Xem Nhiều 11/2022 #️ Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Passage 1; Passage With No Title; With Top Solutions And Best Explanations / 2023 # Top 18 Trend | Phusongyeuthuong.org

Xem Nhiều 11/2022 # Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Passage 1; Passage With No Title; With Top Solutions And Best Explanations / 2023 # Top 18 Trend

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This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 6 Reading Test 3 Reading Passage 1 about ‘History of films’. This is a post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 1: Questions 1-13

This passage contains no title

Questions 1-5: Identifying information:

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question no. 1: the location of the first cinema

Keywords for the question: location, first cinema,

In paragraph A, read these lines carefully, “The Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1985. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat screen.”

The following paragraphs (especially paragraph C) gives indication that 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris was the first location in the world to show a cinema.

So, the answer is: A

Question no. 2: how cinema came to focus on stories

Keywords for the question: how, cinema, focus on stories, 

The first few lines of paragraph I indicate the answer as the writer explains here, “Cinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television -as a strange noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories.

So, the answer is: I

Question no. 3: the speed with which cinema has changed

Keywords for the question: speed, cinema, changed,   

Skim paragraph J to find how fast cinema has changed, “And it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again -that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.”

Here, it is a mere 100 years mean that cinema has progressed very fast during 100 years.

So, the answer is: J

Question no. 4: how cinema teaches us about other cultures

Keywords for the question: how, cinema, teaches, other cultures,   

The answer can be found in lines 1-6 of paragraph E. The writer says here, “One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people travelled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived. . .. .. .”

Here, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived = cinema teaches us about other cultures,

So, the answer is: E

Question no. 5: the attraction of actors in films

Keywords for the question: attraction, actors, films,  

The first lines of paragraph G give us the answer, “The ‘star’ was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. .. ..”

Here, Film personalities = actors, an immediate presence = attractions,

So, the answer is: G

Question 6-9: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 6: It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.

Keywords for the question: important, understand, how, first audiences, reacted to, cinema,

The answer is found in lines 4-9 of paragraph B, “ . .. . But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.”

Here, it is worth trying = it is important, the initial shock of those images = how the first audiences reacted to the cinema,

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 7: The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest films ever made.

Keywords for the question: Lumiere Brothers’ film, train, one of, greatest films ever made,

Paragraph C gives a detailed explanation of The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train. Here, these lines may confuse you, “ . .. Yet the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky, one of the greatest of all film artists, described the film as a ‘work of genius’.”

You need to read the question again; it asks about the film, not the film artists.

In this passage, there is no information about whether this film is one of the greatest films ever made or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 8: Cinema presents a biased view of other countries.

Keywords for the question: cinema, presents, biased view, other countries,   

In paragraph E we find the information that cinema can make us aware about other countries. So, we can guess that the answer to this question should be found in the same paragraph. However, it does not say anywhere that cinema gives a biased view of other countries.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 9: Storylines were important in very early cinema. 

Keywords for the question: storylines, important, very early cinema,   

In paragraph D H lines 5-7 say, “ . .. . All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. … . .”

Here, All that mattered at first = all that was important in very early cinema,

So, it was the wonder of movement, not the storylines.

So, the answer is: NO

Questions 11-13: Multiple choice questions

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers to previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

Question no. 10: The writer refers to the film of the train in order to demonstrate –

Keywords for the question: the film of train, to demonstrate,  

Take a look at these lines paragraph C where the writer talks about the film about the moving train presented by the Lumiere Brothers, “. . .. ‘As the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ’panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture..  … .”

Clearly, the writer explains the impact of the early films as mass people reacted with astonishment.

So, the answer is: B (the impact of early films)

Question no. 11: In Tarkovsky’s opinion, the attraction of the cinema is that it –

Keywords for the question: Tarkovsky’s opinion, attraction, cinema, it,

Take a look at lines 7-9 in paragraph D, “. . .. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. .  ..”

