Xem Nhiều 11/2022 #️ Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step / 2023 # Top 11 Trend | Phusongyeuthuong.org

Xem Nhiều 11/2022 # Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step / 2023 # Top 11 Trend

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This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1 Reading Passage 2, which is entitled ‘MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT’. This is a post primarily for IELTS candidates who have great problems in finding answers for the Academic Reading module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process and I sincerely hope this post can help you in your IELTS Reading preparation.

IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2:

The headline of the passage: MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT

Questions 14-20 (List of headings):

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence. ]

Question 14: Paragraph A

In the first lines of paragraph A, the writer says, “The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources.”  

Then in lines 4-7, the writer mentions, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, the Roman Empire, nine major systems = ancient water supplies,

So, the answer is: xi (A description of ancient water supplies)

Question 15: Paragraph C

Paragraph C narrates the dangers to physical condition as the result of a shortage of pure water. The writer mentions in lines 4-7, “.. … . . more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, .. . .. . .”

So, the answer is: vii (the relevance to health)

Question 16: Paragraph D

Paragraph D details about the environmental effects of water-shortage.

In lines 4-7 the writer mentions, “. . .. … . more than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity.”

So, the answer is: v (Environmental effects)

Question 17: Paragraph E

In paragraph E, take a look at the following sentences.

“. .. … however, the resource planners think about water is beginning to change.” (lines 1-2).

“The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – .. ..” (lines 2-3)

“Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities,. .. ..” (lines 4-5)

Here, resource planners/water experts = scientists, demanding = call, beginning to change/slowly shifting back, existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways = revision of policy,

So, the answer is: i (Scientists’ call for a revision of policy)

Question 18: Paragraph F

In paragraph F, take a close look at the following sentences.   

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted.”

Then, in lines 3-5, the writer says, “Although population, industrial output, and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed.”

Here, unexpectedly = surprising, the rate.. .. has slowed = downward trend,

So, the answer is: ix (A surprising downward trend in demand for water)

Question 19: Paragraph G

Paragraph G opens with this question, “What explains this remarkable turn of events?”

This suggests that the author will give an explanation of the reasons behind this reduced use of water.

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use.”

This means that there are two reasons behind reduced water use; first, people have found out ways to use water efficiently, and second, communities now think twice about their priorities for how to use water.

So, the answer is: ii (An explanation for reduced water use)

Question 20: Paragraph H

In paragraph H, we find that the writer feels the need to raise standards in use of water and planning for better infrastructure, “On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.”

Here, higher specifications = raise standards,

So, the answer is: x (The need to raise standards)

Questions 21-26 (YES, NO, NOT GIVEN)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES

The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO

The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 21: Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.

Keywords for this question: water use, per person, higher, industrial world, Ancient Rome,

The last lines of paragraph A give us the answer to this question. The writer says here, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, as much water per person . .. . . as is provided.. .. today means the supply of water is not higher; it is rather equal.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 22: Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.

Keywords for this question: feeding, increasing populations, possible, due to, improved irrigation system,

In paragraph B the writer says in lines 5-7, “Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.”

Here, soaring = increasing, because of = due primarily to, artificial irrigation systems = improved irrigation systems,

So, the answer is: YES

Question 23: Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Keywords for this question: modern water systems, imitate, ancient Greeks and Romans,

In paragraph C the writer says in lines 2-3, “.. . … half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans.”

However, we do not find any information that says modern water systems are a copied version of the Ancient Greek and Roman water systems.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 24: Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water.

Keywords for this question: industrial growth, increasing, overall demand, water,  

In paragraph F the writer argues in lines 3-5, “.. .. . Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed.”

Here, the rate . .. . has slowed = demand of water is decreasing.

Therefore, the lines directly contradict the information provided in question 24.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 25: Modern technologies have led to reduction in the domestic water consumption.

Keywords for this question: modern technologies, led to, reduction, domestic water consumption,   

In paragraph G the author states in lines 5-7, “.. . . . But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry.”

Here, thanks to a range of new technologies = modern technologies have led to,

Therefore, the lines directly match with the statement in question 25.  

So, the answer is: YES

Question 26: In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.

Keywords for this question: future, governments, should maintain, ownership, water infrastructures,

Information relating to government and water infrastructures can only be traced in paragraphs H and E.

In paragraph E, the writer only says: “Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities.” There is no discussion about ownership whatsoever. 

