Xem Nhiều 2/2023 #️ Review 2 Cuốn Cambridge Ielts Trainer – Ielts Trainer 2 Academic Pdf+Audio # Top 5 Trend | Phusongyeuthuong.org

Xem Nhiều 2/2023 # Review 2 Cuốn Cambridge Ielts Trainer – Ielts Trainer 2 Academic Pdf+Audio # Top 5 Trend

Cập nhật thông tin chi tiết về Review 2 Cuốn Cambridge Ielts Trainer – Ielts Trainer 2 Academic Pdf+Audio mới nhất trên website Phusongyeuthuong.org. Hy vọng nội dung bài viết sẽ đáp ứng được nhu cầu của bạn, chúng tôi sẽ thường xuyên cập nhật mới nội dung để bạn nhận được thông tin nhanh chóng và chính xác nhất.

1/ Tổng quan về IELTS Trainer

Bộ sách IELTS Trainer

Bộ sách IELTS Trainer bao gồm hai cuốn là Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1 và IELTS Trainer 2 Academic: Six Practice Tests. Vì test trong sách này khó hơn đề thật nên dành cho bạn có band từ 4.5 IELTS trở nên để luyện thi do đó các bạn mới bắt đầu hoặc trình độ chưa cao thì không nên sử dụng cuốn này.

Sách IELTS Trainer sẽ đưa ra 6 đề luyện full 4 kĩ năng trong đó có 2 đề có đầy đủ chi tiết cách làm từng phần trong đó. Vừa luyện tập, vừa giải quyết tốt từng phần, đây là điểm cộng cho bộ sách IELTS Trainer.

Cụ thể, hai cuốn sách IELTS Trainer có cả phần đáp án của bài thi Reading và Listening. Tất cả đều được giải thích chi tiết và rõ ràng. Từ đó giúp người đọc dễ dàng nắm bắt được lỗi sai, hiểu ra lỗi sai nằm ở đâu và rút kinh nghiệm cho những bài sau.

Điểm trừ duy nhất của bộ IELTS Trainer là các dạng bài ở hai kỹ năng Writing, Speaking không có tính tổng quát. Bởi sách chỉ tập trung và việc hướng dẫn giải các bài test cụ thể. Chính vì vậy sau khi học xong các bạn vẫn có thể chưa giải quyết được hết các dạng bài sẽ gặp trong kỳ thi thật.

Với bản chất hai cuốn Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1 và IELTS Trainer 2 Academic để luyện đề, bạn nên được sử dụng trước khi bước vào kì thi, tức đã có nền IELTS và kiến thức về các kĩ năng từ trước.

2/ Review cuốn Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1

Cuốn Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1

Cuốn sách Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1 bao gồm:

6 bài kiểm tra: trong đó 2 bài đầu tiên có hướng dẫn cụ thể cho từng nhiệm vụ đề đưa ra, và 4 bài tiếp theo là đề theo đúng chuẩn format khi đi thi IELTS. Sách dành cho bạn có band 4.5 IELTS trở lên luyện đề.

Các mẹo hữu ích để bạn dễ dàng vượt qua kì thi, những điều cần làm và nên làm cho từng kĩ năng.

IELTS Trainer 1 phần đáp án chữa kĩ càng, với lời giải thích cho Listening, Reading và bài mẫu Writing.

Đối với Speaking sẽ có những câu hỏi và mẫu câu trả lời được phân tích cụ thể để giúp các bạn biết được cách trả lời như thế nào sẽ đạt điểm cao.

Cách học cuốn sách IELTS Trainer 1 thật hiệu quả: Nghiên cứu kỹ phần Training. Ghi chú ra những phần kiến thức quan trọng. Sau đó tiếp tục đến phần luyện đề, rồi đối chiếu với kết quả. Từ đó, bạn sẽ rút được ra kinh nghiệm hữu ích sau mỗi lần làm bài test. Bạn không nên chỉ đếm số câu đúng sai, mà cần xem kĩ phần giải thích để hiểu tại sao lại sai, và để ý xem đâu là kĩ năng bạn hay bị sai nhất, từ đó dành nhiều thời gian hơn để tập trung vào kĩ năng đó.

Link tải Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1 PDF + Audio: TẠI ĐÂY

3/ Sách IELTS Trainer 2 Academic

IELTS Trainer 2 Academic

Một siêu phẩm tiếp theo đến từ Cambridge là cuốn IELTS Trainer 2 Academic. Vẫn với format tương tự cuốn bên trên, cuốn số 2 này bao gồm 6 đề mới nhất của Cambridge, giúp bạn cập nhật các dạng đề thi mới nhất.