Here, that magic dynamic image = attraction of the cinema, real flow of events = passing of time,

So, the answer is: C (illustrates the passing of time)

Question no. 12: When cinema first began, people thought that –    

Keywords for the question: when, cinema, first begun, people, thought,   

The answer can be found in paragraph H as the author says here, “.. .. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. .. . .”

Here, by no means obvious = the future was uncertain,

So, the answer is: D (its future was uncertain)

Question no. 13: What is the best title for this passage?

Keywords for the question: best title,  

During answering all the 12 questions, we have found out that the passage highlights the introduction, the development and different impacts of the cinema. Only two paragraphs in this passage talk about stars/ film artists, the dominance of Hollywood and a short comparison between cinema and novels.

The best choice from the four options has to be ‘The power of the big screen (cinema)’.

So, the answer is: D (The power of the big screen)

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Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 2: Reading Passage 2; Venus In Transit; With Best Solutions And Detailed Explanations / 2023

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 2: Reading Passage 2; Venus in transit; with best solutions and detailed explanations

This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 9 Test 2 Reading Passage 2 which is entitled ‘Venus in transit‘ . This is a post for candidates who have major problems in finding Reading Answers. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a slow process and I sincerely hope this post can assist you in your IELTS Reading preparation.

Reading Passage 2:

The headline of the passage: Venus in transit

Questions 14-17 (Identifying information):

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question 14: examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

Keywords for the question: different ways, parallax principle, applied,

The first lines of paragraph F indicates that the parallax principle has been applied in several ways using different measurements. “But astronomers labored hard to analyse the results of these expeditions to observe Venus transits. Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements.”

Here, determined a value . . .. . all these parallax measurements = different ways …. Parallax principle ….applied,

Question 15: a description of an event which prevented a transit observation

Keywords for the question: event, prevented, transit observation,

Take a look at the very last line of paragraph D, “Ironically, after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”

Here, his view was clouded out at the last moment = the event which prevented the observation,

Question 16: a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations

Keywords for the question: potential future discoveries, transit observations,

TIPS: It is generally observed in IELTS exam that any statement indicating “future” is mostly found in the last paragraphs. So, when you are asked to look for ‘future’, go straight to the last paragraph.

In paragraph G, the last lines give us the answer, “. . . But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

Here, paved the way for = leading on from, might prove to be = future, breakthroughs = discoveries,

Question 17: a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome

Keywords for the question: physical states, connected, Venus, early astronomical instruments, failed,

The last lines of paragraph E indicate the answer for us. “.. .. . . this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

Here, made it impossible to obtain = failed to overcome

Questions 18-21: (Matching statements with correct person or people):

(The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the keywords and read around different names of people or person carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order. )

Question 18: He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

Keywords for this question: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy,

In paragraph F, the writer says in lines 2-5, “. … . . Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today’s value of 149,597,870 km. . .. ..”

AU (Astronomical Unit) = distance of the Earth from the Sun (in paragraph B)

Here, a fair degree of accuracy = Reasonably accurate,

So, the answer is: D (Johann Franz Encke)

Question 19: He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

Keywords for this question: distance, worked out by comparing observations,

In paragraph B we find how Edmund Halley realised the observation of a transit could help find out the distance between the Earth and the Sun, “He realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun’s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

So, the answer is: A (Edmund Halley)

Question 20: He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

Keywords for this question: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun,

Paragraph C talks about Johannes Kepler’s realisation about timing of the orbit done by a planet around the Sun. Here, the writer says, “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sun governed their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

So, the answer is: B (Johannes Kepler)

Question 21: He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

Keywords for this question: Venus transit, unable, make calculations,

In lines 4-6 of paragraph D, the writer sympathizes Guillaume Le Gentil which indicates that he was unable to do something, “. . .. . The person who deserves most sympathy is the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil.” Then follow the last lines, ” .. . Ironically, after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”

Questions 22-26 (TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN)

So, the answer is: C (Guillaume Le Gentil)

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage – The statement in the question contradicts with the information in the passage – If there is no information on this – NOT GIVEN

[For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 22: Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

Keywords for this question: Halley, observed, transit, Venus,

In the last few lines of paragraph C, the writer says, “. . .and Halley worked out that by using Venus it would be possible to measure the Sun’s distance to 1 part in 500. But there was a problem: transits of Venus, unlike those of Mercury, are rare, occurring in pairs roughly eight years apart every hundred or so years. Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn’t survive to see either.“

These lines suggest that Halley predicted the transits of Venus but he was not able to observe any transit because he died before that.