In paragraph H:  “…dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built….”.  But again there is a clear indication of ownership here. Therefore, the sentences lack information about whether governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

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Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Passage 1; Passage With No Title; With Top Solutions And Best Explanations / 2023

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 6 Reading Test 3 Reading Passage 1 about ‘History of films’. This is a post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 1: Questions 1-13

This passage contains no title

Questions 1-5: Identifying information:

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question no. 1: the location of the first cinema

Keywords for the question: location, first cinema,

In paragraph A, read these lines carefully, “The Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1985. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat screen.”

The following paragraphs (especially paragraph C) gives indication that 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris was the first location in the world to show a cinema.

So, the answer is: A

Question no. 2: how cinema came to focus on stories

Keywords for the question: how, cinema, focus on stories, 

The first few lines of paragraph I indicate the answer as the writer explains here, “Cinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television -as a strange noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories.

So, the answer is: I

Question no. 3: the speed with which cinema has changed

Keywords for the question: speed, cinema, changed,   

Skim paragraph J to find how fast cinema has changed, “And it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again -that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.”

Here, it is a mere 100 years mean that cinema has progressed very fast during 100 years.

So, the answer is: J

Question no. 4: how cinema teaches us about other cultures

Keywords for the question: how, cinema, teaches, other cultures,   

The answer can be found in lines 1-6 of paragraph E. The writer says here, “One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people travelled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived. . .. .. .”

Here, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived = cinema teaches us about other cultures,

So, the answer is: E

Question no. 5: the attraction of actors in films

Keywords for the question: attraction, actors, films,  

The first lines of paragraph G give us the answer, “The ‘star’ was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. .. ..”

Here, Film personalities = actors, an immediate presence = attractions,

So, the answer is: G

Question 6-9: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 6: It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.

Keywords for the question: important, understand, how, first audiences, reacted to, cinema,

The answer is found in lines 4-9 of paragraph B, “ . .. . But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.”

Here, it is worth trying = it is important, the initial shock of those images = how the first audiences reacted to the cinema,

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 7: The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest films ever made.

Keywords for the question: Lumiere Brothers’ film, train, one of, greatest films ever made,

Paragraph C gives a detailed explanation of The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train. Here, these lines may confuse you, “ . .. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists, described the film as a ‘work of genius’.”

You need to read the question again; it asks about the film, not the film artists.

In this passage, there is no information about whether this film is one of the greatest films ever made or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 8: Cinema presents a biased view of other countries.

Keywords for the question: cinema, presents, biased view, other countries,   

In paragraph E we find the information that cinema can make us aware about other countries. So, we can guess that the answer to this question should be found in the same paragraph. However, it does not say anywhere that cinema gives a biased view of other countries.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 9: Storylines were important in very early cinema. 

Keywords for the question: storylines, important, very early cinema,   

In paragraph D H lines 5-7 say, “ . .. . All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. … . .”

Here, All that mattered at first = all that was important in very early cinema,

So, it was the wonder of movement, not the storylines.

So, the answer is: NO

Questions 11-13: Multiple choice questions

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers to previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

Question no. 10: The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate –

Keywords for the question: the film of train, to demonstrate,  

Take a look at these lines paragraph C where the writer talks about the film about the moving train presented by the Lumiere Brothers, “. . .. ‘As the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ’panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture..  … .”

Clearly, the writer explains the impact of the early films as mass people reacted with astonishment.

So, the answer is: B (the impact of early films)

Question no. 11: In Tarkovsky’s opinion, the attraction of the cinema is that it –

Keywords for the question: Tarkovsky’s opinion, attraction, cinema, it,

Take a look at lines 7-9 in paragraph D, “. . .. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. .  ..”

Here, that magic dynamic image = attraction of the cinema, real flow of events = passing of time,

So, the answer is: C (illustrates the passing of time)

Question no. 12: When cinema first began, people thought that –    

Keywords for the question: when, cinema, first begun, people, thought,   

The answer can be found in paragraph H as the author says here, “.. .. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. .. . .”

Here, by no means obvious = the future was uncertain,

So, the answer is: D (its future was uncertain)

Question no. 13: What is the best title for this passage?

Keywords for the question: best title,  

During answering all the 12 questions, we have found out that the passage highlights the introduction, the development and different impacts of the cinema. Only two paragraphs in this passage talk about stars/ film artists, the dominance of Hollywood and a short comparison between cinema and novels.

The best choice from the four options has to be ‘The power of the big screen (cinema)’.