Cuốn IELTS Trainer 2 sẽ giúp bạn hệ thống, xác định trình độ bản thân hiện tại đang ở đâu. Từ đó, bạn có thể đặt mục tiêu và cố gắng luyện đề. Đặc biệt, sách Cambridge IELTS Trainer 2 dành cho những bạn mong muốn đạt được IELTS 6.0 – 6.5 trở lên chắc chắn không thể không đọc.

Ngoài cập nhật thêm các dạng đề mới, cuốn sách IELTS Trainer 2 đã cập nhật những thay đổi của phần Listening kể từ năm 2020. Phần Section giờ đã chuyển thành Part. Vậy nên thay vì nghe thấy “now turn to section 1”, bây giờ có thể bạn sẽ nghe thấy “now turn to part 1”. Một điểm đáng chú ý nữa là phần ví dụ của Part 1 giờ cũng không được đọc trong audio nữa, vậy nên có thể thấy các thí sinh bị mất đi khoảng 30-40 giây đó, rút ngắn thời gian đọc đề bài cho những phần sau.

Link download IELTS Trainer 2 pdf: TẠI ĐÂY

Link download IELTS Trainer 2 Academic bản Audio: TẠI ĐÂY

4/ Sử dụng sách IELTS Trainer phù hợp

Cuốn sách IELTS Trainer 1 và IELTS Trainer 2 quả thật rất hay và phù hợp để luyện đề thi. Bạn nên nghiên cứu thật kĩ những đề có hướng dẫn từng phần chi tiết của tác để hiểu hơn về cách làm của mỗi phần trong đề thi. Bạn hãy tổng hợp và ghi nhớ lại nội dung kiến thúc trọng điểm, các tips làm bài hay của từng phần sẽ giúp đạt điểm cao đáng kể. Chắc chắn rằng trong quá trình làm đề sẽ có lỗi sai, bạn cần để ý các lỗi đấy và xem các sửa để tránh lặp lại khi làm bài thi. Và tất nhiên là dành thời gian để rèn luyện các kĩ năng còn yếu, khắc phục sai sót của bản thân.

Download IELTS Trainer pdf bản đẹp Full: TẠI ĐÂY

Nếu có bất kỳ thắc mắc về sách học hay vấn đề trong quá trình ôn luyện IELTS thì hãy để lại thông tin và bạn sẽ có được câu trả lời trong thời gian sớm nhất.

Review 2 Cuốn Cambridge Ielts Trainer

1. Tổng quan về IELTS Trainer

Sách này sẽ đưa ra 6 đề luyện full 4 kĩ năng trong đó có 2 đề có đầy đủ chi tiết cách làm từng phần trong đó. Vừa luyện tập, vừa giải quyết tốt từng phần, đây là điểm cộng cho bộ sách IELTS Trainer.

Cụ thể, hai cuốn sách này có cả phần đáp án của bài thi Reading và Listening. Tất cả đều được giải thích chi tiết và rõ ràng. Từ đó giúp người đọc dễ dàng nắm bắt được lỗi sai, hiểu ra lỗi sai nằm ở đâu và rút kinh nghiệm cho những bài sau.

Điểm trừ duy nhất của bộ IELTS Trainer là các dạng bài ở hai kỹ năng Writing, Speaking không có tính tổng quát. Bởi sách chỉ tập trung và việc hướng dẫn giải các bài test cụ thể. Chính vì vậy sau khi học xong các bạn vẫn có thể chưa giải quyết được hết các dạng bài sẽ gặp trong kỳ thi thật.

Với bản chất hai cuốn Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1 và IELTS Trainer 2 Academic để luyện đề, bạn nên được sử dụng trước khi bước vào kì thi, tức đã có nền IELTS và kiến thức về các kĩ năng từ trước.

2. Review cuốn Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1

Cuốn Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1

– 6 bài kiểm tra: trong đó 2 bài đầu tiên có hướng dẫn cụ thể cho từng nhiệm vụ đề đưa ra, và 4 bài tiếp theo là đề theo đúng chuẩn format khi đi thi IELTS. Sách dành cho bạn có band 4.5 IELTS trở lên luyện đề

– Các mẹo hữu ích để bạn dễ dàng vượt qua kì thi, những điều cần làm và nên làm cho từng kĩ năng.

– IELTS Trainer 1 phần đáp án chữa kĩ càng, với lời giải thích cho Listening, Reading và bài mẫu Writing.

