot. (=He began running as soon as he heard the shot). The in finitive o r -ing fo rm are used w ith different meanings a fte r these verbs: try + -ing: do something to see what effect it w ill have. If you want to get rid o f your sore throat, try drinking som ething hot. try + full infinitive: make an effort. I tried to finish everything in tim e but that was impossible. rem em ber/forget/regret + -ing: We refer to som ething that remem ber/forget/regret + full infinitive: We remember has already happened. I regret talking to my mum that way. ‘ something before doing it. We forget something we are supposed to do. We regret something when we are sorry to do it. I regret to tell you that you have failed your test. Grammar Review …….. ….. ………………….. .. ……. .. … …-….—…— ..-….. chúng tôi on + full infinitive: the action changes. go on + -ing: the action continues. 1went on doing my homework u n til m idnight. When 1had finished eating, 1went on to do my homework. stop + -ing: the action was stopped and not repeated. A fter having a heart attack, he stopped smoking. stop + full infinitive: to pause an action tem porarily in order to see/hear/sm ell/feel/notice/watch/observe/listen to + -ing: see/hear/feel/notice/watch/observe/listen to + bare infinitive: for complete actions. 1watched her feed her dog. for actions which are incomplete or still in progress. On m y way to the supermarket, 1saw him walking the dog. do something else. He was eating, but stopped to smoke a cigarette. Unit 7 Modal Verbs Modal verbs do not form all tense form s and are followed by a bare infinitive, except for need. They have the same form in all persons, except have to and need. They express: ■can/be able to: ability in the present/future >could: general ability in the past >was/were able to: ability in a particular situation in the past • can, could/may, m ight + present infinitive: possibility in the present/future • could/m ay/m ight + perfect infinitive: possibility in the past r t In the negative only may not/m ight not can be used • could/m ight + perfect infinitive: for events that were possible but finally didn’t happen • be likely to: can also express possibility (especially in questions) She can sing in Spanish. Will you be able to finish this project by Friday? Mozart could play the piano at the age o f three. Last weekend we stayed at home, so we were able to spend some time together. They m ay/could/m ight watch TV tonight. Don’t go there! There m ight be a riot. Sam can be very noisy sometimes. They could/m ay/m ight have forgotten about the concert. It’s strange they didn’t come. D on’t ever cheat in your exams again! You could have been expelled fo r that. Is she likely to come to the party? Why don’t you ask Tim? He should be in his office now. ■should/ought to + present infinitive: probability in the present/future • must + present infinitive: positive deduction about the They must be out; Nobody is answering the phone. present or the future must + perfect infinitive: positive deduction about the past • can’t + present infinitive: Mary m ust have been to the supermarket; the cupboards are a ll full. The 7:30 train to Bristol can’t be leaving yet; it ’s only 7:10. negative deduction about the present or the future It can’t have been Ted I saw yesterday; Ted has got red hair. can’t + perfect infinitive: negative deduction about the past IWBWMW – can/could I (possibly)…? May/might I….? asking for permission . giving/ >Yes, (of course) you can/could/may L refusing No, (I’m afraid) you can’t/m ay not J permission C a n /C o u ld / M ay/M ight I go out please? You can/could/may/can’t/m ay not smoke in this room. Synonymous Expressions: I wonder if I could/ m ight…. Is it all rig ht if I …..? Would it be possible for me to … ? Do you mind if I….? Would it be possible fo r me to /l wonder if I could/Do you m ind if I open the door? Grammar R eview | • can/will….? informal request 5 :r •could/may/would….? form al request W ill you come to the doctor’s with me? Can you help me with m y homework, Mum? Could you show me the way to Oxford Street, please? ~ Synonymous Expressions: j Would you mind….? I/we’d like… Would you m ind turning the lights on? ” will: willingness to help P w ill (you)….? informal offers and invitations |jjr • can/could: willingness to help can/could/shall 1….? form al offers |S • would you like/prefer + noun/full infinitive.,,,? Would you rather + bare infinitive….? | Polite or form al offers and invitations ^ • can: informal suggestions 5 • shall/could…? polite or form al suggestions 1 w ill clean the car fo r you. Will you come to Mexico w ith me? 1can help you w ith the washing up, if you like. Shall 1wait fo r you? Would you like to come to the cinema with us? Would you rather have dinner with us? You can visit the Grand Canyon while you’re in the USA. Could you turn down the music, please? 5 c Synonymous Expressions: ? Let’s + bare infinitive, Why don’t “ How about + noun/-ing 7 J j • should/ought to + present infinitive: E should/ought to + perfect infinitive: p r something should have happened but it didn’t ■ B p K g • used to: past habits and situations that are no longer true (NEGATIVE = didn’t use to) • would (+present infinitive): past habits or a person’s typical behaviour in the past • will: to describe a person’s typical behaviour in the present | 9 B • must: internal obligation felt by the speaker • have (got) to: external obligation coming from facts • ought to/should: we remind someone of a duty or ■ f* obligation • need + noun/ -ing fo rm / full/bare infinitive: P® necessity M E E jr p iS P R H s O g Why don’t we g o /H o w about going to the cinema? Shall we tell him the truth or not? You should pay a visit to your dentist if you have a toothache. She should have told her father before she went away. You’d better stop interfering in my affairs. She used to go fishing when she lived in the island. He didn’t use to dance when he was young. They would read a book before they went to sleep. Every time he passes by, he w ill say “hello”. 1m ust tidy up or mum w ill get angry. You have (got) to take this syrup three times a day. You ought to/should inform your parents about the school trip. I’m so d irty! 1need a shower! The car needs repairing. • don’t have to/haven’t got to /n e e d n ‘t/d o n ‘t need You needn’t eat it if you don’t like it. to + infinitive: It is not necessary to do something You don’t have to pay me back today. • needn’t + perfect infinitive: something wasn’t necessary We needn’t have cooked. There was plenty o f food le ft over but it was done from yesterday. • didn’t need to + infinitive: something wasn’t necessary He didn’t have to clean the car. but it isn’t clear if it was done or not • mustn’t: prohibition 1 can’t: not being allowed to do something You m ustn’t smoke in here. He can’t enter that room; it’s fo r sta ff only. m NOTE • Need as a main verb form s the negative and interrogative w ith do/did. Do you need anything? I need som ething (a machine) to cut the grass with. >Must is used o nly fo r the present. Past and future tenses are form ed w ith have to. He must take the dog fo r a walk. He had to take the dog fo r a walk last night but he forgot to. Grammar Review Unit 8 Passive Voice Passive Voice stresses the action itself, not who or what caused it. FORMATION destroyed The fire Active Voice: the factory 1 I Passive Voice: completely. I The factory was completely destroyed by ‘T the fire. ERB FORMS IN THE PASSIVE VOICE, Verb Forms Active Voice Passive Voice Present Simple Producers make horror film s every year. Horror films are made every year. Present Progressive We are removing the furniture right now. The furniture is being removed right now. Past Simple The technician repaired my TV yesterday. My TV was repaired yesterday. Past Progressive They were pursuing the th ie f when there was an explosion. The thief was being pursued when there was an explosion. Present Perfect Simple We have finished these reports. These reports have been finished. Past Perfect Simple They had made a statem ent in Parliament before the war broke out. A statement had been made in Parliament before the war broke out. Future “will” Someone w ill make a speech on technology tomorrow. A speech on technology w ill be made tomorrow. Going to They are going to hire a new employee. A new employee is going to be hired. Future Perfect Simple 1w ill have typed my thesis by next month. My thesis w ill have been typed by next month. Present Infinitive We o ug ht to finish the building before the end of the year. The building ought to be finished before the end of the year. Perfect Infinitive We sh o u ld have fin ish e d th e b u ild in g earlier. The building should have been finished earlier. -ing form We all appreciate other people helping us. We all appreciate being helped. Modal verbs You must clean your room. Your room must be cleaned. Imperative Please fill in this form. This form should/must be filled in. ■The Present, Past and Future Perfect Progressive and the Future Progressive are not used in the Passive Voice. * By + agent is used to emphasise who does or what causes the action. The new tax law was announced by the Prime Minister. Note the fo llow in g changes in: Active Voice Passive Voice Verbs w ith tw o objects He gave her a painting. She was given a painting. A painting was given to her. Question words (what, who, when, where, why, how) Who composed this song? Who was this song composed by? (informal) By whom was this song composed? (formal) not…any no not….anyof none of not….anyone/anybody no one/nobody not…anything nothing The head teacher didn’t expel any of the students. They didn’t find anything in the excavations. None of the students were expelled. Nothing was found in the excavations. make, hear, help, see, etc. 1heard her scream. She was heard to scream. believe, consider, expect, find, hope, know, report, say, think, understand People say that he is very wealthy. People say that he was very wealthy. It is said that he is very wealthy. He is said to be very wealthy. He is said to have been very wealthy. They separated him from his parents when he was young. He was separated from his parents when he was young. verbs w ith prepositions a s # Grammar Review To: ……………….. Use the fo llo w in g expressions ……………………… Examples -……………………. Give permission let sb do sth allow sb to do sth give sb permission to do sth Her parents le t her stay out late. My father allowed me to borrow his car. The M ayor gave us perm ission to use the old building fo r our rehearsals. Be given permission be allowed to do sth get sb’s permission to do sth She is allowed to stay out late. We g o t the M ayor’s perm ission to use the old building fo r our rehearsals. Deny permission not let, not allow to, not be allowed to + infinitive subject+is prohibited/banned It is illegal/forbidden to do sth Her parents don’t allow her to stay out late. She’s not allowed to stay out late. Smoking is prohibited in this section. It is forbidden to enter that room. The Perfect participle is used for an action that happened before another one in the past. Having been h it by an earthquake, the small town took 15 years to return to its previous condition. =A fter it had been h it by an earthquake, the sm all town took 15 years to return to its previous condition. The past participle is used in the passive voice to replace Examples a relative clause The dresses w orn by film stars on the night of the Oscar awards are all designer labels. = The dresses which are worn by film stars on the night of the Oscar awards are all designer labels. a conditional sentence Handled w ith care, contact lenses can last fo r over 2 years. = If they are handled w ith care, contact lenses can last for over 2 years. a clause of reason Fascinated by the film , they decided to stay and w atch it again. = As/Because they were fascinated by the film, they decided to stay and watch it again. a clause of result Carried away by the beautiful scenery, he lost concentration and had an accident = He was so carried away by the beautiful scenery that he lost concentration and had an accident. U n it 9 Pronouns – Causative Form POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (My, Your, His, Her, Its, Our, Your, Their) Use Examples • before a noun m y notebook, her car, their chairs • possessive adjective + own + noun is used to emphasise that 1don’t take the bus. 1have m y own car. something belongs to only one person • on + possessive adjective + own is used to emphasise that the My son always studies on his own. subject acts alone, w itho ut help POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Ours, Yours, Theirs) —————– I Use Examples • to replace a possessive adjective + noun They are never followed by nouns. 1like your house better than oursJ&usG, • A/an + noun + of + possessive pronoun = A colleague o f yours = one o f your colleagues. one of + possessive adjective + noun POSSESSIVE CASE Form ’s Use singular nouns (people or animals) the compounds of some, any, no irregular plural nouns not ending in -s tim e expressions/idiom s Examples John’s car, the horse’s tail Somebody’s car is in fro n t of m y garage. Men’s ties, women’s dresses A hard day’s work 1 Grammar Review Form Use > o f + noun Z E E Exam ples • plural nouns ending in -s My cousins’ house. • things, abstract nouns and animals (sometimes) The ro o f o f the house, the price o f independence, the fu r o f the cat (=the cat’s fur) • When two or more people own something in common, ‘s is added to the last noun. • We can use o f for people, only in long phrases. The cousin o f the g irl who lives next door is a student. John and Mary’s house. • When tw o or more people own different things, ‘s is added to each noun. John’s and Mary’s cars. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Yourselves, Themselves) i Use Exam ples • w ith the verbs behave, cu t, educate, enjoy, help, h u rt, kill, like, teach etc, if the subject and the object of the verb are the same. The little g irl likes herself in that red dress. She hurt herself while trying to cut the bread. We enjoyed ourselves very much at your party. • after certain verbs w ith prepositions (talk to, say to, take care of, etc.) The young people took care o f themselves while camping. • a fte r the verbs look, seem, etc, to describe em otions or behaviour. She doesn’t look herself lately; som ething must be wrong with her family. • for emphasis (emphatic pronouns) The Queen herself gave the Beatles an award. • by + reflexive pronoun = alone, w ithout help. 1painted my room by myself. NOTE • One-Ones are used if we do not w ant to repeat a countable noun. >Note the difference between them selves and each o th e r ( =one another). This phone is broken; you can use the one over there. Mary and John enjoyed themselves at the zoo yesterday. Mary and John liked each other from the m om ent they met. • another = one more. It can also go w ith expressions of time, distance or money. I’d like another steak please. I’m afraid you’ll have to wait fo r another ten minutes. CAUSATIVE FORM The Causative Form is used when we do not do something ourselves, but we arrange fo r someone else (usually an expert) to do it fo r us. Form ation Subject + Have /G e t + Object + Past Participle (in the correct form ) We are having our house painted next month. • Questions and negations are form ed as in the Active Voice w ith the auxiliaries do/does in the Present Simple and did in the Past Simple. • If we want to m ention w ho perform s the action, we can add by + agent at the end of the sentence. How often do you have your hair cut? When did you have your car serviced? – have som eone do so m ething = make someone do something. • We can use g et instead of have, especially in informal style. My dress was too long so I g o t it shortened. We had the tap fixed by the plumber. She had her children clean the living room. – g et som eone to do som ething = persuade someone to do something. She got her children to clean the living room. U n it 10 Consolidation II Grammar Review Unit 11 Clauses of concession, reason, purpose and result CLAUSES OF CONCESSION express contrast, opposition o r unexpected results Use • although even though I + subject + verb though J Examples Although she’s studied medicine, she faints at the sight o f blood. Even though he’s smart, he didn’t get into the course he wanted. Though we knew the way, we got lost. • despite 1 + noun / -ing form in spite of J the fact that + clause We managed to clim b the m ountain despite the rain. In spite o f the fact that he was sleepy, he drove home safely. Clever though he is, he couldn’t solve the problem. Cloudy though it was, we got sunburnt. + as/th o u 9h + subject + verb • however* l … . However fast he walked, we managed to keep up w ith him. No m atter how much she ate, she didn’t get fat. • whatever no matter what J She can’t convince me that she’s telling the truth, whatever she says. I’ll go to the party, no m atter what you say. * However can introduce a main clause. Sam came by yesterday; however, he forgot to bring the book 1had lent him. CLAUSES O F R E A S O N ^ B ^ B W I Examples • because ■* as r + clause since J They don’t talk to each other, because they have had a fight. 