So, the answer is: D (The power of the big screen)

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: Making Every Drop Count / 2023

A The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources.Lịch sử của nền văn minh nhân loại đi liền với lịch sử của những cách thức kiểm soát nguồn tài nguyên nước mà chúng ta đã học được. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts.Khi mà thành thị ngày càng mở rộng ra thì nguồn nước cũng được dẫn về từ những nguồn ở ngày một xa hơn, đưa tới nỗ lực thiết kế công trình phức tạp hơn như đập và hệ thống cống dẫn nước . At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.Vào thời kỳ đỉnh cao của Đế chế La Mã, chín hệ thống lớn với sự bố trí đường ống một cách sáng tạo và hệ thống cống rãnh được xây dựng kiên cố đã cung cấp cho cư dân thành Rome lượng nước trung bình theo đầu người tương đương với nhiều khu vực trong thế giới công nghiệp ngày nay.

H On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met.Mặt khác, đập nước, hệ thống đường ống dẫn và các loại cơ sở hạ tầng khác sẽ vẫn phải được xây dựng, nhất là ở những quốc gia đang phát triển – nơi mà nhu cầu cơ bản của con người chưa được đáp ứng. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past.Nhưng, so với trước đây, dự án loại này phải được xây dựng với mức độ chi tiết cao hơn, có trách nhiệm nhiều hơn đối với cư dân địa phương và môi trường của họ. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to a smaller budget.Và ngay cả ở những vùng mà dự án mới dường như có chất lượng đảm bảo thì chúng ta cũng phải tìm ra cách đáp ứng nhu cầu với ít tài nguyên hơn, tôn trọng tiêu chuẩn sinh thái và hao tổn ít chi phí hơn. * 1 gallon: 4.546 litres

( Update 2022) Cambridge Ielts 9 Reading Test 2 Answers / 2023

Cambridge IELTS 9 is the latest IELTS exam preparation. chúng tôi will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 9 reading test 2 with detail explanations.

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 9 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS

Passage 1: Children with auditory problems

1-6. Which section contains the following information?

1. An account of a national policy initiative.

Keywords: national policy initiative

In paragraph H, the writer states that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.” So, this is a national policy initiative for New Zealand.

– policy initiative=strategy

2. A description of a global team effort

Keywords: global team effort

– a global team= an international working party

3. A hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise.

Keywords: reason, the growth, classroom noise

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit.”

– growth in classroom noise=heightened noise levels

4. a demand for suitable world-wide regulations.

Keywords: worldwide regulations

In paragraph I, the writer argues that “It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.”

– suitable = appropriate

– worldwide = international

– regulations=standards

5. a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others.

Keywords: medical conditions, more at risk

In paragraph D, the writer says that “While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and attention deficit

disorders (ADD/ADHD).

– at risk=vulnerable

6. the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems.

Keywords: proportion, auditory problems

In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

– Auditory problems = hearing loss

Questions 7-10: Answer the questions below.

7. For what period of time has hearing loss in school children been studied in New Zealand?

Keywords: period of time

In paragraph A, “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

8. In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism?

Keywords: machinery, type of noise, autism

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated bymachinerypainful and distressing.”

– upset=find painful, distressing

9. What term is used to describe the hearing problems of schoolchildren which have not been diagnosed?

Keywords: term, hearing problems, not been diagnosed

At the end of paragraph G, “It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education

system with „invisible‟ disabilities.”

– have not been diagnosed = undiagnosed

10. What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give schoolchildren equal opportunities?

Keywords: New Zealand Disability Strategy, part, equal opportunities

In paragraph H, the writer says that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.”

Questions 11-12: Choose TWO letters, A-F.

11-12. Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage?

A. current teaching methods

B. echoing corridors

C. cooling system

D. large class sizes

E loud-voiced teachers

F. playground games

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air- conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher’s voice.”

– current teaching methods = modern teaching practices

– cooling system = mechanical means of ventilation (such as air-conditioning)

Obviously, options B, D, E, and F are not given in the text.

Questions 13: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

13.What is the writer’s overall purpose in writing this article?

A. to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems

B. to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments

C. to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems

D. to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow

At the beginning of the text, the writer argues that “Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole.” Then the writer details the situation of auditory function deficit in young children in New Zealand by discussing the reasons, consequences and solutions to this problem. Therefore, overall, the writer’s purpose is to “increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems”.

Options A, B, D do not represent the GENERAL purpose of the writer.