– Đối với Speaking sẽ có những câu hỏi và mẫu câu trả lời được phân tích cụ thể để giúp các bạn biết được cách trả lời như thế nào sẽ đạt điểm cao.

Cách học cuốn sách IELTS Trainer 1 thật hiệu quả: Nghiên cứu kỹ phần Training. Ghi chú ra những phần kiến thức quan trọng. Sau đó tiếp tục đến phần luyện đề, rồi đối chiếu với kết quả. Từ đó, bạn sẽ rút được ra kinh nghiệm hữu ích sau mỗi lần làm bài test. Bạn không nên chỉ đếm số câu đúng sai, mà cần xem kĩ phần giải thích để hiểu tại sao lại sai, và để ý xem đâu là kĩ năng bạn hay bị sai nhất, từ đó dành nhiều thời gian hơn để tập trung vào kĩ năng đó.

Link tải Cambridge IELTS Trainer 1 PDF + Audio:

3. Sách IELTS Trainer 2 Academic

Cuốn IELTS Trainer 2 sẽ giúp bạn hệ thống, xác định trình độ bản thân hiện tại đang ở đâu. Từ đó, bạn có thể đặt mục tiêu và cố gắng luyện đề. Đặc biệt, sách Cambridge IELTS Trainer 2 dành cho những bạn mong muốn đạt được IELTS 6.0 – 6.5 trở lên chắc chắn không thể không đọc.

IELTS Trainer 2 Academic

Ngoài cập nhật thêm các dạng đề mới, cuốn sách IELTS Trainer 2 đã cập nhật những thay đổi của phần Listening kể từ năm 2020. Phần Section giờ đã chuyển thành Part. Vậy nên thay vì nghe thấy “now turn to section 1”, bây giờ có thể bạn sẽ nghe thấy “now turn to part 1”. Một điểm đáng chú ý nữa là phần ví dụ của Part 1 giờ cũng không được đọc trong audio nữa, vậy nên có thể thấy các thí sinh bị mất đi khoảng 30-40 giây đó, rút ngắn thời gian đọc đề bài cho những phần sau.

Link download IELTS Trainer 2 pdf:

Link download IELTS Trainer 2 Academic bản Audio:

4. Sử dụng sách IELTS Trainer phù hợp

Cuốn sách IELTS Trainer 1 và IELTS Trainer 2 quả thật rất hay và phù hợp để luyện đề thi. Bạn nên nghiên cứu thật kĩ những đề có hướng dẫn từng phần chi tiết của tác để hiểu hơn về cách làm của mỗi phần trong đề thi. Bạn hãy tổng hợp và ghi nhớ lại nội dung kiến thúc trọng điểm, các tips làm bài hay của từng phần sẽ giúp đạt điểm cao đáng kể. Chắc chắn rằng trong quá trình làm đề sẽ có lỗi sai, bạn cần để ý các lỗi đấy và xem các sửa để tránh lặp lại khi làm bài thi. Và tất nhiên là dành thời gian để rèn luyện các kĩ năng còn yếu, khắc phục sai sót của bản thân.

Nếu có bất kỳ thắc mắc về sách học hay vấn đề trong quá trình ôn luyện IELTS thì hãy để lại thông tin và bạn sẽ có được câu trả lời trong thời gian sớm nhất.

Ielts Academic Reading Free Samples. Sample 1.2

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14–26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Life lessons from villains, crooks and gangsters

(A) A notorious Mexican drug baron’s audacious escape from prison in July doesn’t, at first, appear to have much to teach corporate boards. But some in the business world suggest otherwise. Beyond the morally reprehensible side of criminals’ work, some business gurus say organised crime syndicates, computer hackers, pirates and others operating outside the law could teach legitimate corporations a thing or two about how to hustle and respond to rapid change.

(C) Joaquin Guzman, the head of the Mexican Sinaloa drug cartel, for instance, slipped out of his prison cell through a tiny hole in his shower that led to a mile-long tunnel fitted with lights and ventilation. Making a break for it required creative thinking, long-term planning and perseverance – essential skills similar to those needed to achieve success in big business.

(E) By contrast, many legitimate businesses fail because they hesitate to adapt quickly to changing market winds. One high-profile example is movie and game rental company Blockbuster, which didn’t keep up with the market and lost business to mail order video rentals and streaming technologies. The brand has all but faded from view. Liddell argues the difference between the two groups is that criminal organisations often have improvisation encoded into their daily behaviour, while larger companies think of innovation as a set process. “This is a leadership challenge,” said Liddell. “How well companies innovate and organise is a reflection of leadership.”