Question 23: Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

Keywords for this question: Le Gentil, observe, second Venus transit,

In paragraph D, the writer states in lines 8-11, “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.”

Here, his view was clouded out = he could not observe the transit,

The lines suggest that Le Gentil was not able to observe a second Venus transit in the Philippines due to the thickness of the cloud.

Question 24: The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

Keywords for this question: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun,

In paragraph E, take a look at lines 1-3, “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

Here, pass in front of the Sun = cross the Sun’s disc, distorted = smeared not circular

Question 25: Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

Keywords for this question: early astronomers, suspected, atmosphere on Venus, toxic,

There is no information in this passage about the atmosphere of Venus.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 26: The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

Keywords for this question: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth,

In paragraph F, take a look at lines 7-10, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth’s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”

Ielts Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers / 2023

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below.

The Lumière Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1985. Before the eyes of the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and moved across a flat-screen.

So ordinary and routine has this become to us that it takes a determined leap of imagination to grasp the impact of those first moving images. But it is worth trying, for to understand the initial shock of those images is to understand the extraordinary power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made films the most dynamic, effective art form of the 20th century.

Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of films became familiar, the magic was accepted- but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audience and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic dynamic image of the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence of time, while time in a novel passed at the whim of the reader. But in cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.

One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For cinema makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked and lived. Overwhelmingly, the lives recorded at least in film fiction- have been American. From the earliest days of the industry, Hollywood has dominated the world film market. American imagery-the cars, the cities, the cowboys became the primary imagery of film. Film carried American life and values around the globe.

And, thanks to film, future generations will know the 20-th century more intimately than any other period. We can only imagine what life was like in the 14th century or in classical Rome. But the life of the modern world has been recorded on film in massive encyclopedic detail. We shall be known better than any preceding generations.

The ‘star’ was another natural consequence of cinema. The cinema star was effectively born in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than we do ourselves. The star as a magnified human self is one of cinema’s most strange and enduring legacies.

Cinema has also given a new lease of life to the idea of the story. When the Lumiere Brothers and other pioneers began showing off this new invention, it was by no means obvious how it would be used. All that mattered at first was the wonder of movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn off, cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground attraction.

Cinema might, for example, have become primarily a documentary form. Or it might have developed like television -as a strange noisy transfer of music, information and narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, a medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories- early producers doubted the ability of audiences to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in 1912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled upon the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.

Questions 1-5

Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

1 the location of the first cinema 2 how cinema come to focus on stories 3 the speed with which cinema has changed 4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in films

Questions 6-9

Do the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I? In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:

YES NO NOT GIVEN

if the statement agrees with the views of the writer if the statement contradicts with the views of the writer if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema. 7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode. 8 Cinema presents a bias0d view of other countries. 9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

And it has all happened so quickly. Almost unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the audience screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and, perhaps, suddenly aware that the world could never be the same again -that, maybe, it could be better, brighter, more astonishing, more real than reality.Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs, A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letter, A-J in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.1 the location of the first cinema2 how cinema come to focus on stories3 the speed with which cinema has changed4 how cinema touches us about other cultures 5 the attraction of actors in filmsDo the following statements agree on witl1the the views of t11e writer in Reading Passage I?In boxes 6-9 on your c1nswer sheet, write:if the statement agrees with the views of the writerif the statement contradicts with the views of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this6 It is important to understand how the first audiences reacted to the cinema.7 The Lumiere Brothers’ film about the train was one of the greatest filn1s ever mode.8 Cinema presents a bias0d view of other countries.9 Storylines were important in very early cinema.