Passage 2: Venus in transit

14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?

14. Examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

Keywords: examples, parallax principle

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 chúng tôi AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars.” So, the parallax principle has been applied to determine a value for the AU and to measure the distances to the stars.

15. a description of an event which prevented a transit observation.

Keywords: event, prevented transit observation

In paragraph D, the writer says that “He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship‟s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations.”

– prevented=ruled out any attempt at

16. a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations.

Keywords: future discoveries, transit observations.

In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

– discoveries=breakthroughs

– leading on from=paved the way for

17. a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome.

Keywords: instruments, physical states, Venus, failed

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the „black drop‟ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun‟s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

– physical states= the ‘black drop’ effect, a halo of light

– failed to overcome=made it impossible

18-21: Match each statement with the correct person.

18. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

Keywords: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AUbased on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today‟s value of 149,597,870 km.”

– the distance of the Sun from the Earth=the AU

– with a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate

19. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

Keywords: distance, worked out bycomparing observations

In paragraph B, “He (Edmond Halley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun‟s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

– work out=calculate, measure

20. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

Keywords: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun

In paragraph C, the writer argues that “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sungoverned their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

– go around = orbit (orbital)

21. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

Keywords: Venus transit, unable, calculations

In paragraph D, “Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations”.

– unable=ruled out

– make any calculations=making accurate observations

Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?

22. Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

Keywords: Halley, transit, Venus

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific…..Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn‟t survive to see either”.

23. Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

Keywords: managed, second Venus transit.

In paragraph D, the writer states that “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience. ” This means that Le Gentil did not succeed in observing a second Venus transit in the Philippines.

24. The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

Keywords: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun

In paragraph E, the writer says that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

– pass in front of the Sun=cross the Sun‟s disc

– distorted=smeared not circular

25. Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

Keywords: atmosphere on Venus, toxic

In this passage, Venus’s atmosphere is not mentioned by the writer, so it is not known whether it is toxic or not. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

26. The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

Keywords: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth

In paragraph F, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth‟s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”

Passage 3: A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently

Questions 27-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to

Keywords: Neuroeconomics, seeks to

In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors.” In other words, neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.

– achievement=success

28. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because

Keywords: iconoclasts, distinctive

In paragraph 2, the writer says that “This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.” So, iconoclasts are distinctive because their brains are different, in other words, their brains function differently.

– distinctive=different

29. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because

Keywords: brain, efficiently

In paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information” So, the brain works efficiently because it relies on previous events.

– efficiently = in the quickest way

– relies on = draw on

– previous events=past experience

30. The writer says that perception is

Keyword: perception

At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says that “More than the physical reality of photons and sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”

31. According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker

Keywords: iconoclastic thinker

In paragraph 4, the writer says that “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people.” In other words, an iconoclast thinker can avoid cognitive traps.

– cognitive=perceptual

Questions 32-37: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3 ?

32. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.

Keywords: different events, think differently

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”

– different events = things it (the brain) has never encountered before = novelty

– think differently=make new judgments

33. Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.

Keywords: receptive, new experiences

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.”

– are unusually receptive to = have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to

– new experiences=what is fresh and different

34. Most people are too shy to try different things.

Keywords: too shy, different things

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether most people are too shy to try different things. He just says that “most people avoid things that are different” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.

Keywords: think, iconoclastic, overcome fear.

In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.” This means that fear prevents people from thinking in an iconoclast way. So, the statement’s meaning is opposite to that in the text.

36. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.

Keywords: embarrassment, less, fears, irrelevant

In paragraph 6, “fear of public ridicule” is mentioned. It we interpret this as “embarrassment”, still we are not told if other fears then become irrelevant. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN

37. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

Keywords: fear, public speaking, a psychological illness

In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.” So, fear of public speaking is not a psychological illness, it is just a common variant of human nature.

– a psychological illness= a mental disorder

Questions 38-40: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

38. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it

Keyword: successful, demanding

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in…Perception is important in social cognition too…Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.” This means that thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.

39. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it

Keywords: social brain, useful,

In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.” So, the concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it focuses on how groups decide on an action.

– groups = circuits

– groups decide on an action=groups coordinate decision making

40. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking

Keywords: an asset, way of thinking

In the last paragraph, “Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.” So, iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.

Cambridge IELTS 9 Self-study Pack (Student’s Book with Answers and Audio CDs (2)) Authentic Examination Papers from Cambridge ESOL

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