1didn’t know where to turn as I’d forgotten my map. Since you’re a vet, you can have a look at m y canary. • because o f i + noun/ -jng form due to J They wanted nothing to do w ith him because o f his rude behaviour. Due to her allergy, she never touches daisies. • due to the fact that + clause Due to the fact that they knew each other so well, they decided to share a flat. CLAUSES OF P U R P O S E H H H H i positive purpose • to so as to in order to < L + infinitive J ■ Examples They visited us to announce the good news. She told him to come along so as to introduce him to her friends. I’m learning Portuguese in order to go to Brazil next year. r can/may/will + infinitive for present/ They’re going to Africa so that they can study the gorillas. • so that < future We thought o f staying home fo r the whole week, so that we could 1 L could/m ight/would + infinitive for past rest. • with a view to/w ith the aim of + -ing form She started training hard w ith the aim o f winning the tennis cup. • in case + present tense for present/future in case + past tense ^ for past Take an anorak in case it rains. We always had an extra tyre in the car, in case we got a fla t tyre. • for -ing form She uses that needle fo r sewing. negative purpose • so as not to i in order not to ) ………. Em m es The th ie f was wearing a mask, so as not to be recognisable. She tied her key around her neck in order not to lose it. f can/may/will + not + infinitive • so that ■I for present/future They rem inded me 1had a class, so that 1w ouldn’t forget. L could/m ight/would + not + infinitive ^ for past • for fear / lest + subject + might/should + infinitive She closed the door fo r fear it m ight be broken by the wind. • for fear of + noun/-ing form She was wearing long boots fo r fear o f snakes. Grammar Review LAUSES OF RESULT Examples That exercise was too d ifficu lt fo r me to do. The sea isn’t warm enough for us to swim in. The weather was so cold yesterday that nobody dared to go out. 1 so + m uch/m any/little/few + noun r + that + clause so + adj + a/an + noun ^ The tunnel was so low that we had to crawl. We had so much spare tim e that we didn’t know what to do. It was so hot a day that we decided to go swimming. • such (a/an) (+adj) such a lot of It was such a scary place that 1wanted to get out as fast as possible. She’s lost such a lo t o f weight that 1hardly recognised her. 1 | + noun + that + clause NOTE are used in exclamatory sentences. It’s such an extraordinary animal! Your baby is so cute! How interesting! What a surprise to meet you here! Unit 12 Conditionals TYPE I = REAL SITUATIONS IN THE PRESENT / FUTURE If-Clause Main Clause • future tense If Paula learns Spanish, she’ll visit Spain. Present Simple (or Progressive) lf + Use real/probable situations in the present/future • can/m ay/might/should + infinitive If you have finished eating, you can/may watch TV. Present Perfect Simple (if the action has already finished) • present simple general truths If you m ix red and blue, you get purple. • Imperative instructions/comm ands If you go out, turn the lights off. • If-clauses either precede or follow the main clause. When they precede, we separate them w ith a comma. If you can hear me, give me a sign. Give me a sign if you can hear me. (no comma) • We can use should in the if-clause if there is a slight possibility o f something happening. If you should buy that car, take it to the mechanic to have it checked first. • Sometimes if is om itted and should comes before the subject (inversion). Should you buy that car, take it to the mechanic to have it checked first. TYPE 2 = UNREAL SITUATIONS IN THE PRESENT / FUTURE If-Clause Main Clause w ould/could/m ight + present infinitive If + Past Simple (or Progressive) Use If he were a pianist, he could get a jo b in the Orchestra. unreal/imaginary situations in the present If 1became a m illionaire, 1would buy a house w ith a swimming pool. events that are unlikely to happen in the future I f l were in your shoes, 1 would talk to my parents. Use were instead o f was in type 2 conditional (formal). If she were more polite, people would like her more. • Sometimes if is o m itted and were comes before the subject (inversion). Were he more careful, he would avoid such awkward situations. TYPE 3 = UNREAL SITUATIONS IN THE PAST If-Clause Main Clause w ould/could/m ight + perfect infinitive If + Past Perfect (Simple or Continuous) Use for actions that didn’t happen If she had stepped on the banana peel, she would have had an accident. If 1had taken better care o f m y teeth, 1wouldn’t have had this terrible toothache. to express criticism /regret Grammar Review Sometimes if is om itted and had comes before the subject (inversion) Had he been older, he would have been allowed to enter the disco. NOTE We can have combinations according to the context (Mixed Conditionals) If they le ft early, they would have arrived by now. (types 2,3) If we hadn’t go t lost, we would be there now. (types 3,2) conditionals can be introduced w ith other expressions (instead o f if): O’ • unless (=if not) / won’t talk to her unless she apologises to me. • as long as/provided/providing (=only if) I’ll go to his party provided (that)/as long as he invites me. • in case I’ll take an umbrella in case it rains. • on condition (that) (=provided) On condition you’ve told the truth, I’ll le t you go w ithout punishment. • but fo r (=if it wasn’t/hadn’t been for) But for her help, 1would have failed my exam. • or else (=if not/otherwise) Do as 1tell you, or else I’ll get angry. • suppose/supposing (=imagine if) Supposing you won the lottery, what would you do? • only if I’ll work w ith you only if you promise not to talk all the time. • even if She w ouldn’t change her m ind even if you proved her wrong. We use the future “will” only after the expression o r else. Unreal Past = unreal situations stated w ith Past Tenses PRESENT OR FUTURE REFERENCE Use Examples type 2 Conditional If I could go on a holiday, I would go to Peru. present/future imaginary situations Supposing you were an animal, what would you choose to be? w is h /if only + Past Tense we wish a present situation were different (if only is stronger than wish) I wish I had a pet. If only I were in Jamaica! w is h /if only + would + infinitive – to express annoyance, irritation, dissatisfaction >to make a wish concerning a present situation that is unlikely to change (The subject of would must be different from that of wish) I w ish/if only you would stop shouting. w is h /if only + could + infinitive make a wish/express regret about sth we cannot do at present He wishes he had a motorbike. as if/a s though + Past Tense untrue situations in the present (were is used instead of was) She walks as if she were a dancer. it’s (a b o u t/h ig h ) tim e + Past Tense • to indicate that tim e has come for sb to do sth • to express criticism /com plain about sth that should have already been done (It’s tim e + infinitive = the right tim e for sb to do sth) (It’s about/high tim e are stronger expressions) It ’s tim e we le ft this place. It’s tim e you told them the truth. It’s high tim e you qu it this jo b ! It’s tim e fo r him to ask fo r a raise. If + Past Tense imagine / suppose / supposing + Past Tense I wish days would go by quicker! Examples If + Past Perfect type 3 Conditional If she had been more careful, she w ouldn’t have crashed into the tree. Grammar Review Use w is h /if only + Past Perfect as if/a s though + Past Perfect im a gin e/ suppose/ supposing + Past Perfect Examples express sorrow/regret about sth in the past 1wish 1had m arried Paul. If only 1hadn’t forgotten m y passport! unreal situations in the past She behaved as if she had not seen anything. imaginary situations in the past Imagine you hadn’t gone to the beach, would you be brown now? WOULD RATHER (= I WOULD PREFER)] If the subject o f w ould rather is the same as the subject o f the verb: Present / Future reference Past reference would rather (not) + present bare infinitive I’d rather have a crepe. He’d rather not take the test tomorrow. would rather (not) + perfect bare infinitive We’d rather have rented a jeep. I’d rather not have eaten so much at the dinner party yesterday. * If the subject o f w ould rather is d ifferent from the subject o f the verb: Present / Future reference would rather + subject + Past Simple I’d rather you didn’t bring your dog along on our trip. Past reference would rather + subject + Past Perfect He would rather she hadn’t cut her hair so short. § • Would rather + bare infinitive + than + bare infinitive I’d rather sleep than watch TV. • Would sooner is used in the same way as would rather I’d sooner go to the East than to America. EXPESSING PREFERENCE • prefer + -ing/noun + to + -ing/noun 1prefer fishing to hunting. • prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (general reference) He prefers to play chess rather than play scrabble. • would prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (preference in a particular situation) She would prefer to have an orange juice rather than have a cup o f coffee. HAD BETTER <= SHOULD)) Present / Future reference had better + (not) + present bare infinitive You’d better take a torch w ith you. Past reference It would have been better if + Past Perfect It would have been better if she had adm itted her guilt. Unit 14 Reported Speech in Reported Speech we give the meaning of w hat someone said w ith some changes and w itho ut quotation marks. We usually introduce Reported Speech w ith the verbs tell ( when there is a person / pronoun as an object) and say (when there is no person / pronoun as an object). That is optional. DIRECT REPORTED Present Simple She said, 7 like this film .” Past Simple She said (that) she liked that film. Present Progressive They said, “we are planning to throw a big party. ” Past Progressive They said (that) they were planning to throw a big party. Past Simple Maria said, “1had a great time yesterday.” Past Perfect Simple Maria said (that) she had had a great tim e the previous day. i Grammar Review DIRECT REPORTED Past Progressive 7 was wandering in the woods, ” the boy said. Past Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple “We have already cleaned the car, Dad, “said Sam. Present Perfect Progressive He said, “I’ve been trying to fix m y bike all day. ” W ill The boy said (that) he had been wandering in the woods. Sam told his dad (that) they had already cleaned the car. Past Perfect Progressive He said (that) he had been trying to fix his bike a ll day. W ould “I’ll tell you where 1w ill be, Tina, ’’said Mike. Can Mike told Tina (that) he would tell her where he would be. Could James said, “lean whistle very loudly.” May James said (that) he could whistle very loudly. M ig ht “He m aybe lost,’’said Alice. M ust Alice said (that) he m ight be lost. Had to (oblig atio n) “You m ust brush your teeth, Bruce,” said Mum. Mum told Bruce (that) he had to brush his teeth. M ust (deduction) “It m ust be late, ” he said. He said that it m ust be late. M ust not M ust n ot (p ro h ib itio n ) “You m ustn’t touch this,” said Mark. Need Mark said (that) 1m ustn’t touch that. Needed / Had to They said, “we need to have our house painted. ” Needn’t They said (that) they had to have their house painted. Needn’t / d id n’t have to (present) She said, “you needn’t eat all that food. ” She said (that) 1didn’t have to eat a ll that food. W ouldn’t Have to (future) He said, “You needn’t phone us tonight. ” He said (that) 1w ouldn’t have to phone them that night. ……………………………………………….. ……………………….. ………… W ould, co uld, m ig h t, sh ould, o u g h t to d o n o t change. now (A today/tonight c o yesterday E i tom orrow last week (month, year, etc.) U. X 1×1 next week (month, year, etc.) ago then that day/that night the day before/the previous day the next/follow ing day the previous week (month, year etc.)/the week (month, year etc.) before the following week (month, year etc.) before (/) this/these M g here that/those there u NO CHANGES ARE MADE IN THE FOLLOWING CASES When the reporting verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect. Steven says, “I have been looking fo r a good book ail day. ” 4 Steven says (that) he’s been looking fo r a good book a ll day. When a general truth or sth unlikely to change is reported. The teacher said, “The Statue o f Liberty is in New York.’’ 4 The teacher said (that) the Statue o f Liberty is in New York. The Past Perfect does not change. The Past Progressive does not usually change; Past tenses in tim e clauses do not change. “I was speaking on the phone when the doorbell rang,” she said 4 She said (that) she was speaking on the phone when the doorbell rang. When sth is reported im m ediately after it is said. “John is a spoilt kid, ” said Paul. 4 Paul said that John Is a spoilt kid When something, although said earlier, will take place in the future. John said, “I’m flying to Rome tomorrow. ” 4 John said (that) he is flying to Rome tomorrow. (It is s till today.) When there is a Conditional (type 2,3) or a sentence w ith w ish/if only. Ben said, “if I had a chúng tôi would be a pink one. ” 4 Ben said (that) if he had a Cadillac, it would be a pink one. » Grammar Review UESTIONS Questions are reported w ith the verbs ask, inquire, wonder, want to know, etc. and the word order is the same as in statements. YES-NO questions Wh- questions NOTE Examples Form Type If/whether+subject+verb “Can you come over on Saturday?” 4 He wanted to know if 1could come over on Saturday. Wh-question word+subject+verb “Why are you still here?” She asked me why 1was still there. I Whether is used instead of if when there is a choice between tw o alternatives. “Well, are you coming or not?” 4 She wondered whether I was going (with them ) or not. COMMANDS – REQUESTS – ADVICE +object+full infinitive “You’re not going to the concert,” said Mum. Mum forbade me to go to the concert. “ Please, Dad, let me go to the football match,” said Gerry. Gerry begged his dad to let him go to the football match. I OTHER REPORTING VERBS refuse/offer/promise (+object) / threaten (+object)/claim/agree etc. + full infinitive accuse sb of/complain to sb about/ insist on/adm it (to)/deny/apologise for + -ing form 7 won’t lend you my green dress,” said “I’ m sorry 1called you names,” said the my sister. 