Questions I0-13

Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrate

The simplicity of early films B the impact of early films C how short early films were Dhow imaginative early films were

11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at it

A aims to impress its audience  B tells stories better than books C illustrates t11e passing of t me D describes familiar events

12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11at Ait would always tell toes Bit s11ould be used in fairgrounds Cits audiences were unappreciative Dits future was uncertain

13 what is the best title for the passage?

A The rise of the cinema star B Cinema and novels compared C The dominant of Hollywood D The power of the big screen

Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

Motivating Employees under Adverse ConditionTHE CHALLENGE

It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organization than a declining one. When organizations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay raises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organization create Slings of optimism. Management is able to ta use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose- those with me the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

Morale also surfers during the decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumors and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly divided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

KEY POINT ONE

There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there are independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety, and responsibility.

KEY POINT TWO

KEY POINT THREE

Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

KEY POINT FOUR

Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope, and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.

KEY POINT FIVE

KEY POINT SIX

Questions 14-18

Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points. Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.

i Ensure the reward system is fair ii Match rewords lo individuals iii Ensure targets ore realistically iv Link rewords to achievement v Encourage managers to take more responsibility vi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedback viii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs

14 Koy Point Two 15 Koy Point Three 16 Kay Point FoLir 17 Key Point Five 18 Key Point Six

Questions 19-24

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:

YES NO NOT GIVEN

if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writer if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilled employees. 20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business. 21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork. 22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting. 23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees. 24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

Questions 25-27

Look at the following groups of workers (Question2S-27) and the list of descriptions below.

Match ec1chgroup with the correct description, A -E Write the correct letter, A-Ein boxes 25-27 on your answer sheet

25 high achievers

26 clerical workers

27 product on workers

List of descriptions

A They judge promotion to bo important

B They have less need for external goats

C They think that the quality of their work is important 

D They resist goals which are imposed

E Thay have limited job options

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

Reading Answers

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage below

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill

In government laboratories and elsewhere, scientists are seeking a drug able to prolong

life and youthful vigor. Studies of caloric restriction are showing the way

As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging- the build-up of molecular and cellular damage that increases vulnerability to infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. Those findings suggest that caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.

Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping from 2,500 calories a day to 1, 750. Few mortals could stick to chat harsh a regimen, especially for years on end. But what if someone could create a pill that mimicked the physiological effects of eating less without actually forcing people to eat less? Could such a ‘caloric-restriction mimetic’, as we call it, enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and cancer) until very lace in life? Scientists first posed this question in the mid-1990s, after researchers came upon a chemical agent that in rodents seemed to reproduce many of caloric restriction’s benefits. No compound that would safely achieve the same feat in people has been found yet, but the search has been informative and has fanned the hope that caloric-restriction (CR) mimetics can indeed be developed eventually.

The benefits of caloric restriction

The hunt for CR mimetics grew out of a desire to better understand caloric restriction’s many effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the practice more than 60 years ago, when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats and also had a reduced incidence of conditions that become increasingly common in old age. What is more, some of the treated animals survived longer than the oldest-living animals in the control group, which means that the maximum lifespan (the oldest attainable age), not merely the normal lifespan, increased. Various interventions, such as infection-fighting drugs, can increase a population’s average survival time, but only approaches chat slowly the body’s rate of aging will increase the maximum lifespan.

The rat findings have been replicated many times and extended to creatures ranging from yeast to fruit flies, worms, fish, spiders, mice, and hamsters. Until fairly recently, the studies were limited short-lived creatures genetically distant from humans. But caloric-restriction projects underway in two species more closely related to humans- rhesus and squirrel monkeys- have scientists optimistic that CR mimetics could help people.

calorie: a measure of the energy value of food.

The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals that eat normally. caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones that tend to fall with age.