Left-field thinking

(F) Cash-strapped start-ups also use unorthodox strategies to problem solve and build their businesses up from scratch. This creativity and innovation is often borne out of necessity, such as tight budgets. Both criminals and start-up founders “question authority, act outside the system and see new and clever ways of doing things,” said Goodman. “Either they become Elon Musk or El Chapo.” And, some entrepreneurs aren’t even afraid to operate in legal grey areas in their effort to disrupt the marketplace. The co-founders of music streaming service Napster, for example, knowingly broke music copyright rules with their first online file sharing service, but their technology paved the way for legal innovation as regulators caught up.

(G) Goodman and others believe thinking hard about problem solving before worrying about restrictions could prevent established companies falling victim to rivals less constrained by tradition. In their book The Misfit Economy, Alexa Clay and Kyra Maya Phillips examine how individuals can apply that mindset to become more innovative and entrepreneurial within corporate structures. They studied not just violent criminals like Somali pirates, but others who break the rules in order to find creative solutions to their business problems, such as people living in the slums of Mumbai or computer hackers. They picked out five common traits among this group: the ability to hustle, pivot, provoke, hack and copycat.

(H) Clay gives a Saudi entrepreneur named Walid Abdul-Wahab as a prime example. Abdul-Wahab worked with Amish farmers to bring camel milk to American consumers even before US regulators approved it. Through perseverance, he eventually found a network of Amish camel milk farmers and started selling the product via social media. Now his company, Desert Farms, sells to giant mainstream retailers like Whole Foods Market. Those on the fringe don’t always have the option of traditional, corporate jobs and that forces them to think more creatively about how to make a living, Clay said. They must develop grit and resilience in order to last outside the cushy confines of cubicle life. “In many cases scarcity is the mother of invention,” Clay said.

( Update 2022) Cambridge Ielts 9 Reading Test 2 Answers

Cambridge IELTS 9 is the latest IELTS exam preparation. chúng tôi will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 9 reading test 2 with detail explanations.

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 9 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS

Passage 1: Children with auditory problems

1-6. Which section contains the following information?

1. An account of a national policy initiative.

Keywords: national policy initiative

In paragraph H, the writer states that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.” So, this is a national policy initiative for New Zealand.

– policy initiative=strategy

2. A description of a global team effort

Keywords: global team effort

– a global team= an international working party

3. A hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise.

Keywords: reason, the growth, classroom noise

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit.”

– growth in classroom noise=heightened noise levels

4. a demand for suitable world-wide regulations.

Keywords: worldwide regulations

In paragraph I, the writer argues that “It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.”

– suitable = appropriate

– worldwide = international

– regulations=standards

5. a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others.

Keywords: medical conditions, more at risk

In paragraph D, the writer says that “While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and attention deficit

disorders (ADD/ADHD).

– at risk=vulnerable

6. the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems.

Keywords: proportion, auditory problems

In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

– Auditory problems = hearing loss

Questions 7-10: Answer the questions below.

7. For what period of time has hearing loss in school children been studied in New Zealand?

Keywords: period of time

In paragraph A, “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

8. In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism?

Keywords: machinery, type of noise, autism

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated bymachinerypainful and distressing.”

– upset=find painful, distressing

9. What term is used to describe the hearing problems of schoolchildren which have not been diagnosed?

Keywords: term, hearing problems, not been diagnosed

At the end of paragraph G, “It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education

system with „invisible‟ disabilities.”

– have not been diagnosed = undiagnosed

10. What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give schoolchildren equal opportunities?

Keywords: New Zealand Disability Strategy, part, equal opportunities

In paragraph H, the writer says that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.”

Questions 11-12: Choose TWO letters, A-F.

11-12. Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage?

A. current teaching methods

B. echoing corridors

C. cooling system

D. large class sizes

E loud-voiced teachers

F. playground games

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air- conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher’s voice.”

– current teaching methods = modern teaching practices

– cooling system = mechanical means of ventilation (such as air-conditioning)

Obviously, options B, D, E, and F are not given in the text.

Questions 13: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

13.What is the writer’s overall purpose in writing this article?

A. to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems

B. to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments

C. to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems

D. to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow

At the beginning of the text, the writer argues that “Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole.” Then the writer details the situation of auditory function deficit in young children in New Zealand by discussing the reasons, consequences and solutions to this problem. Therefore, overall, the writer’s purpose is to “increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems”.