4 My sister refused to lend boy. 4 The boy apologised for calling him names. me her green dress. NOTE “ Let’s play a game of tennis,” Lucy said. Lucy suggested complain/explain/agree/claim/deny/ promise/threaten/warn (+ object) + that clause “Sorry I’m late but 1had a flat tyre, ” said Bill. 4 Bill explained that he was late because he had a flat tyre. playing a game of tennis. that they play a game of tennis. that they should play a game of tennis. Words easily confused U N IT l LA job (n) = the work sb does to earn money, employment occupation (n) [job, profession, employment (referred to generally)]= a person’s regular work or profession work (at/out of)* (n) = occupation or profession / particular tasks sb has to do in their job / the place where sb does their job employment (n) = work, esp. in return for regular payment profession (n) = job requiring advanced education or training *at work = at one’s job or place of employment / in action * out of work = jobless, unemployed I.B task (n) = activity sb has to do, usually as a part of a larger project course (n) = series of lessons or lectures on a particular subject duty (n) = what sb has to do for their job 1.C employer (n) = person, firm that hires workers to do 1,H employee (n) = a person who is challenge (n) = a difficult task skills (n) = the ability to do sth that tests sb’s ability success (n) = achievement of a desired aim ambition (n) = a strong desire for success or distinction 1.F achieve (v) = to succeed in doing sth, accomplish, especially after a lot of effort fulfil (v) = bring about the completion or achievement of a desired promise etc. cope (with) (v) = to deal successfully with sth difficult deal with (phr.v.) = act in order to solve a problem or make a decision about a situation face (v) = confront, have to deal with a difficult situation succeed (in) (v) = to manage to do sth, achieve your goals 1.G manage (v) = to be in charge of 1.E run (v) = be in charge of a shop or aim (n) = a purpose, an intention business operate (v) = function or cause to goal (n) = sth that you hope to achieve esp. when much time functipn undertake (v) = to make oneself and effort is needed intention (n) = sth which sb plans responsible for sth paid to work for an organisation or for another person colleague (n) = a person you work with (at a professional job) assistant (n) = person who helps sb in their job clerk (n) = person who works in an office or shop and keeps records, files, accounts etc. (army) officer (n) = person appointed to command others in the armed forces attendant (n) = person whose job is to provide a service in a public place 1JD party (n) = a group of people working or travelling together crew (n) = people who work on a ship or aircraft staff (n) = people who work for a company or organisation, employees very well qualities (n) = usually good characteristics qualifications (n) = a quality or skill that makes sb suitable for a particular job experience (n) = 1) sth that happens to you or sth that you do 2) the knowledge you have acquired UNIT 2 2A look (through) (v) = to read, examine look (at) (v) = to turn your eyes to a particular direction see (v) = notice, observe, take a look at sb/sth watch (v) = to look at sb/sth for a period of time and pay attention to what is happening notice (v) = to become aware of sb/sth regard (v) = look at sth stare (at) (v) = look at sb/sth for a long time (often rudely or impolitely) Words Easily Confused glance (at) (v) = to take a quick look at sth observe (v) = to see or notice something 2J8 find out (v) = to learn sth you didn’t know, especially through deliberate effort invent (v) = create or make up sth for the first time discover (v)= become aware of sth you didn’t know before detect (v) = notice, recognise that sth is present 2.C explore (v) = investigate sth (a place or scientific field) systematically, in order to find out more facts about it investigate (v) = to discover and examine all the facts about sth look for (v) = to search for or try to find sb/sth look up (v) = find out by looking in a reference book (do) research (v) = careful study or investigation, esp. to discover new information 2D attempt (n) = an act of trying to do sth, esp. when this is unsuccessful effort (n) = the use of much physical or mental energy to do sth trial (n) = 1) a formal examination of evidence in a law court 2) a test of quality experiment (n) = a scientific test done to discover what happens to sth in particular conditions 2.E audience (n) = a group of people watching or listening to a play, concert, film etc. spectators (n) = people who watch sth, especially a sporting event viewers (n) = people who watch television sightseers (n) = people who visit places of interest as tourists onlookers (n) = people who watch sth happening without getting involved witness (n) = a person who sees an event and is able to tell other people what happened 2JF memorise (v) = learn sth well enough to remember it exactly remind (sb of sth) (v) = to make sb remember sth recall (v) = to bring sth back to mind, remember recognise (v) = be able to identify sb/sth 2.G view (n) =1) opinion 2) a scene, esp. of a fine tract of countryside sight (n) =a thing that one sees or can see / places of interest in a town or city, that are often visited by tourists image (n) = a mental picture vision (n) the ability to see scene (n) = the place where an action or event occurs UNIT 3 3.A rise (v) = move upwards, stand up raise (v) = (money) support by collecting money arise (v) = begin to exist or become known to people (for a situation or problem) lift (v) = raise sb / sth to a higher position or level fashion (n) = popular style of clothes, hair etc. at a particular time or place trend (n) =a general tendency or direction routine (n) = the usual series of things sb does regularly at a particular time 3.G common (adj) = ordinary, frequently encountered or often happening ordinary (adj) = average, not different or special usual (adj) = happening most often in a particular situation normal (adj) = regular, ordinary, 3.B in accordance with what people expect grow (v)= increase in size or quantity regular (adj) = done or happening often, frequent grow up (v) = reach the stage of 3.H full development bring up (v) =to care for and raise eager (adj) = full of interest or (a child) desire (be) born (v) = to come into keen (on / to) (adj) =eager, the world by birth (out of your enthusiastic, very much wanting m other‘s body) to do sth become (v) = develop into / grow enthusiastic (about) (adj) = to be showing great interest in sth 3.C interested (in) (adj) = showing educate (v) = teach sb over curiosity, concern or desire to a period of time at school, learn more about sth because university etc. you think it is important learn (v) =gain knowledge or a willing (to) (adj) = ready and skill by study wanting to help or do sth teach (v) = give lessons in (sb) / show sb how to do sth U NIT 4 study (v) to give one’s time and 4A attention to learning about a travel (v) = to go from one place subject to another read (v) = to look at and transfer (to) (v) = to cause sb or understand the written or sth to move from one place to printed word another instruct (v) = to give orders or transport (v) = take goods, directions to sb people etc. from one place to another in a vehicle 3.D behaviour (n) = social conduct, transmit (v) = to send out electric the way a person or an animal signals etc. by radio behaves 4JB attitude (n) = the opinions and arrive (in /at) (v) = get to a place at the end of a journey feelings that you usually have get (to) (v) = arrive at a place about sth reach (v) = to get, to arrive at temper (n) = state of mind regarding being angry or being come (v) = to move to, towards or calm into a place (where the speaker mood (n) = the way sb feels at a is) particular time approach (v) = to get closer to sb manner (n) = the way sb behaves, or sth (in place or time) appear (v) = to start to be seen or their social conduct manners (n) = ways of behaving suddenly be seen 4.C in social situations 3.E carry (v) =to take sth somewhere familiar with /to (adj) = knowing in your hands or arms, on your sth well and understanding it back etc. accustomed to (adj) = to be used fetch (v) = to go and bring sth to sth from the place where it is aware of (adj) = knowing sth deliver (to) (v) = to convey, carry sth to a destination 3.F 4D custom (n) = sth that is done by voyage (n) = a long journey by people in a particular society ship or spacecraft because it is traditional journey (n) = when you travel habit (n) = sth you do often or from one place to another regularly trip (n) = a short journey to a place and back again tour (n) = an organised trip during which you visit different places excursion (n) = a short journey made for a particular purpose travel (n) = the act of taking a journey expedition (n) = a long journey, esp. one made by a group of people with a particular aim flight (n) = a journey in a plane or space vehicle cruise (n) = a holiday on a large ship 4.E guide (v) = to show sb around a place that you know well direct (v) = to tell or show sb the way to a place lead (v) = 1) go to a particular place 2) to show sb the way by going in front (first) ride (v) = to travel in or on a vehicle or animal 4J address (n) = the number of the building and the name of the street and town etc. where someone lives or works road (n) = a specially prepared hard surface for cars, buses etc j to travel on street (n) = a public road in a city or town that usually has buildings on its side(s) way (n) = a route / road etc. taker in order to reach a place direction (n) = the way sth or sb moves, faces or is aimed / information or instructions abod what to do or where to go route (n) = the way from one place to another path (n) = a track that people walk along over an area or ground 4.G site (n) = a place where a building, town etc. was, isorv. j be situated position (n) = where sb or sth s * relation to other things location (n) = the place where sd happens or is situated point (n) = a particular place or position where sth takes place place (n) = a point, building or area room (n) = empty space for people or things to be fitted in space (n) = an area of any size that is empty or available for use4.H foreign (adj) = not from your o .’i country or the country you are talking about strange (adj) = unusual, not familiar different (from / to) (adj) = not the same Words Easily Confused peculiar (adj) = odd or strange, esp. in an unpleasant way curious (adj) = eager to know or learn UNIT 6 6A borrow (v) = take sth from sb with their permission, intending to return it in the future lend (v) = allow sb to use sth that you own for a period of time let (v) = allow the use of your property in exchange for money hire (v) = pay money to the owner of sth in order to use it for a period of time / employ sb to do a particular job for you rent (v) = to have and use sth which does not belong to you in exchange for a sum of money that you pay regularly 6JB spend (v) = 1)to use your money to buy or pay for things 2) to pass or use time waste (v) = using too much of something (money, time etc.) unnecessarily save (v) = gradually collect money by spending less than you get, usually to buy sth you want afford (n) = to have enough money, time etc. for a particular purpose 6.C bill (n) = a written statement of money that you owe for goods / services fare (n) = the price you pay to travel by bus, train, plane etc. fee (n) = an amount of money that you pay to a professional person or organisation for their work fine (n) = punishment in which sb has to pay a sum of money because they have done sth wrong or broken a rule ticket (n) = 1) a printed piece of paper showing that a person has paid to travel on a bus, plane, etc. or to enter a cinema, concert hall etc. 2) an official note given for a traffic offence receipt (n) = a piece of paper that you get from sb as confirmation that they have received money or goods from you account (n) = a written statement of money paid or owed for goods and services discount (n) = a reduction in the cost of goods that you are buying tax (n) = money that you pay to the government according to your income 6D salary (n) = fixed regular payment, usually made every month to employees wage(s) (n) = regular payment, on hourly, daily, weekly basis payment (n) = a sum of money paid income (n) = money one earns or receives bonus (n) = a payment added to what is usual or expected allowance (n) = money given to sb on a regular basis (e.g. as pocket money) award (n) = prize /gift / trophy reward (n) = a thing that is given or received in return for doing sth good donation (n) = contribution to a charity or other organisation 6.E owe (v) = to have an obligation to pay sb a certain amount own (v) = to have as one’s possession possess (v) = to have (an ability) keep (v) = continue to have or hold sth belong to (v) = to be the property of 6.F price (n) = the amount of money which sth is bought or sold for prize (n) = an award given to the winner of a competition, race etc. charge (n) = amount of money sb has to pay for a service or to buy sth value (n) = how much sth is worth bargain (n) = sth bought cheaply or for less than its usual price w orth (adj.) = having a certain value /(n) = the value, usefulness or importance of sth tip (n) = extra money given to sb (eg a waiter, porter etc.) in order to thank them for their service 6.G precious (adj.) = of great value or importance because of being very beautiful, rare or expensive valuable (adj.) = worth a lot of money / very useful or important priceless (adj.) = too valuable to be priced or extremely expensive worthless (adj.) = having no value, importance or use economic (adj.) = connected with trade, industry and the management of money economical (adj.) =using money, time, goods etc. carefully and without wasting any financial (adj.) = connected with money or the management of money 6JH loan (n) = money that you borrow (usually from a bank) debt (n) = amount of money that you owe to a person /bank sum (n) = a quantity, esp. of money amount (n)= a quantity of money, time or a substance deposit (n) = 1) to pay part of a larger sum the rest of which is to be paid later 2) to put money into a bank instalment (n) = a small sum of money paid at regular intervals over a period of time, rather than paying the whole amount at once budget (n) = a plan of how a person or organisation will spend the money that is available in a particular period of time 6.1 cheque (n) = a printed form that you can sign and use instead of money cash (n) = money in the form of coins or notes coins (n) = money made of metal currency (n) = the money used in a particular country (bank) notes (n) = paper money change (n) = coins / money that you receive when you pay for sth with more money than it costs because you do not have the exact amount of money UNIT 7 7.A think (of/about) (v) = have an opinion / impression about sth consider (v) = think carefully about sth / have an opinion about sth regard (v) = believe that sb or sth has a particular quality believe (v) = to be sure that sth is true or that sb is telling the truth mean (v) = 1) explain what you wish to say 2) intend 7JB realise (v) = to become aware that sth is true, understand it understand (v) = to know the meaning of what sb is telling you, or the language that they speak recognise (v) = to know who a person or what a thing is meet (v) = to become familiar with sb for the first time introduce (v) = to present (sb) by name (to another person) present (v) = to appear in and introduce a programme on radio or television appreciate (v) = to recognise and enjoy the good qualities of sth / to be grateful for sth 7C assume (v) = to take for granted (to believe sth to be true without proof) guess (v) = to make an estimate or conclusion you are not sure of, without knowledge suppose (v) = 1) to think that sth is true or probable 2) to be expected or required to do sth estimate (v) = to form a rough or general idea of sth calculate (v) = to estimate sth by using numbers or one’s judgement that sth will happen idea (n) = 1) knowledge or understanding of something without being certain (n) = 2) a suggestion, thought or plan for doing something view (n) = opinion thought (n) = idea point (n) = single fact, idea or opinion aspect (n) = a distinct feature or element in a problem, situation etc. respect (n) = politeness and honour shown towards sb or sth matter (of fact) (phrase) = actually, in fact 7.E queue (n) = a line of people or vehicles waiting for sth line (n) = a number of people /things one behind the other or standing side by side aisle (n) = a long narrow gap between rows of seats (in a church, classroom etc.) or between supermarket shelves corridor (n) = a passage in a building or train, usually with rooms on either side hall (n) = a room serving as an entry area row (n) = a number of people/ things standing or arranged in a line 7JF available (adj.) = that can be found or obtained spare (adj.) = extra, additional, available for use when needed free (adj.) = not being used / occupied by sb or not reserved for somebody to use (e.g. table, seat)/costing nothing convenient (adj.) = easy, useful or suitable for a particular situation handy (adj.) = useful for a particular purpose usable (adj.) = that can be used 7.G absence (n) = the state of not being somewhere lack (n) = when something is insufficient or does not exist at all shortage (n) = deficiency, when there is not enough of sth loss (n) = the fact of no longer having sth or having less of it 7.H short (of sth) (adj.) = not have enough of sth, nearly run out of scarce (adj.) = not easy to find or obtain rare (adj.) = not common inadequate (adj.) = too low in quality, or too small in amount; not good enough Words Easily Confused insufficient (adj.) = inadequate, not enough for a particular purpose comment (on) (v) = express your apply (for) (v) = to request opinion about sth or give an