The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels(signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease) and they have more normal blood glucose levels( pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes, which is marked by unusually high blood glucose levels). Further, it has recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-restricted diets for an extended time( nearly 15 years) have a less chronic disease. They and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespans in monkeys. Unlike the multitude of elixirs being touted as the latest anti-aging cure, CR mimetics would alter fundamental processes that underlie aging. We aim to develop compounds that fool cells into activating maintenance and repair.

How a prototype caloric-restriction mimetic works

The best-studied candidate for a caloric-restriction mimetic, 2DG (2-deoxy-D-glucose), works by interfering with the way cells process glucose, it has proved toxic at some doses in animals and so cannot be used in humans. But it has demonstrated that chemicals can replicate the effects of caloric restriction; the trick is finding the right one.

Cells use glucose from food to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake, caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases ATP generation. When 2DG is administered to animals that eat normally, glucose reaches cells in abundance but the drug prevents most of it from being processed and thus reduces ATP synthesis. Researchers have proposed several explanations for why interruption of glucose processing and ATP production might retard aging. One possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery’s emission of free radicals, which are thought to contribute to aging and t such age-related diseases as cancer by damaging cells. Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage. Another hypothesis suggests that decreased processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce( even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of the organism over such ‘luxuries’ as growth and reproduction.

Questions 28-32

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? 

Inboxes 28-32  on your answer sheet, write

YES

NO

NOT GIVEN

if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

if the statement contradicts the clo1ms of the writer

if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

28 Studies show drugs available today can delay the process of growing old.

29 There is scientific evidence that eating fewer calories may extend human life.  

30 Not many people are likely to find a caloric-restricted diet attractive.

31Diet-related diseases ore is common in older people.

32Inexperiments.rots who ote what they wonted led shorter lives than rots on a low-calorie diet

Questions 33-37

Classify the following descriptions os relating to

A colone-restricted n1onkeys

B controls on keys

C neither caloric-restricted monkeys nor control monkeys

33 Monkeys were less likely to become diabetic.

34 Monkeys experienced more chronic disease.

35 Monkeys l1ove been shown to experience o longer than overage life span. 

36 Monkeys enjoyed o reduced chance of heart disease.

37 Monkeys produced greater quantities of insulin.

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Passage Reading Answers

1. A

2. I

3. J

4. E

5. G

6. yes

7. not given

8. not given

9. no

10. B

11. C

12. D

13. D

Question 1-5: 

1. A (the whole para: ―The Lumiere Brothers opened their Cinematographe, at l4 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris, to 100 paying customers over 100 years ago, on December 8, 1895. Before the eyes oi the stunned, thrilled audience, photographs came to life and 

moved across a flat screen‖) 

2. I (line 5-14: ―narrative. But what happened was that it became, overwhelmingly, medium for telling stories. Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel. Then, in I912, an Italian 2-hour film was hugely successful, and Hollywood settled the novel-length narrative that remains the dominant cinematic convention of today.‖) 

3. J (line 2-9: ―unbelievably, it is a mere 100 years since that train arrived and the screamed and fled, convinced by the dangerous reality of what they saw, and perhaps, aware that the world never same again — that, maybe, it could be better brighter more astonishing, more real than reality‖) 

4. E (first 6 lines: ―One effect of this realism was to educate the world about itself. For the cinema it makes the world smaller. Long before people traveled to America or anywhere else, they knew what other places looked like; they knew how other people worked lived‖) 

5. G (lines 3-8: ―bon in 1910. Film personalities have such an immediate presence that inevitably, they become super-real. Because we watch them so closely and because everybody in the world seems to know who they are, they appear more real to us than do ourselves‖) 

Question 6-9: 

6. YES (para D, line 1-9: ―Early cinema audiences often experienced the same confusion. In time, the idea of the film became familiar, the magic was accepted – but it never stopped being magic. The film has never lost its unique power to embrace its audiences and transport them to a different world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which 

cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events‖) 