Options A, B, D do not represent the GENERAL purpose of the writer.

Passage 2: Venus in transit

14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?

14. Examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

Keywords: examples, parallax principle

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 chúng tôi AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars.” So, the parallax principle has been applied to determine a value for the AU and to measure the distances to the stars.

15. a description of an event which prevented a transit observation.

Keywords: event, prevented transit observation

In paragraph D, the writer says that “He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship‟s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations.”

– prevented=ruled out any attempt at

16. a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations.

Keywords: future discoveries, transit observations.

In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

– discoveries=breakthroughs

– leading on from=paved the way for

17. a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome.

Keywords: instruments, physical states, Venus, failed

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the „black drop‟ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun‟s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

– physical states= the ‘black drop’ effect, a halo of light

– failed to overcome=made it impossible

18-21: Match each statement with the correct person.

18. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

Keywords: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AUbased on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today‟s value of 149,597,870 km.”

– the distance of the Sun from the Earth=the AU

– with a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate

19. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

Keywords: distance, worked out bycomparing observations

In paragraph B, “He (Edmond Halley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun‟s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

– work out=calculate, measure

20. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

Keywords: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun

In paragraph C, the writer argues that “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sungoverned their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

– go around = orbit (orbital)

21. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

Keywords: Venus transit, unable, calculations

In paragraph D, “Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations”.

– unable=ruled out

– make any calculations=making accurate observations

Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?

22. Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

Keywords: Halley, transit, Venus

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific…..Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn‟t survive to see either”.

23. Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

Keywords: managed, second Venus transit.

In paragraph D, the writer states that “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience. ” This means that Le Gentil did not succeed in observing a second Venus transit in the Philippines.

24. The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

Keywords: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun

In paragraph E, the writer says that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

– pass in front of the Sun=cross the Sun‟s disc

– distorted=smeared not circular

25. Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

Keywords: atmosphere on Venus, toxic

In this passage, Venus’s atmosphere is not mentioned by the writer, so it is not known whether it is toxic or not. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

26. The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

Keywords: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth

In paragraph F, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth‟s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”

Passage 3: A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently

Questions 27-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to

Keywords: Neuroeconomics, seeks to

In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors.” In other words, neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.

– achievement=success

28. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because

Keywords: iconoclasts, distinctive

In paragraph 2, the writer says that “This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.” So, iconoclasts are distinctive because their brains are different, in other words, their brains function differently.

– distinctive=different

29. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because

Keywords: brain, efficiently

In paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information” So, the brain works efficiently because it relies on previous events.

– efficiently = in the quickest way

– relies on = draw on

– previous events=past experience

30. The writer says that perception is

Keyword: perception

At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says that “More than the physical reality of photons and sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”

31. According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker

Keywords: iconoclastic thinker

In paragraph 4, the writer says that “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people.” In other words, an iconoclast thinker can avoid cognitive traps.

– cognitive=perceptual

Questions 32-37: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3 ?

32. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.

Keywords: different events, think differently

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”

– different events = things it (the brain) has never encountered before = novelty

– think differently=make new judgments

33. Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.

Keywords: receptive, new experiences

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.”

– are unusually receptive to = have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to

– new experiences=what is fresh and different

34. Most people are too shy to try different things.

Keywords: too shy, different things

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether most people are too shy to try different things. He just says that “most people avoid things that are different” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.

Keywords: think, iconoclastic, overcome fear.

In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.” This means that fear prevents people from thinking in an iconoclast way. So, the statement’s meaning is opposite to that in the text.

36. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.

Keywords: embarrassment, less, fears, irrelevant

In paragraph 6, “fear of public ridicule” is mentioned. It we interpret this as “embarrassment”, still we are not told if other fears then become irrelevant. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN

37. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

Keywords: fear, public speaking, a psychological illness

In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.” So, fear of public speaking is not a psychological illness, it is just a common variant of human nature.

– a psychological illness= a mental disorder

Questions 38-40: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

38. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it

Keyword: successful, demanding

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in…Perception is important in social cognition too…Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.” This means that thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.

39. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it

Keywords: social brain, useful,

In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.” So, the concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it focuses on how groups decide on an action.

– groups = circuits

– groups decide on an action=groups coordinate decision making

40. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking

Keywords: an asset, way of thinking

In the last paragraph, “Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.” So, iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.

Cambridge IELTS 9 Self-study Pack (Student’s Book with Answers and Audio CDs (2)) Authentic Examination Papers from Cambridge ESOL

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