explanation for it report (v) = inform some UNIT 8 authority about sth that has 8A happened choose (v)= to select from a 8 JG number of alternatives announce (v) = to state or make pick (v) = to gather / to make known publicly a selection from a number of inform (v) = to tell, give things information gather (v) = come together in a confess (v) = admit that you have group done sth wrong or shameful collect (v) = to accumulate sth as introduce (v) = to present (sb) by a hobby or for study name (to another person) 8JB reveal (v) = uncover or expose choice (n) = an act of choosing sth hidden, make it known to between two or more people possibilities publish (v) = print numerous collection (n) = a group of copies of a book or magazine objects that have been gathered 8 H together ensure (v) = to make sth certain selection (n) = the state of being to happen, guarantee chosen insure (v) = pay money to an election (n) = voting in order insurance company to choose a person or group of reassure (v) = to comfort sb and stop them from worrying people for an official position variety (n) = different types of make sure (v) = to make sth sth certain, ensure confirm (v) = to make an option (n) = alternative / one thing which can be chosen from arrangement or meeting certain, a set of possibilities often by telephone or writing 8J 8.C consult (v) = ask for specialised agree (v) = (on sth): have the advice same opinion on sth advise (v) = to give an opinion on accept (v) = to receive with what sb should do approval / to receive, take suggest (v) = to mention (an idea, admit (v) = to confess or plan etc.) for consideration acknowledge (a crime, mistake, propose (v) = to put forward (a etc.) plan etc.) for consideration approve of (v) = like, admire sb or sth suggest sth as the best choice 8D UNIT 9 clue (n) = a sign or information say (sth to sb) (v) = speak words that helps you to solve a problem to sb advice (n) = an opinion which tell (sb sth) (v) = let sb know sth, sb offers you about what give information you should do in a particular speak (v) = use your voice in situation order to say sth information (n) = knowledge talk (v) (1) = express thoughts, feelings or desires by using about sth, esp. news or facts 8,E words reliable (adj) = sb or sth that (2) = to have a conversation with sb can be trusted to work well or discuss (v) = to consider a behave in a desirable way responsible (adj) = having subject by talking about it with others. control or authority over sth or sb debate (n) = (formal) discussion about a subject on which reasonable (adj) = quite good, fair, sensible people have different and often opposing opinions respectable (adj) = having or 9.B deserving the respect of other ask (v) = to put a question to sb, people inquire. 8J? mention (v) = refer to or speak demand (v) = ask for sth urgently or in a forceful way about sth briefly or incidentally wonder (v) = to ask yourself refer to (v) = 1) to send sb or sth mention, describe or involve know about something express (v) = show what you question (v) = 1) to ask someone about sth 2) express doubt about think or feel by saying or doing sth sth something in writing or by sending in a form 9.C require (v) = need, demand inquire (v) = to ask for information request (v) = an act of asking; a polite demand for something command (v) = order order (v) =to ask for goods or services appeal (v) = to take a legal case to a higher court where it can be judged again beg (v) = to ask for food, money, especially in the street or to request strongly and without pride advice (n) = recommendation or opinion instructions (n) = the (written) information that tells you how to use a piece of equipment etc. directions (n) = instructions about how to get from one place to another or about what to do manual (n) = a book which gives you instructions on how to do sth or how to use sth, such as a machine guide (n) = a book for travellers or tourists giving information about a place plan (n) = 1) a drawing from which sth is made or built 2) a recipe (n) = a set of instructions for cooking 9JE brochure (n) = a thin book giving leaflet (n) = a printed piece of paper for distribution, esp. advertising handbook (n) = a small reference book giving useful facts catalogue (n) = a complete list of items, usually in alphabetical order list (n) = a set of words, numbers, etc. written one below the other menu (n) = a list of all the kinds of food that are available in a restaurant 9.F refuse (v) = say no to a proposal or invitation; turn down, deliberately not do sth deny (v) = state that sth is untrue, not accept an accusation/not allowed regret (v) = feel sad or disappointed because of sth that happened resist (v) = to stop yourself having sth that you like very much or doing sth that you want to do reject (v) = turn down, refuse to accept 9.G complain (about) (v) = say that you are not satisfied with a situation criticise (v) = express disapproval of sth, say what is wrong with it object to (v) = to feel or express opposition to or dislike of sth or sb discourage (v) = to take away sb’s confidence or sb’s hope of doing sth disapprove (of) (v) = not like, not agree with or approve of sth protest (n) (v) = say or show publicly that you object to sth argue (v) = to express an opposite opinion, to exchange angry words quarrel (v) = to disagree, argue fight (v) = to oppose or struggle against sb or sth 9.H worry (v) = to be anxious and troubled about sb or sth mind (v) = to be upset, annoyed or disturbed by sth or sb (used in questions or negative sentences) bother (v) = to make the effort to do sth / to annoy, worry or cause problems to sb annoy (v) = to irritate or make sb angry trouble (v) = to cause sb to be worried or anxious doubt (v) = to have a feeling of uncertainty about sth UNIT 11 1LA stop (v) = to put an end to sth happening / prevent avoid (v) = not to allow sth to happen / to keep away from sb or sth forbid (v) = to order sb not to do sth, not allow sb to do sth prohibit (v) = forbid or make sth illegal, ban ban (v) = state officially that sth must not be done, shown or usee prevent (v) = to stop sth from happening / to stop sb from doing sth escape (v) = to avoid sth 11.B blame (v) = believe or say that st or sth is responsible for sth bad accuse (v) = to say that you believe sb has done sth wrong arrest (v) = to take and keep sb prisoner with the authority of the law charge(v) = to accuse sb of having done sth illegal convict (v) = to decide in a’court of law that sb is guilty of a crime sentence (v) = to state that sb v I be punished in a certain way (by a law court) 11C complaint (n) = expressing your dissatisfaction with a particular situation annoyance (n) = irritation, feelinc angry and impatient Words Easily Confused accusation (n) = criticising sb quantity or size destroy (v) = to cause damage in a violent way, to cause to exist drop (v) = to fall or let sth fall (by accident) lower (v) = to reduce sth or become less in amount, level, quality etc. demolish (v) = destroy a building completely 12JE illness (n) = the state of not being fall (v) = move downwards in good health UNIT 13 disease (n) = illness of people, 13.A animals plants etc. caused by attention (n) = notice, thought or infection infection (n) = a disease caused consideration care (n) = the responsibility of by germs and bacteria h i protecting sb or sth sickness (n) = a particular type forget (v) = to fail to remember notice (n) = attention, of illness or disease, nausea leave (v) = to not take sth with observation weakness (n) = not feeling you when you go healthy and strong ignore (v) = pay no attention to of sth that might happen accident (n) = sth unpleasant sb/sth signal (n) = sign, gesture or neglect (v) = fail to look after sth which happens unexpectedly, sign intended as a message or causing damage or injury properly command incident (n) = an event which is omit (v) = leave sth out caution (n) = great care and either unpleasant or unusual deliberately or by accident attention 12JF 13.B cure (v) = to make sb healthy UNIT 12 insist on (v) = say firmly that sth again 12A must be done protect (from) (v) = to prevent sb heal (v) = to make or become persist in (v) = go on doing sth well again, esp. after a cut or or sth from being harmed despite having difficulties injury rescue (v) = get sb out of an continue (v) = go on doing sth, treat (v) = to give medical care unpleasant or dangerous not stop doing sth or attention to a person or a situation last (v) = to continue for a period condition save (v) = help sb out to avoid recover (v) = regain health after of time harm or to escape a dangerous remain (v) = to stay in the same being ill situation place or condition support (v) = 1) help, encourage overcome (v) = to successfully maintain (v) = to keep in good 2) provide sb with money or the deal with a feeling or a problem condition 12jG things they need defend (v) = take action in order sensible (adj) = based on reason, protect (v) = to keep sth or sb safe from injury, damage or not on emotions to protect or support sb or sth sensitive (adj) = 1) easily affected loss guard (v) = watch over in order to protect or not allow to escape or harmed by sth 2) aware of and keep (v) = have, look after J3 £ understanding other people’s secure (v) = to make sth safe convince (v) = to make sb agree, needs and problems from being harmed understand or realise sth sensational (adj) = very good, 12.B persuade (v) = to convince sb injure (v) = cause physical harm wonderful, exciting emotional (adj) = causing strong that sth is true or make them do to sth wound (v) = to cause an injury to feelings urge (v) = to try hard to persuade a part of the body usually with a 12.H sb to do sth weapon produce (v) = to make or impress (sb) (v) = to make sb manufacture sth, esp. in large hurt (v) = to cause physical or admire you mental injury; to cause a painful quantities develop (v) = to grow or change attract (v) = to cause a particular sensation reaction increase (v) = become greater in appeal to (sb) (v) = to attract, harm (v) = to cause physical charm, fascinate or interest sb number, level or amount injury to sb, usually on purpose 13D build up (v) = to increase or I2.C win (v) = achieve first place and become larger or stronger damage (n) = physical harm gain a prize in a competition create (v) = invent, design or caused to an object beat (v) = defeat sb in a injury (n) = damage to a person’s make sth new competition or election or animal’s body gain (v) = acquire sth(gradually) development for the better wound (n) = an injury to part of earn (v) = receive money as advance (v) = 1) to progress, the body, usually caused by a payment for your work develop 2) doing more difficult weapon defeat (v) = to win a victory over work pain (n) = the physical suffering sb caused by injury or illness improve (v) = to (cause sth to) fail (v) = not to succeed in get better ache (n) = physical pain or something discomfort caused by injury or 121 13JE reduce (v) = make sth smaller illness appeal (n) = a formal request in amount (quantity) or degree 12D to the authorities asking for a endanger (v) = to put sb or sth (size) decrease (v) = become smaller in decision to be changed in danger of being harmed, from a bank, shop or vehicle using force or threats thief (n) = person who steals from sb else burglar (n) = person who enters a building illegally, with the intention of stealing 11D kidnapper (n) = criminal who chase (v) = to run after sb in kidnaps another person order to catch them hostage (take / hold sb) (n) = pursue (v) = follow or chase sb or sth especially in order to catch a person captured and held prisoner by one or more people them hunt(v) = to chase esp. birds and victim (n) = sb who has been hurt animals in order to catch and kill or killed pickpocket (n) = sb who steals them things from people’s pockets follow (v) = to go behind and expressing the belief that they have done sth wrong disappointment (n) = feeling let down, because of sth not meeting your expectations U.E cause (n) = what makes an event happen excuse (n) = a reason sb gives, in order to explain why sth has been done or in order to avoid doing sth reason (n) = fact or situation explaining why sth happens or what causes it to happen; cause purpose (n) = the reason for which sth is made or done, intention aim (n) = what you are hoping to achieve by an action, plan etc. 11JF burgle (v) = to enter by force and steal rob (v) = steal money or property from sb steal (v) = take sth away without permission or intention of giving it back hijack (v) = to force someone to give you control of a vehicle, aircraft or ship that is in the middle of a journey deceive (v) = make sb believe that sth is not true in order to gain sth yourself cheat (v) = to behave in a dishonest way in order to get what you want lie (v) = to say sth which is not true shoplift (v) = to take sth from a shop without paying for it blackmail (v) = to demand money or favours from sb, by threatening them 1LG attack (v) = try to hurt or damage sb or sth using violence knock (v) = a sound made with the hand on the door hit (v) = to strike with the hand or with an object beat (v) = to hit repeatedly with a hand, stick or other object blow (n) = a hard hit with a hand ora weapon strike (v) = to hit or attack forcefully or violently U.H convict (n) = sb who is in prison criminal (n) = sb who commits crimes robber (n) = person who steals damaged or destroyed risk (v) = the possibility of meeting danger or of suffering harm or loss threaten (v) = say that you will do sth to sb in order to make them do sth you want warn (v) = to make sb aware of a possible danger or problem Words Easily Confused application (n) = formal request definite (adj) = fixed, certain, for sth clear, that cannot be doubted certain (adj) = sure, beyond doubt particular (adj) = specific, special special (adj) = not ordinary or usual sure (adj) = certain, confident that one is right 14.G stand (v) = tolerate, endure sth/sb resist (v) = refuse to accept sth/ stop yourself from doing sth, although you would like to do it tolerate (v) = to put up with suffer (v) = to feel pain, discomfort, sorrow etc. 14H offer (v) = ask sb if they would like to have or use sth provide (v) = supply sth that sb needs or wants supply (v) = give sb sth that they need cater (v) = to provide what is required or desired each other similar (adj) = resembling sb/sth, attraction (n) = a person or thing almost the same that attracts sb or sth common (adj) = usual,familiar interest (n) = a state of wanting 14.B to learn or know about sth suit (v) = 1)be convenient for sb 13JF or the best choice in a particular result (n) = 1) answers that are situation 2) make sb look produced by a scientific study or attractive test 2)sth that happens or exists fit (v) = be the correct size or because of sth else shape effect (n) = a change produced match (v) = 1)be in harmony by a particular influence with sth 2)have a pleasing affect (v) = to have an influence appearance when used together on sb or sth combine (v) = join together, blend, mix consequence (n) = an often bad or inconvenient result of a compare (v) = to examine and particular action or situation look for the difference between influence (n) = an effect of one two or more things person or thing on another 14£ 13.G punctual (adj) = arriving, allow (v) = to let sb do sth or let doing sth or happening at the sth happen; permit expected, correct time let (v) = to give sb permission to accurate (adj) = precise, correct do sth to a very detailed level permit (v) = to allow sth or make correct (adj) = right, accurate sth possible and without mistakes accept (v) = say “yes” to sth or exact (adj) = in great detail, agree to take sth correct, precise (or sth) do sth stated time oblige (v) = to require sb to do 14D sth by legal, moral or physical remain (v) = to stay in the same means place or condition force (v) = to make sb do sth reveal (v) = uncover/expose sth against their will hidden, make it known to people 13.H review (v) = 1) to write an opinion postpone (v) = to arrange for an of a book, film, play etc. 2) to event etc. to happen at a later examine or consider sth again time revise (v) = to study again (sth cancel (v) = to say that sth which already learned) in preparation for an exam has already been arranged will not be done or take place / to relieve (v) = make sth less order sth to be stopped unpleasant, cause sth delay (v) = to be slow or late or unpleasant to disappear make sb slow or late release (v) = to allow sb or sth to 131 come out of a place/to make sth guest (n) = sb who is visiting you available to the public or is a customer at a hotel 14.E host (n) = sb who receives or outcome (n) = something that entertains guests follows an action or situation outdoor (adj) = existing, visitor (n) = sb who is visiting a person or a place happening or done outside client (n) = a person or rather than inside a building outfit (n) = clothes worn together organisation that receives a service from a professional as a set person or another outlet (n) = 1) a place that sells organisation in return for money goods made by a particular company 2) a hole or pipe customer (n) = a person who buys goods or services, through which liquid can flow especially from a shop away outsider (n) = a person who is not accepted as a member of a UNIT 14 14JV society, group etc. 14J? like (prep.) =such as, similar to alike (adj) = when two or more perfect (adj) = excellent, suitable, people/things are similar without fault ideal (adj) = the best possible unlike (adj) = different from sth person or thing for sth likely (adj) = probable, sth that may happen fine (adj) = sunny and dry(for as (prep.) = like, with the identity weather) of thorough (adj) = detailed, careful same (adj) = having two or more detailed (adj) = having many people or things exactly like details, thorough Part 1: Multiple Choice Cloze — ® Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. ® Read the text again, one sentence at a time. Read the whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gap, as there may be clues that could help you. ® Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is. ® Do not look at the four choices or guess the answer until you’ve tried to understand what the sentence means. @ Do not always think of words as single isolated items, but as parts of a context. ® Read the options carefully. Decide which of the four choices is best in this context. Consider syntax and style. Find which of the choices may have the same meaning and decide which one should be left out. If you aren’t sure about the right answer, try to eliminate three of the four alternatives starting with the words that don’t make sense. ® Check if the word you have selected forms an acceptable expression with the word before and/or after it. Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense. Part 2: Open Cloze ® Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. ® Read the text again, one sentence at a time. Read the whole sentence, not just the words before and after the gap, as there may be clues that could help you. Note that sometimes you may find clues in other sentences, too. ® Try to guess what part of speech is missing and what the meaning of the missing word is. 0 Remember most of the missing words will be grammatical words, prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, articles, linking words etc. and not vocabulary items. Part 3: Word Formation 0 Remember: there is only one missing word. If you think that two or more words are suitable, you will have to choose and w rite only one. 0 ‘Check for accuracy of grammar and spelling. & Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense. L ® Skim-read the text to get an idea of what it is about. ® Read the text again, one sentence at a time. ® Decide what part of speech is needed to fill in the gap. The words to be formed will usually be nouns, verbs, ® Decide if the word to be formed has the same or the opposite meaning of the given word according to the meaning of the sentence. ® Remember that you will need to add a prefix and/or a suffix to the given word to form a derivative. Sometimes you m ight also add an ending to the derivative (e.g. -s after a noun, -s, -ed, -ing after a verb, -er, -est after an adjective). Note, however, that you never need to make more than two changes to the given word. ® Make sure the new word and given word have a common root and that you have spelt the new word correctly. ® Read the text again including the words you used to fill in the gaps to see if it makes sense. Part 4: “Key” Word Transformation ® Read the given sentence, the incomplete sentence and the ‘key’ word. ® Consider what kind of transform ation is required, e.g. passive voice, reported speech, conditional sentences etc. Look for clues in both the given and the incomplete sentences. 0 Remember that your answer must be between two and five words. Keep in mind that you must definitely use the ‘key’ word and not change it in any way at all. ® Write your answer, making sure that the completed sentence means the same as the given sentence. ® Check for accuracy of grammar and spelling. Exam Tips for A ll Parts of the Paper 0 When dealing with each of the four parts, start with the questions that seem easy to you. Leave the ones you aren’t sure about until later. ® Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go back and try to answer it later. ® Answer all the questions, even those you are not completely sure of. Make a sensible guess rather than leave a question unanswered. 0 Do not w rite more than one answer for each question. ® Write your answers on the answer sheet clearly and correctly. ECCE In this part of the test there are 35 multiple-choice items which test basic knowledge of grammar. Candidates are required to choose a word or phrase which will complete the given sentence in a grammatically correct way. Remember: & Read the sentence or short exchange carefully and consider what kind of structure is required. & Look at the position of the gap in the sentence and consider what part of speech is required. & Look out for words (e.g. linking words) or expressions (e.g. tim e expressions) that can help you decide on the correct answer. Consider the syntax and style of the sentence. Read the four answer choices carefully and decide on the correct answer. If you are not sure about the correct answer, try to eliminate the answer choices that are grammatically incorrect. Once you have decided on the correct answer, read the sentence or short exchange together with your answer, making sure that they form a grammatically correct sentence. & Make sure you transfer your answers to the answer sheet clearly and carefully. & & & & There are 35 multiple-choice items in this section which test basic knowledge of vocabulary. Candidates are required to choose the word or phrase which is appropriate in the context of the sentence. Remember: & You should always learn new words in context. You can even try to use these new words in your own example sentences. This helps you remember new vocabulary instead of simply memorising their definitions in your mother tongue. @ You should learn verbs, nouns and adjectives with their dependent prepositions (e.g. laugh at somebody, talent for something, be good at something). & Try to remember collocations (e.g. make a mistake, do one’s homework) and fixed expressions (e.g. at the beginning of, in the beginning) that are considered problematic because they are quite similar. & Learn how to break down words in order to find the root, prefix and suffix. This w ill not only help you learn more words but also help you understand how they are formed. This w ill automatically increase your awareness of the language. & You can greatly improve your vocabulary by reading as many authentic English texts (e.g. books, magazines) as possible. Appendix

Prepositional Phrases AT at + address at a glance at a loss at all costs at ease at first at first sight door end (of) expense of front hospital latest at random at school at short notice at the age of at the back of at the beginning (of) at the corner as far as as long as ahead/behind schedule by chance by cheque/credit card by day/night by far by force by hand by heart by means of by mistake by now by oneself by one’s side for for for for for for for for for sale at the moment at the sight of at the top/bottom of at the weekend at university at work AHEAD AS as a result of at the at the at the at the at the at the at the at heart a t … km/miles per hour at last at least at night at noon at once BY by accident by all accounts by all means by bus/car/plane by phone/post/airmail by profession (take) by surprise FOR for for for for a change a while ages certain/sure example fear of granted hire/rent instance life one’s sake the sake of FROM from experience from now/then on IN in + month/season in + year/century all in all in a bad/good mood in a mess in a queue in a row/rows in a state in a while in addition (to) in aid of in answer to in any case in captivity in case of in cash in charge of in com fort in common in conclusion in connection with in contact with in court in debt in detail in difficulty in exchange for in fact in favour of in flames in full in general in half in haste in honour of in hospital in instalments in memory in need of in/out of action in/out of business in/out of control in/out of danger in/out of demand in /o u to f fashion in/out of hand in/out of order in/out of place in/out of print in/out of season in/out of shape in/out of sight in/out of stock in/out of touch in/out of use in one’s opinion in other words in pain in pairs in particular in person in practice in prison in private in progress in public in reality in/with reference to in relation to in reply to in return in secret in shock in short in sight of in summary in support of in the beginning in the centre (of) in the city/country in the corner of in the end in the first place in the future in the long/short run in the meantime in the middle (of) in the mood for in the m orning/ afternoon/evening in the mountains in the North/South in the streets in the suburbs in this respect in touch with in town in trouble (with) in vain in writing on + road/avenue on a diet on a farm INTO into pieces (come) into power ON on (a) + day on + date m m * Appendix 1 & 2 on on on on on on on on on a journey/trip/tour an excursion an island account of approval arrival average behalf of board on business on credit on demand on display on/off duty on fire on good/bad terms on holiday on impulse on on on on on on on on on one’s birthday one’s mind one’s own page purpose sale schedule second thought(s) strike out of the ordinary out of practice out of the question out of reach out of work to one’s astonishment to one’s surprise to some extent to this day under control under the impression under pressure under repair under strain under the circumstances under the weather with respect to with a view to with the exception of w ithout delay w ithout fail w ithout warning on on on on on on on on on television time top of the back of the contrary the corner the floor the left/right the market on the move on the one/other hand on the outskirts on the phone on the point of on the radio on/off the road on the whole on weekdays OUT out of breath out of date TO to one’s amazement UNDER under age under arrest WITH with regard to WITHOUT w ithout (a) doubt A (un)aware of Verbs Nouns with Prepositions accuse sb of advise sb on/about sth (dis)agree with sb about/on sth aim at apologise to sb for sth apply to sb/sth for sth (dis)approve of argue with/sb about/for sth arrest sb for sth arrive at a building arrive in a city/tow n/country ask for associate with an answer to Adjectives accustomed to addicted to afraid of amazed at/by amused at/with angry at sth angry with sb annoyed about sth annoyed with sb anxious about ashamed of astonished at/by B Verbs beg for believe in belong to benefit from beware of blame sb for sth blame sth on sb boast about/of borrow from Adjectives bad at sth bored with sth bound to busy with c V erbs _ care about sb/sth care for sb/sth choose from/between collaborate with combine with comment on communicate with compare w ith/to compete with sb for sth complain to sb about/of sth concentrate on sth confess sth to sb congratulate sb on sth connect to/w ith consist of contrast with contribute to cooperate with sb cope with cover sb in/with sth criticise for Adjectives (in)capable of careful of careless about/of certain about/of close to concerned about/for confident of/about conscious of crazy about Appendix 2 crowded with cruel to curious about Nouns with Prepositions a comparison between a complaint about a connection between/with fed up with fond of free from /of sth friendly w ith/to frightened of full of Nouns a failure in D Verbs deal with decide on dedicate sth to sb depart from depend on describe sth to sb differ from discourage from distinguish between divide sth between/among divide sth into divide by (Maths) dream about/of Adjectives delighted with dependent on different from /to disgusted by/at Nouns with Prepositions damage to a decrease in a delay in a demand for a description of a difference between/in/of E Verbs escape from exchange sth for sth else excuse sb for/from experiment on sb/sth with sth explain sth to sb Adjectives engaged to sb enthusiastic about envious of equal to excellent at excited about experienced in Nouns with Prepositions an example of an exception to an expert at/in/on sth F Verbs fight with fill sth with sth else forget about Adjectives faithful to familiar to sb familiar with sb/sth famous for G Verbs glance at Adjectives generous to sb good at sth good for sb/sth good to sb grateful to sb for sth guilty of/about H Verbs head for/towards hear about/of sb/sth hear from sb hope for Adjectives handy for happy about/with sth/sb happy for sb harmful to Nouns with Prepositions hope for I Verbs include in insist on introduce sb to sb/sth invest in invite to involve in Adjectives identical to impressed by/with independent of inferior to interested in Nouns with Prepositions an increase in influence on an intention of (doing sth) J Verbs join in Adjectives jealous of K Verbs know about sth Adjectives keen on (doing) sth known as Nouns with Prepositions knowledge of L Verbs lean on/against lie to sb about sth listen to Adjectives late for Nouns a lack of M Verbs (be) made of/from mean by mention to mistake sb/sth for sb/sth else Adjectives mad about/on sb/sth mad at/with sb married to mean to sb N Adjectives nervous about Nouns a need for o Verbs object to sb/sth occur to Nouns with Prepositions an opinion of/about/in an opportunity for the opposite of P Verbs pay for point at/to praise sb for sth pray for sb/sth prefer to prepare for prevent from protect sb from/against sth protest about/against/at provide sb with sth provide sth for sb punish sb for put the blame for sth on sb Adjectives patient with pleased with polite to popular with proud of Nouns with Prepositions protection from (take) pride in Appendix 2 & 3 Q s Verbs quarrel with sb about sth Verbs Nouns with Prepositions a question about R Verbs receive sth from sb recover from reduce sth to refer to regard sb/sth as relate to rely on remind sb about sth remind sb of sb/sth replace sth with sth else rescue sb from result from result in retire from Adjectives ready for relevant to reluctant to respected for responsible for rude to Nouns with Prepositions a reaction to a reason for a reduction in a relationship between a relationship with sb a reply to a report on a reputation for the result of a rise in thank for think of/about translate from save sb from sentence sb to shout at smile at/to speak to/w ith sb specialise in spend money on sth stare at steal sth from sb succeed in suffer from supply sb with sth suspect sb of u Adjectives Adjectives safe from (dis)satisfied with separate from serious about shocked by/at short of sim ilarto sorry fo rsb sorry for/about sth suitable for superior to sure of/about sth surprised at/by suspicious of upset about useful for sth useful to sb Nouns with Prepositions a search for shame on sb (take) shelter from a solution to a specialist in (feel) sympathy for Adjectives terrible at terrified of tired of typical of Nouns with Prepositions a talent for a taste of a taste for a threat to Nouns with Prepositions an understanding of V Verbs vote for/against w Verbs wait for warn sb about/against/of waste money on sth wonder about w orry about Adjectives weak at sth worried about wrong about T Verbs take care of sb/sth talk to/w ith sb about sth 1 When the root w ord ends in consonant +e, the final -e is dropped when adding a suffix th a t starts w ith a vowel. e.g. com bine 4 com bination fame 4 famous wide 4 widen 2 When the roo t w ord ends in one consonant and before it there is one stressed vowel, th e last consonant is doubled when adding a su ffix th a t starts w ith a vowel. e.g. w it w itty fat fatten occur 4 occurrence When the root w ord