7. NOT GIVEN 

8. NOT GIVEN 

9. NO (para I, line 7-11: ―Originally these were conceived as short stories – early produces 

doubted the ability of the audience to concentrate for more than the length of a reel.‖) 

Question 10-13: 

10. B (para C, line 9-17: ―the train approached,’ wrote Tarkovsky, ‘Panic started in the theatre: people jumped and ran away. That was the moment when Cinema was born. The frightened audience could not accept that they were watching a mere picture. Pictures were still, only reality move; this must, therefore, be a reality. In their confusion, they 

feared that a real train about to crush them.‖) 

11. C (para D, line 7-13: ―world. For Tarkovsky, the key to that magic was the way in which cinema created a dynamic image oi the real flow of events. A still picture could only imply the existence oi time, while time in a novel passed at the whim oi the reader. But in 

cinema, the real, objective flow of time was captured.‖) 

12. D (para H, last 4 lines: ―movement. Indeed, some said that, once this novelty had worn 

off, the cinema would fade away. It was no more than a passing gimmick, a fairground 

attraction‖) 

13. D 

Motivating Employees under Adverse Condition The Challenge Reading Answers

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

14. 7

15. 3

16. 2

17. 4

18. 1

19. no

20. not given

21. no

22. yes

23. not given

24. yes

25. B

26. C

27. A

Question 14-18: 

14. vii (KEY POINT TWO, first 2 lines: ―The literature in goal-setting theory suggests that 

how well they are doing in those goals‖) 

15. iii (KEY POINT THREE, last 3 lines: ―Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees 

feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability oi doing the job and must regard the appraisal 

the process as valid‖) 

16. ii (KEY POINT FOUR, first 3 lines: ―Since employees have different needs, what acts as 

a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge oi each 

employee to personalize the rewards over which they have control.‖) 

17. iv (KEY POINT FIVE, first 2 lines: ―Managers need to make rewards contingent on 

performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other 

factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and‖) 

18. i (KEY POINT SIX, first 2 lines: ―The way rewards are distributed should be transparent 

so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs 

given. On a simplistic level‖) 

Question 19-24:

19. NO (THE CHALLENGE, part 1, last 4 lines: ―employees. When an organization is 

shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose – those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are 

limited‖) 

20. NOT GIVEN 

21. NO (KEY POINT ONE, line 3-6: ―autonomous unit within a larger business, high 

achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organization, a candidate who has a high need or power and a low need for affiliation should be selected Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that 

are inconsistent with their needs‖) 

22. YES (KEY POINT TWO, last 3 lines: ―the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If 

participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the 

participation process as manipulative and l be negatively affected by it.‖) 

23. NOT GIVEN 

24. YES (KEY POINT FIVE, line 4-5: ―goals. Consistent with maximizing the impact oi 

rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the 

the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating‖) 

Question 25-27: 

25. B (KEY POINT TWO, line 3-4: ―those with high achievement needs, typically a minority 

in any organization, the existence of external goals is less important because high 

achievers are already internally motivated.‖) 

26. C (KEY POINT SIX, line 7-9: ―production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and 

outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

workers’ list‖) 

27. A (KEY POINT SIX, line 9-11: ―their list, but these were at the bottom of the production 

workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were 

quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks‖) 

The Search for the Anti-aging Pill Reading Answers 

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 3 Reading Answers

28. no

29. yes

30. yes

31. not given 

32. yes

33. A

34. B

35. C

36. A

37. B

38. glucose

39. free radicals

40. preservation

Question 28-32: 

28. NO (para 1, first 2 lines: ―As researchers on aging noted recently. no treatment on the 

market today has been proved to slow human aging – the build-up of molecular and 

cellular damage that increases vulnerability to‖) 

29. YES (para 1, last 4 lines: ―infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption 

of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. These findings suggest that 

the caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.‖) 

30. YES (para 2, first 2 lines: ―Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably 

have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty percent, equivalent to dropping 