ends in -y and before it there is a consonant, the -y changes into -i when adding a suffix, e.g. carry 4 carriage happy 4 happiness g lo ry -4 glorious Appendix 3 VERB NOUN accept achieve act, activate add admire admit advertise advise afford (dis)agree amaze acceptance, acceptability achievement (in)action, act, activity, acting addiction addition, additive (in)adequacy admiration admittance, admission adventure advertisement, advertising advice, advisability agency (dis)agreement, (dis)agreeableness amazement ambition amusement anger announcement annoyance anxiety apology (dis)appea ranee application, applicator (dis)appointment (dis)approval argument, argumentation arrangement arrival art, artefact, artistry, artifice assistance astonishment attendance, attention attraction, attractiveness automation, automatic avoidance bearing beauty (mis)behaviour belief benefit blackness blood, bleeding boredom breath, breathing, breather breadth brightness building, build burglary (mis)calculation, calculator care, carelessness caution, cautiousness celebration championship character,characteristic, characterisation cheerfulness, cheerlessness, cheerness childhood choice city, citizenship coast collection colour, colouring, discoloration combination comedy, comic (dis)comfort communication competition, competitiveness – amuse anger announce annoy – apologise (dis)appear apply (dis)appoint (dis)approve argue arrange arrive – assist astonish attend attract automate avoid bear beautify (mis)behave believe benefit blacken bleed bore breathe broaden brighten build burgle (mis)calculate care celebrate – characterise cheer – choose – collect (dis)colour combine – comfort communicate compete NOUN (person) achiever actor, actress, activist addict — admirer – adventurer advertiser – adviser – ADJECTIVE (+opposite) accepted, (un)acceptable achievable (in)active, actual addicted, addictive additional (in)adequate admirable, admiring (in)admissible, admissive adventurous advertising affordable agent — – (dis)agreeable amazed, amazing ambitious amusing, amused angry (un)announced annoyed, annoying anxious apologetic apparent (in)applicable, applied (dis)appointed, (dis)appointing (dis)approving (un)arguable, argumentative arrangeable – announcer — — — applicant, applier — – arranger – – artist assistant artistic, artful, artless, arty, artificial assistant astonished, astonishing (in)attentive, unattended (un)attractive automatic, automated (un)avoidable (un)bearable beautiful behavioural (un)believable beneficial black bloody, bloodless, bleeding bored, boring breathless broad bright – attendant — – bearer beautician – believer beneficiary,benefactor — bore – builder burglar _ – calculated, calculating, (in)calculable careful, careless, carefree cautious, cautionary celebrated — celebrity champion character — child – citizen – collector – comedian, comic comforter communicator competitor — — (un)characteristic, characterless cheerful, cheerless, cheery childish, childless choosy – coastal collective, collected colourful, colourless, coloured combined comical, comic (un)comfortable, comforting, comfortless (un)communicative, communicable competitive Appendix 3 VERB NOUN NOUN (person) complain complete conclude confide (dis)connect consider construct consume contain contribute com plaint com pletion conclusion confidence, confidentiality (dis)connection consideration (de)construction consumption containm ent, container contribution (in)convenience convention cooker, cookery, cooking co-operation correction, correctness correspondence creation, creativity, creativeness crime, crim inality criticism , critique cure, curability curiosity darkness day, daily deafness decision, decisiveness decoration defence delight, delightfulness dem onstration denial departure depth (in)dependence, dependency description, descriptiveness design, designing desire, desirability destruction, destructiveness determ ination developm ent device death difference difficulty diplom acy direction, directive, directory, directness disaster discouragement discovery discussion distance distribution disturbance dominance, dom ination doubt, doubtfulness, doubtlessness com plainant — — constructor consumer (in)complete (in)conclusive confident, confidential, confiding (dis)connected, connective considerable, considerate, considered constructive consuming – – — convene cook co-operate correct correspond create – criticise cure – darken — deafen decide decorate defend delight demonstrate deny depart deepen depend describe design desire destroy determine develop devise die, deaden differ, differentiate — — direct — discourage discover discuss distance distribute disturb dominate doubt emphasise employ enable drama, dramatisation drive, driving economics, economy education effect, (in)effectiveness (in)efficiency election, electorate embarrassment emotion, emotionalism emphasis (un)em ploym ent (in)ability, disability encourage courage, encouragement, courageousness dramatise drive economise educate effect — elect embarrass — — confidant connection — ADJECTIVE (+opposite) contributor contributory — (in)convenient convener (un)conventional cook (un)cooked co-operator (un)co-operative — (in)correct, corrective, correspondent correspondent, corresponding creator, creature creative criminal criminal critic (un)critical curer (in)curable, cureless curious dark daily — deaf, deafening, deafened — (in)decisive, (un)decided decorator decorative defendant, defender defensive, (in)defensible — delightful, delighted dem onstrator demonstrative (un)deniable departed — deep (in)dependent, dependable dependant descriptive designer designing (un)desirable, desired destroyer destructive, indestructible determ iner determined developer (un)developed, developing — — – – dead, deathly, deadly, undying different difficult diplom atic direct, directive, directional disastrous discouraging discoverer – — diplom at director — discursive distant d istributor distributive, distributional disturbing, disturbed — dom inant doubtful, (un)doubtable, undoubted doubter dram atist dramatic driver driving economist economic, economical educational, educated, educative educator — (in)effective — (in)efficient elected, elective, electoral, electable elector embarrassing, embarrassed — emotional — em phatic employer, employee (un)employed (un)able, disabled — — courageous, encouraging VERB NOUN end endanger energise engineer enjoy entertain enthuse equip evidence examine exceed excel excite exhaust exhibit exist expand end, ending danger energy engine, engineering enjoyment entertainment enthusiasm equipment essence, essentials evidence examination excess excellence excitement, excitability exhaustion exhibition, exhibit existence expansion, expansibility, expansiveness, expanse expectation, expectancy expense(s), expensiveness experiment, experimentation explanation explosion, explosiveness exposure expression, expressionism, expressiveness expect expend experiment explain explode expose express extend fail – familiarise fascinate – favour fear fertilise fight finance – fool extension, extensibility, extent failure, failing faith fairness, fair familiarity, familiarisation fame, infamy fascination fashion fate, fatality favour, favourite fear, fearfulness, fearlessness fertilisation, fertiliser fight, fighting finance fluency foolishness – – forge forget formalise forgery forgetfulness formality, formalisation (mis)fortune foundation freedom freezer, freeze, freezing freshness friendship, friendliness fright fun generalisation, generality generosity, generousness government grace, graciousness growth guarantee guide, guidance guilt, guiltiness happiness hardness, hardship harm hatred, hatefulness health, (un)healthiness – found free freeze freshen _ frighten – generalise – govern grace grow guarantee guide – harden harm hate NOUN (person) ADJECTIVE (+opposite) – endless dangerous, endangered energetic — engineer entertainer enthusiast – – enjoyable entertaining (un)enthusiastic equipped (in)essential evident examiner, examinee — – excessive, exceeding excellent exciting, excited, excitable exhausting, exhausted, (in)exhaustible — existent, existential expansive, expandable, expandible – exhibitor – — — experimenter — – expressionist — — – familiar – fatalist — — – fighter financier – fool foreigner forger – formalist – founder – fresher friend – general — governor, governess – grown-up guarantor guide _ – expectant (in)expensive, expendable experimental explanatory, (in)explicable explosive exposed expressive, expressional, expressionless, expressionistic extensive, extensible, extended unfailing (un)faithful, faithless (un)fair (un)familiar (in)famous, famed fascinating (un)fashionable fatal, fateful, fated (un)favourable, favourite, favoured fearful, fearless, fearsome (in)fertile fighting financial fluent foolish foreign forged forgetful, (un)forgettable (in)formal, formalistic (un)fortunate — free frozen, freezing fresh (un)friendly, friendless frightened, frightening, frightful funny general, generalised (un)generous governing, (un)governable graceful, graceless, gracious growing, grown — guiding, guided guilty, guiltless happy hard, hardened, hardy harmful, harmless hateful (un)healthy Appendix 3 NOUN heat, heater, heating height help, helping, helplessness — heroism hesitate hesitation — history — home — (dis)honesty hope hope — horizon host, hospitalise hospital, hospitality humanise (in)humanity, humanism VERB heat heighten help humour hunger hunt – ice idealise ignore – immigrate imagine imitate – impress imprison improve include individualise influence inform infuriate inhabit injure inspect instruct insure – intend intensify interest interfere interpret interview introduce invent investigate invite irritate – (mis)judge – know – laugh – lead learn – lengthen live lighten light humour, humorlessness hunger hunting, hunt hygiene ice, icing idea, idealism, idealisation ignorance illness immigration imagination, image imitation importance impression, impressiveness prison, imprisonment improvement inclusion, inclusiveness individualism, individuality influence information fury — injury inspection instruction insurance, insurability intelligence, intelligibility intention intensity interest interference interpretation interview introduction invention, inventiveness, inventory investigation invitation irritation, irritant irony jealousy jewel, jewellery journal, journalism (misjudgement kingdom knowledge language, linguistics lateness laughter law leadership, leader learning (il)legibility length life, living, livelihood, liveliness light, lightness lighter, lighting, lightning NOUN (person) — helper hero, heroine — historian — — – host, hostess humanist, human humorist – hunter hygienist — idealist — – immigrant ADJECTIVE (+opposite) heated, hot high ______ _ (un)helpful, helpless heroic hesitant historic, historical homeless, homely (dis)honest hopeful, hopeless horizontal hospitable (in)human, (in)humane, humanitarian, humanistic humorous, humourless hungry ___________ — (un)hygienic icy, iced ideal, idealistic ignorant ill — imaginary, (un)imaginable, (un)imaginative imitative, imitational — (un)important impressionist (un)impressive, impressionable prisoner imprisoned — improving, improved — inclusive, included individual, individualist individual, individualistic — influential informer, informant informative, (un)informed furious, infuriated, infuriating inhabitant (un)inhabitable, (un)inhabited — injured — inspector instructor instructive, instructional insurer insured, insurable — (un)intelligent, (un)intelligible — (un)intentional, intended — intensive, intense — (un)interesting, (dis/un)interested — interfering interpreter interpretive interviewer, interviewee — — introductory inventor inventive investigator investigative — inviting, (un)invited — irritated, irritating, irritable — ironic, ironical jealous jeweller jewelled journalist journalistic judge judicious, judgemental — king knowledgeable,(un)knowing,(un)known linguist linguistic late laughable lawyer (un)lawful, lawless, (il)legal leader leading learner (un)learned (il)legible long, lengthy lively, alive, living, live light lit – imitator A p p e n d ix 3 VERB (dis)like – (un)lock — loosen lose love – luxuriate mechanise maintain major manage manufacture marry – mature measure medicate — memorise — – miss mix modernise – mother – mount move murder — mystify nationalise naturalise necessitate — — normalise notice numerate — (dis)obey object oblige observe occupy offend operate — oppose optimise (dis)organise originate own — paint — participate — – pay . . . NOUN likelihood liking, (dis)like (il)literacy, literature lock, locker, locket logic, logistics looseness loss love, loveliness luck luxury, luxuriousness machine, mechanics, mechanism, mechanisation, machinery maintenance majority management, manageability manufacturing marriage mathematics (im)maturity, maturation measurement, measure medicine, medication, medicament membership memory, memorial, memorisation minority misery, miserableness miss mixer, mixture modernity, modernism, modernisation month motherhood motor mountain, mountaineering movement murder music, musical mystery nation, nationalisation, nationality nature, naturalisation, naturalness necessity, necessaries neighbourhood, neighbourliness nerve, nervousness noise norm, normality, normalisation notice number, numeration, numerator nutrition, nutrient, nutriment (dis)obedience object, objection, objective, objectivity obligation observation, observatory occupation offence, offensiveness operation opportunity, opportunism opposition optimism (dis)organisation, organiser origin, originality, origination ownership pain painting, paint parenthood, parentage participation partnership (im)patience payment peace, peacefulness NOUN (person) ADJECTIVE (+opposite) mechanic (un)likely likeable (il)literate, literal, literary (un)locked (il)logical loose lost lovable, (un)lovely, loving, unloved (un)lucky, luckless luxurious, luxuriant mechanical, mechanistic – — major manager(-ess) manufacturer major managing, manageable manufacturing married mathematical (im)mature (im)measurable medical, medicinal, medicated — — — logician — loser lover – – mathematician – medic member – minor – n modernist – mother motorist mountaineer – murderer musician – nationalist naturalist – neighbour — — — — – objector — observer occupant, occupier offender operator opportunist – optimist organiser originator owner – painter parent participant partner – payer, payee – memorable, memorial minor miserable missing mixed modern, modernistic monthly motherly, motherless motor mountainous (im)movable, moving murderous musical mysterious, mystic, mystical national, nationalistic (un)natural, naturalistic (un)necessary neighbouring, neighbourly nervous noisy, noiseless (ab)normal noticeable, unnoticed numberless, numerous, numerical, numeral, (in)numerate, innumerable nutritious, nutritional, nutritive (dis)obedient objective, objectionable obliging, obligatory, obligated, obliged observant occupational, (un)occupied (in)offensive operational, (in)operative, (in)operable (in)opportune, opportunistic opposite, opposable, opposing optimistic organisational, (dis/un)organised original – painful, painless painted parental — – (im)patient paying, payable peaceful Appendix 3 VERB NOUN NOUN (person) ADJECTIVE (+opposite) perfect perform permit persist impersonate, personalise, personify persuade photograph perfectionism, (im)perfection performance permission, permissiveness persistence person, personality, personnel, personification, impersonation persuasion, persuasiveness pessimism photograph, photography physics play (dis)pleasure poetry, poem poison politics, policy pollution, pollutant popularity population possession (im)possibility power, powerfulness practice, practising, practicality prediction, predictability preference, preferment preparation presentation prevention price pride privacy, privatisation procedure, proceeds product, production, produce, productivity profession, professionalism, professorship promotion protection (dis)proof psyche, psychology publishing, publication punishment pursuit (dis)qualification quiet, quietness rain rapidity reaction, reactor reality, realisation, realism reason, reasoning rebellion reception, receiver, receptiveness recognition reduction reference reflection, reflector, reflex refreshment regulation rejection, reject relation, relationship relaxation (un)reliability, reliance relief religion, religiousness remark rental repetition replacement report, reportage perfectionist performer (im)perfect, perfectible performing (im)permissible, permissive persistent (im)personal, personable, personified – play (dis)please – poison politicise pollute popularise populate possess – power, empower practise predict prefer prepare present prevent price pride privatise proceed produce profess promote protect (dis)prove – publish punish pursue (dis)qualify quieten rain – react realise reason rebel receive recognise reduce refer reflect refresh regulate reject relate relax rely relieve – remark rent repeat replace report — – — – pessimist photographer physicist, physician player – poet – politician – people possessor — – practitioner — — presenter — — private — producer professor, professional promoter protector — psychologist publisher punisher pursuer persuasive pessimistic photographic physical playful, playable (dis)pleased, (un)pleasant, pleasurable poetic, poetical poisonous (im)politic, political polluted, polluting (un)popular populated possessive, possessed (im)possible powerful, powerless, powered (im)practical, (im)practicable, practised (un)predictable, predictive preferable, preferential (un)prepared, preparatory presentable, presentational preventive, preventable precious, priceless, pricey proud private procedural (un)productive professional, professorial promotional protective provable, proven psychological — punishment, punishable — (dis/un)qualified quiet rainy — rapid — reactionary, reactive realist (un)real, (un)realistic — (un)reasonable, reasoned rebel rebellious receptionist, recipient receptive — (un)recognisable — reducible, reductive referee referential, referable reflective, reflexive — refreshing regulator regulatory reject rejected relative related, relative, (ir)relevant relaxing, relaxed — (un)reliable, reliant relieved religious — (un)remarkable — – . — – replacement reporter — repetitive, repeated, repeatable, repetitious (ir)replaceable reported Appendix 3 VERB NOUN represent reproduce require research reside resist respect respond retire revise risk rob sadden save, safeguard (dis)satisfy representation reproduction requirement research residence, residency resistance, resistor respect, respectability response, responsibility retirement revision risk robbery sadness safety, safe, safeguard, saving(s) (dis)satisfaction scene, scenery scholarship science secret, secrecy security sight sense, sensitivity, sensibility, serving, service settlement shame shop, shopping shortness, shortage sickness, sickliness signature significance (dis)similarity song, singing skill sleep society, socialism, socialisation – secure see sense serve settle shame shop shorten sicken sign ………………… signify – sing – sleep socialise – solve speak specialise spectate spend sponsor stabilise starve sterilise store straighten – strengthen succeed suffice suggest suit sum, summarise – survive suspect symbolise sympathise talk taste – tend terrorise, terrify thank thicken solitude, solitariness solution, solubility, solvent speech, speaking speciality, specialty, specialisation spectacle, spectacles spending sponsorship (in)stability, stabilisation, stabiliser starvation sterilisation, sterility store(s), storage straightness strangeness strength success, succession (in)sufficiency suggestion suit, suitability sum, summary sun survival suspicion symbol, symbolism sympathy talk taste technique, technicality technology tendency terror thanks, thanklessness thickness NOUN (person) ADJECTIVE (+opposite) representative (un)representative, representational reproductive required – researcher resident – respecter — – revisionist — robber – saver, saviour — – scholar scientist — – sensualist server, servant settler — shopper — – singer – sleeper socialite, socialist, sociologist – speaker specialist spectator spender sponsor — — – — residential resistant, resisting, (ir)resistible respectable, respectful, respective (ir)responsible, responsive retiring, retired revised, revisory risky – sad (un)safe, savable (dis)satisfied, (un)satisfactory, satisfying scenic scholastic scientific secret, secretive (in)secure sighted, sightless (in)sensible, senseless, (in)sensitive – unsettling, (un)settled shameful, shameless, ashamed shopping short sick, sickly, sickening signed (in)significant (dis)similar singing (un)skilful, (un)skilled sleepy, sleepless (un)social, (un)sociable solitary (in)soluble, (in)solvent (un)spoken, speechless, unspeakable special, specialised spectacular — sponsored (un)stable starved, starving sterile – — — straight strange strong (un)successful, successive, succeeding (in)sufficient suggested, suggestive (un)suitable summary sunny surviving suspicious symbolic, symbolical (un)sympathetic talkative tasteful, tasty, tasteless technical technological stranger – successor — — – survivor suspect — sympathiser talker taster technician technologist – — terroriser terrifying, terrified, terrific thankful, thankless thick, thickening – Appendix 3 VERB NOUN NOUN (person) thirst think thirst thought, thinking thinker threaten thrill tire tolerate toughen threat thrill, thriller tiredness (in)tolerance, toleration toughness tradition, traditionalism train training transform transformation, transformer (mis)treat (mis)treatment, treatise, treaty (dis)trust (dis)trust, trustworthiness truth, truthfulness typing type (mis)understand (mis)understanding unite unity, union, unit universe, universality use usage, usability value value, valuation, valuables vary variety, variation, variant, variance, variable victimise victim, victimisation violate violence, violation vision, visibility visit visit warm warmth, warmness warn warning weaken weakness wealth week weigh weight widen width will will, (un)willingness wise wisdom wonder wonder work work, works worth, worthlessness, worthiness year youth — — — — traditionalist trainer, trainee — — trustee — typist — — user valuer – victim violator visionary visitor – ADJECTIVE (+opposite) thirsty thoughtful, thoughtless, thinking, unthinkable threatening, threatened thrilling, thrilled tired, tiring, tireless, tiresome (in)tolerant, (in)tolerable tough traditional trained, trainable transforming (un)treatable (dis)trustful, trustworthy (un)true, (un)truthful typed understandable, understanding united universal useful, useless, (un)usable, (mis)used (in)valuable, valueless, valued various, variable, varied — violent visionary, (in)visible visiting warm — — weakling weak wealthy weekly weighty, weightless wide (un)willing, wilful wise wonderful working, workable worthy, worthless, worthwhile yearly young — — — — — — — worker — — youngster Teacher’s Notes Teacher’s Wotes Use of English B2 for the FCE E xam in atio n a n d other exam s is intended fo r B2 level students. A part from th o ro u g h ly preparing students fo r all exams, this book also system atically teaches English gram m ar and vocabulary. The texts included are based on a va rie ty of interesting and m otiva ting topics w hich are com m only found in exam inations. The m aterial included in the book is g radually presented and practised in 12 units (Units 1-4,6-9 and 11-14) and consolidated and revised in units 5,10 and 15. All 15 units include exercises w hich are in accordance w ith the FCE Exam ination and the ECCE form at, w hile the Final FCE and Final ECCE Tests provide students w ith fu rth e r practice and fam iliarise them fu lly w ith the C am bridge FCE Use of English Paper and the Gram m ar and Vocabulary sections of the ECCE. Each o f the units 1-4, 6-9 and 11-14 has been divid ed in to tw o sections. The firs t section m ainly focuses on gram m ar. Collocations, expressions, prepositional phrases, phrasal verbs and w ords w ith prepositions are presented and practised th ro ug h exercises. These exercises enable students to id e n tify the syntactic and sem antic features o f the item s introduced and see how they are used in m eaningful contexts. Appendices I and II alphabetically present all prepositional phrases and w ords w ith prepositions w hich are introduced in the book. In section 1 some gram m atical structures are also revised by means of a num ber of exercises. Although these exercises do not follow the exact exam ination form at, they practise sentence transform ation and te xt com pletion, thus preparing the ground fo r the corresponding parts of the FCE Use of English Paper and the ECCE Gram m ar section. Some basic rules are given in the form of ‘Points to Remember’ accom panied by illu strative examples w hich h ig h lig h t the co rrect gram m atical structures as well as some mistakes co m m only made by students. Finally, the m ost com m on sentence transform ations related to the gram m atical structures explained are presented. For fu rth e r explanations, students can refer to the corresponding part of the special Gram m ar Revision Section at the end of the book. The firs t section o f each u nit ends w ith a sub-section called exam ination practice. This includes tw o exercises w hich have a sim ilar fo rm a t to FCE Use o f English Gram m ar and Vocabulary and ECCE tasks and test a selection of the items th a t have already been introduced in the unit. The second section o f each o f the units 1-4,6-9 and 11-14 m ainly focuses on vocabulary. In this section, seven to nine groups of w ords th a t are easily confused are presented and practised through a num ber of m ultiple m atching/sentence com pletion exercises. D efinitions w hich h ig h lig h t the differences between the words in each group are given in the special Vocabulary Section at the end of the book. The second section of each u nit ends w ith a sub-section called exam ination practice. This includes tw o exercises w hich test a selection of the item s th a t have already been introduced in the unit. Section 2 also includes a sub-section focusing on derivatives. In each unit, a num ber o f com m on prefixes and/or suffixes added to verb, noun or adjective roots is discussed and b rief rules accom panied by illu stra tive tables and exam ples are given. This is follow ed by an exercise practising the patterns ta ught. A ppendix III presents all derivatives dealt w ith in the book + m ore in alphabetical order. The syllabus of the book includes all the m aterial that is com m only required fo r Paper 3 of the FCE Examination as well as fo r ECCE and other exams and should be mastered by students at this level. Despite its com prehensiveness, this book cannot be regarded as exhaustive, as it is possible th a t a few items not included in it may be set in fu tu re exam inations. Use of English B2 fo r the FCE Exam ination and other exam s has been s p e c ific a lly designed to be co m p le te d in a pp ro xim a tely fo rty -fiv e teaching hours, provided th a t some o f its parts are assigned as hom ew ork. It is recom m ended that m ost of the exam ination practice sub-sections and consolidation units should be assigned as hom ew ork and discussed in class. The G ram m ar Review, V ocabulary Notes and Appendices at the end o f the book are m eant to be used by students fo r reference, although some parts may have to be explained in class by the teacher. The section including the exam tips should be explained in class, though, before the firs t Consolidation Unit is done. A fter com pleting each Consolidation Unit, teachers should do the corresponding photocopiable Revision Test in class allow ing students about one hour and fifte e n m inutes to com plete it. SECTION 1(FCE format) For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). -z& r Example: 0 A for ® to c of D on ALTERNATIVE FAST FOOD to the problem of w hat to food. W ithout a doubt, this has not been easy, (3) in m ind th at they have had to com pete w ith num erous fast food restaurants which are very popular w ith young people. w ith th eir own home-made pizzas. When they compared th e ir pizzas w ith ready-made ones, the differences were Throughout the lessons, the children learn about q ua lity and become skilful in the differen t techniques they even learn how to look after them selves by eating n u tritio u s food. Finally, n u tritio n ists would like to get children cooking at home, too. It may be messy, but, it’s also a(n) 1 A regarded B observed C noticed D recognised 2 A custom B habit C routine D trend 3 A staying B getting C keeping D holding 4 A come B caught C gone D got 5 A learning B teaching C studying D facing 6 A o ff B back C out of D up w ith 7 A neither B both C all D either 8 A enthusiastic B astonished C impressed D keen 9 A much B as C even D more 10 A respected B included C involved D addicted 11 A in no tim e B at tim es C on tim e D is .ime 12 A am bition B position C o p p o rtu n ity D reduction Revision test I For questions 13*24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning CO). HUMMlftCMON Aborigines and the ancient Egyptians practised the custom of m um m ifyin g th e ir dead. M um m ification dates as far back m ost thoroughly. There were various ways of m um m ifying a body. The best method was also days. in jars. Spices and resin were then placed in the body. Such a rich could afford it. A cheaper way was to soak the the body was wrapped up, it was placed in a coffin which was In the shape of a mummy, and then in a second coffin made of wood, stone or even gold. As the process was considered holy, the knowledge M Revision test I For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (O). HOLIDAY NEEDS Summer is in the air and it’s only ( 0 ) __ n a tu ra l for people to feel good and NATURE ENTHUSIASM about going on holiday. Everyone needs to relax and get away, so they try to use their (26) leave in the best possible way. YEAR Some people find it (27) ___ to stay at a holiday resort and have everything done LOGIC for them. Of course, if you are (28) _____________ , money is not an issue whatsoever. A more WEALTH (29) to be much more (30) alternative would be a camping holiday, which many people consider ECONOMICS _________________ and challenging. Exploring nature as well as relaxing ADVENTURE (31 ) in the mountains is a great way to recharge your batteries, PEACE (32 ) to say, getting away and escaping from your routine reduces stress. Any NEED (33 ) w ill tell you of the benefits a holiday offers. So, even if you have to PSYCHOLOGY (34 ) in order to afford a holiday, do it. In the end, it’s w orth it! ECONOMY For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0 When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used _tennis every Sunday. 35 Both houses are fa irly new, b ut John’s is m ore m odern than ours, the the two. 36 The com pany has o nly tw o em ployees and they both w ork part-tim e, neither works full-tim e. 37 John had never fe lt so proud of his work. tim e .so proud o f his work. 38 She inherited her fa th e r’s fo rtu n e six m onths ago. came .h e r father’s fortune. 39 Jack hadn’t had Chinese food fo r weeks and yesterday he ordered some, w hich for weeks. 4 0 I w ill investigate the m atter and then I w ill give you my opinion. in to the matter. 41 How long have you been exercising at home? at home? 42 She always takes her cred it card w ith her w herever she goes, never her cred it card. Revision test I SECTION 2 (ECCE format) Grammar Choose the correct answer. a. comes b. is coming a. haven’t b. haven’t had c. will have come d. has been coming c. don’t have d. hadn’t ___we spent our vacation last year. a. that b. which c. where d. whom a.anybody b. nobody c. somebody d. everybody a. a lot b. enough c. far d. very very relaxing to be so close to nature. a. at b . in c. up d. by people in the department store but luckily no one was floor. injured. a. that b. where c. which d. whose a. out b. over c. through d. off 10. After he lost his job, he has been living on very money, but it doesn’t seem to bother 5. The baby had a temperature yesterday and today it him. a. badly c. badlier b. worse a. few b. a few d. worst c. a little d. little Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. 1. Who’s the leading actor in this movie? I can’t 6. “ It’s cold in here.” his name. a. remind b. recognise c. recall d. memorise . you a sweater to put on?” a. get b. deliver c. carry d. approach with the fact that she wouldn’t go to work again after a. employers b. colleagues she retired. c. attendants d. employees a. come b. get c. reach d. go in at least two languages. a. grow b. become c. arise d. involve 4. I didn’t like my boss in the beginning, but I soon got to his strange ways. a. accustomed b. familiar c. aware d. addicted that when she grows up, she’ll have at least four. a. fond b. interested c. eager d. keen started pouring with rain. a. clap b. bunch c. flash d. flock 9. Steve went through a red traffic light, and he was lucky a. getaw ay b. ca rry o u t c. come round d. go ahead between green and red. a. associate b. depart c. differ d. distinguish 1 For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0 A believe B regard C think (D )consider KILLER PLANTS consider People (0) all plants to be harmless. But th a t is not the case w ith carnivorous plants, otherw ise known as kille r plants. Carnivorous plants are every insect’s nightm are, as the insect cannot (1) the colour o f the plant and the sweet liquid on the inside of its leaves. However, once it has landed, sensitive hairs on the leaves signal the plant to pum p a small am ount o f w ater around the leaves, w hich makes them p artially little chance of the insect (5) Carnivorous plants th rive in areas where the soil is poor. (6) the of this category is the Venus flytrap, native to North and South Carolina, USA. It produces small w hite flowers and its fly tra p w ill eat around five thousand flies in its lifetim e. If necessary, it w ill even consume small spiders. Carnivorous plants there have captured animals the size of birds or small rodents. a mistake and tease a fly tra p w ith your finger. You m ight not get it back! m p S j k 1 A refuse B deny C resist D reject 2 A to close B to be closed C close D closing 3 A realised B recognised c known D agreed 4 A On second thoughts B In vain c On the contrary D Under these circum stances 5 A to escape B escape c escaping D to escaping 6 A As for B Because of c As well as D Regardless of 7 A short B shortage c inadequate D lack 8 A of B w ith c from D in 9 A guessed B estim ated c predicted D assumed 10 A announced B presented c com m ented D reported 11 A instruction B tip c direction 12 A perform B make c do D try Revision test II For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). TIMES ARE CH AN G IN G w hich have dram atically affected people’s lives. Take, for instance, life expectancy. Until the nineteenth century, people lived till the age of (14 ) in unhealthy living conditions, Sack of good quality food and hard work, all co ntributed (15 ) low life expectancy. (16 ) big change concerns people’s homes and way of life. Families once had to settle fo r the bare essentials. Large extended fam ilies lived toge th er in small houses. Nowadays, our houses are bigger and better; extended fam ilies have been replaced by nuclear families; and both parents w ork long hours. has replaced earlier means of transport, and public tran spo rt has also brought closer together. cost. We live in a m odern world and our life has been made easier, (21 ) stress and anxiety are m ajor health concerns. Family ties are not as strong as they used to be, as parents w ork hard to afford all the luxuries, which nowadays are considered to (22 ) necessities. Last but not (23 ) , cars and other means of tran spo rt cause congestion and pollution. before the situation gets out of hand. M Revision test II For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). A HOLIDAY OFFER It’s summ er and everybody is looking forward to (0) £ e ttin B GET _away to a holiday place __________ .But are you one of those people ACTIVE ______ every tim e you think about organising HIGH w ith w hat is available, don’t feel frustrated and SATISFY (28 ) . We are here to find the right place for you and make your life HELP (29 ) and more relaxed. Whether you dream of a holiday in the m ountains to EASY enjoy the (30) QUIET of nature, or you like the busy resorts that offer people a VARIOUS of things to do, come and see us! We (32) SPECIAL __ in making your dreams come true. No one can deny the IMPORTANT of being able to get away from your daily routine and going to a place that is to your (34) SATISFY _____________ . So why don’t you take the tim e to consider our offer? For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0 When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used used to p la y .te n n is every Sunday. 35 An optician m ust test yo u r eyesight as soon as possible, tested . as soon as possible. 36 Kate, I suggest we go cam ping this summer, how this summer? 37 It was w rong of you to cheat him out of his money, should out of his money. 38 They made me refuse the offer, down . the offer. 39 He still finds it d iffic u lt to drive on the right-hand side of the road. get He can’t. _ driving on the right-hand side of the road. 4 0 Could I in te rru p t you fo r a mom ent? my ______fo r a mom ent? 41 They don’t let people take photographs in the a rt gallery, allowed ______ photographs in the a rt gallery. 42 He was not able to com plete the application fo rm on his own. in own. _________________the application form on his Revision test II SECTION 2 (ECCE format) Grammar Choose the correct answer. . my daughter home after the party. 6. We . either eat out or order takeout. What do you prefer? a. to bring b. bring c. bringing d. to bringing a. should b. could c. would d. have to noticed that his eyes were red. corrupted, but that’s far from the truth, a. him b. himself a. of b. on c. his d. he c. about d. for 3. Now that she’s moved to the suburbs, she misses by her friends. . being 8. After the alarm went off, a man was seen down the stairs quickly and leaving the building, a. to be visited b. have been visited c. being visited d. been visited change our plans. a. walk b. walking c. to walk d. to walking 9. Samantha could have been an excellent musician but a. up b. into c. on d. out a . to b . for c. of d.on 10. Did they finally get their washing machine ? though she didn’t want to. a. to stay b. staying a. repair b. to repair c. stay d. have stayed c. repairing d. repaired Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. for exceeding the 6. When Mary’s grandmother died, she came into some _ jewels. speed limit. a. fee b. fare c. ticket d. receipt 2. John is a very talented writer. His books have gained a. priceless b. worthless c. insufficient d. available mistakes and I have complete trust in her. a. donations b. rewards a. convenient b. spare c. prices d. prizes c. reliable d. usable 3. “ Look at that awful stain on my new dress! What would and have our picnic despite the awful weather. a. recommend b. consult a. do b. make c. propose d. confess c. give d. take servicing regularly, otherwise you’ll have problems trip tomorrow?” with it.” “ We haven’t decided yet.” a. inquires b. requests a. set off b. turn on c. requires d. commands c. make for d. run along their neighbourhood, 10. “ Don’t be so ________to your brother! He just wanted to play with you and you kicked him!” a. rejected b. disapproved a. jealous b. relevant c. resisted d. objected c. mean d. upset M Revision TestIII For questions 1-12, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (O). Example: 0 A harm B injure C hurt D suffer SUM M ER IN TH E CITY Sum mer is a w on de rful season because it means sun, beaches and having fun. However, sum m er in the city can make one (0) to our health. This, in turn, brings in an air-conditioned building. Some cities even have the added problem of smog. This, com bined w ith the heat makes conditions unbearable. It is therefore im p o rta n t th a t these people (8) . going o ut when p ollutio n levels are high. According to official records, the increase in tem perature coincides w ith a higher num ber o f deaths. Twenty percent more people die from heart attacks or are killed in car accidents.However, there is hope fo r c ity dwellers. Experts say our environm ent. One step w ould be to (11) which produce to xic emissions. Even (1 2 )__ the num ber of vehicles and lim it heavy industry, dark-coloured roofs w ith lighter-coloured ones can cause a drop in tem perature o f up to 4 ° Celcius. 1 A result B gain C remain D create 2 A w rong B suspicious C harm ful D serious 3 A up B about C round D along 4 A rescue B guard C shelter D caution 5 A sensitive B sensational C sensible D influenced 6 A affected B attacked C obliged D appealed 7 A warned B risked C damaged D endangered 8 A o m it B avoid C ban D prevent 9 A im proved B progressed C recovered D saved 10 A care B caution C interest D attention 11 A dem olish B lower C reduce D destroy 12 A exchanging B urging D replacing Revision test III For questions 13-24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). AN INTERVIEW WITH A CHALET COOK W orking as a chalet cook at a ski resort is the p erfect o p p o rtu n ity to as a chalet cook in the French Alps last year but d id n ’t get to see m uch of the slopes. First of all, she had to prepare a considerable am ount of food every day. Victoria had to tid y up the chalet and make sure e verything ran smoothly. first, it soon became apparent th at this wasn’t the case. Victoria had to everything by herself. She’d rather fo rg et the tim e the dishwasher was out had caused her. wasn’t the best either. Victoria earned only £150 a week and was, therefore, unable to save up much. At tim es she wondered (22 ) all, Victoria adm itted having gained invaluable experience which b uilt up her character. When asked if she (23 ) go back, she replied th a t she would, (24 ) th a t she worked w ith others and shared the responsibility. Revision test III For questions 25-34, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (O). Mata Hari Margaretha Zelle was a well known (0) e n te rta in e r _at the beginning of the 20th century. ENTERTAIN . made her famous throughout Europe. PERFORM But who was Margaretha Zelle? She was an (26) _____________ woman who was born in the ATTRACT FRANCE _capital for most o f her adult life. She gave the stage name Mata Hari, which literally means ‘eye of the day’, and is HER EXPRESS _________ used to describe the sun. She was extrem ely successful and before long became very wealthy. Her good fortune ended during World War I. The (30) ___________________ in Paris accused her of GOVERN GERMANY (32 ) to prove her innocence had serious consequences. She was sentenced to FAIL (33 ) and was consequently shot by a firing squad. Till now, this DIE (34 ) w artim e incident remains shrouded in mystery. PLEASE For questions 35-42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: 0 When I was younger, I played tennis every Sunday. used 35 “Don’t go swim m ing on a fu ll stomach,” the lifeguard said to us. advised 36 It would be foolish of us not to go shopping during the sales. if 37 They are saving up as they w ant to buy a new car. view They are saving up a new car. 38 I don’t w ant to lie to him this time, tru th I’d this time. 39 “I’m sorry I shouted at you,” Kelly said to me. apologised Kelly at me. 4 0 A fter her illness, she wasn’t strong enough to be able to walk on her own. so A fter her illness, she couldn’t walk on her own. 41 You can use the telephone if it works. not You can use the telephone provided order. 42 In spite of m aking a lot of mistakes, she passed the test, even She passed the test a lot of mistakes. Revision test III SECTION 2 (ECCE format) Grammar Choose the correct answer. 1. the heavy rain, all flights were cancelled, a. Because b. Since c. Due to d. As 6. He’s always boasting success at school, 2. Susan made a wish and then she blew the candles on her birthday cake, a. up b. over c. out d.away 3. a. for b. about c. on d. in more responsible, she wouldn’t have lost a. did I live b. I lived c. do I live d. have I lived her job. forget it. a. If she would be b. Had she been c. would she be d. If she has been his children’s making so much noise! I just b. stop c. had stopped d. would stop a. so that not b. so as not to d. so as to not c. a too d. so a. bought b. have bought c. had bought d. buy . Cathy tried hard, she didn’t manage to 10. be seen by the neighbours. c. so that to not b. a so _________ a yacht if you were rich? need to relax for a while, a. will stop a. such a win the race, a. Even though b. In spite of c. Despite d. Despite of Vocabulary Choose the correct answer. because of the financial crisis, a . ended up b. given out c. closed down d. dropped off board the plane. a. convict b. victim c. hostage d. kidnapper stop! a. forbid b. resist c. remain d. tolerate She’s late at times. a. punctual b. sharp c. exact d. correct English-speaking country, a. decrease b. improve c. produce d. recover 6. I said hello to Jill, but she me completely. a. neglected b. omitted c. cheated d. ignored happens. a. stand by b. take after c. let down d. bring round 8. The two companies a re _ with each other to gain the contract. a. combining b. competing c. comparing d. protesting . lately because she has a lot of personal problems, a. haste b. schedule c. aid d. strain the company’s financial problems, a. mind b. pay c. give d. take Key t. Revision Tests Revision Test I (Units 1-4) 1 regarded 13 as 25 enthusiastic 35 the m ore m odern of 1 b 6 b 2 habit 14 out 26 yearly 36 neither of w hom 2 c 7 d 3 keeping 15 m ost 27 logical 37 firs t tim e John had fe lt 3 a 8 b 4 come 16 This 28 w ealthy 38 since she came into 4 d 9 c 5 teaching 17 w hich 29 econom ical 39 w hich he hadn’t had 5 b 10 d 6 off 18 the 4 0 when 1look/have looked into 7 both 19 w hole/dead 31 peacefully 41 did you sta rt w orking out 8 impressed 2 0 both/these 32 needless 42 never goes anyw here w ith o u t 1c 6 a 9 as 21 soon 33 psychologist 2 a 7 d 10 involved 22 of 34 econom ise 3 b 8 c 11 in no tim e 23 few 4 a 9 a 12 o p p o rtu n ity 24 each/every 5 a 10 d Revision Test II (Units 6-9) 1 resist 13 on 25 a ctivities 35 to have/get yo ur eyesight tested 1a 6 b 2 close 14 up 26 heights 36 how about going cam ping 2 b 7 d 3 realised 15 to 27 dissatisfied 37 shouldn’t have cheated him 3 c 8 b 4 Under these 16 A nother 28 helpless 38 was made to tu rn down 4 d 9 c 17 long 29 easier 39 get used to 5 c 10 d 5 escaping 18 result 3 0 quietness 4 0 you m ind my in te rru p tin g you 6 Because of 19 been 31 va riety 41 are not allowed to take 7 inadequate 20 a 32 specialise 42 of fillin g in 8 of 21 b u t/ye t/h o w e ve r 33 im portance 9 estim ated 22 be circum stances 10 reported 23 least 24 has/ought 12 make 34 satisfaction 1*1 1n 1c 6 a 2 d 7 c 3 a 8 b 4 c 9 a 5 d 10 c Key to Revision Tests Revision Test III (Units u-14) B EI 235 1 create 13 took 25 perform ance(s) 1c 6 b 2 harm ful 14 addition 26 attractive 36 if we d id n ‘t/d o n ‘t go 2 c 7 b 3 about 15 A lth ou g h/ 27 French 37 w ith a view to buying 3 b 8 a 4 shelter Though 28 herself 38 rather tell him the tru th 4 d 9 d 39 apologised fo r shouting/having 5 b 10 a 1c 6 d 2 c 7 a 3 d 8 b 4 a 9 d 5 b 10 d 5 sensitive 16 so 29 expression 6 affected 17 care 30 governm ent 7 endangered 18 order 31 Germans 4 0 was so weak (that) she 8 avoid 19 of 32 failure 41 it is not o ut of 9 im proved 2 0 w he th er/if 33 death 42 even though she (had) made 10 atte ntio n 21 up 34 unpleasant 11 reduce 22 in 12 replacing 23 w ould 24 provided shouted E. MOUTSOU Use of English EE ■ ■ for all exams QQCQ m m publications teacher’s book Use of English This book systematically teaches grammar and vocabulary and helps students develop all the skills necessary to succeed in all exams at B2 level. m for all exams Use of English B2 includes: • Consolidation Units and Practice Tests • Presentation of lexical items and • A reference section including an grammatical structures in context overview of English grammar, (including collocations, expressions, vocabulary notes, exam tips and phrasal verbs, words with prepositions, comprehensive appendices prepositional phrases, key • A Glossary transformations, words easily confused and derivatives) • Clear explanations and useful exam tips • Exercises providing thorough practice in Use of English (including multiple The Teacher’s Book includes: • The Student’s Book with the Key overprinted • Photocopiable revision tests choice, matching, gap filling, open and multiple choice cloze tests, key word transformation and word formation) ISBN:978-960-443-929-4

Bạn đang xem bài viết Tài Liệu Học Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh: Sách Use Of English – First Certificate Skills – Mark Harrison / 2023 trên website Phusongyeuthuong.org. Hy vọng những thông tin mà chúng tôi đã chia sẻ là hữu ích với bạn. Nếu nội dung hay, ý nghĩa bạn hãy chia sẻ với bạn bè của mình và luôn theo dõi, ủng hộ chúng tôi để cập nhật những thông tin mới nhất. Chúc bạn một ngày tốt lành!