2.500 calories a day to 1,750.‖) 

31. NOT GIVEN 

32. YES (para 3, line 2-3: ―effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the 

practice more than 60 years ago. when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived 

longer on average than free-feeding rats.‖) 

Question33-37:

33. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of 

risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which is 

marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

34. B (para 5, line 5-6: ―recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-

diets for an extended time (nearly 15 years) have less chronic disease‖) 

35. C 

36. A (para 5, first 4 lines: ―The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators 

risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure 

triglyceride levels (signifying a decreases likelihood of heart disease), and they 

more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetic, which 

marked by unusually high blood glucose levels)‖) 

37. B (para 4: ―The monkey projects demonstrate that compared with control animals 

eat normally, caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones 

tend to fall with age.‖) 

Question 38-40:

38. ‘glucose’ (para 7, line 2-3: ―powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake 

caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases 

generation.‖) 

39. ‘free radicals’ (para 7,line 7-8: ―One possibility relates to the ATP-making 

emission of free radicals, which are thought to continue to aging and to such age-

diseases as cancer by damaging cells‖) 

40. “preservation’ (para 7, last 3 lines: ―damage. Another hypothesis suggests that 

processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce (even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of 

organism over such ‗luxuries’ as growth and reproduction‖) 

Choose the correct letter A, B, C, or D.Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.10 The writer refers to the film on the train in order to demonstrateThe simplicity of early filmsB the impact of early filmsC how short early films wereDhow imaginative early films were11In Tarkovsky’s opinion.t11e attract of the cinema is at itA aims to impress its audienceB tells stories better than booksC illustrates t11e passing of t meD describes familiar events12 When the cinema first began. people thought t11atAit would always tell toesBit s11ould be used in fairgroundsCits audiences were unappreciativeDits future was uncertain13 what is the best title for the passage?A The rise of the cinema starB Cinema and novels comparedC The dominant of HollywoodD The power of the big screenQuestions 14-18Reading Passage 2 contains six Key Points.Choose the correct heading for Key Points TWO to SIX from the list of headings below.Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet list of headings.i Ensure the reward system is fairii Match rewords lo individualsiii Ensure targets ore realisticallyiv Link rewords to achievementv Encourage managers to take more responsibilityvi Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time viiEstabishtargets and give feedbackviii Ensure employees are suited to their jobs14 Koy Point Two15 Koy Point Three16 Kay Point FoLir17 Key Point Five18 Key Point SixDo the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2 Inboxes 19-24 on your answer sheet write:if t11e statement agrees with the claims the writerif the statement contradicts the claims of the writerif it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this19 A shrinking organization lends to lose its less-skilled employees rather than its more skilledemployees.20 It is easier to n1anoge a small business than a large business.21 High achievers are well suited to teamwork.22 Some employees can feel manipulated when asked to participate in goal-setting.23 The staff appraisal process should be designed by employees.24 Employees’ earnings should be disclosed to everyone within the organization.

( Update 2022) Cambridge Ielts 9 Reading Test 2 Answers / 2023

Cambridge IELTS 9 is the latest IELTS exam preparation. chúng tôi will help you to answer all questions in cambridge ielts 9 reading test 2 with detail explanations.

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 9 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS

Passage 1: Children with auditory problems

1-6. Which section contains the following information?

1. An account of a national policy initiative.

Keywords: national policy initiative

In paragraph H, the writer states that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.” So, this is a national policy initiative for New Zealand.

– policy initiative=strategy

2. A description of a global team effort

Keywords: global team effort

– a global team= an international working party

3. A hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise.

Keywords: reason, the growth, classroom noise

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficit.”

– growth in classroom noise=heightened noise levels

4. a demand for suitable world-wide regulations.

Keywords: worldwide regulations

In paragraph I, the writer argues that “It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.”

– suitable = appropriate

– worldwide = international

– regulations=standards

5. a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others.

Keywords: medical conditions, more at risk

In paragraph D, the writer says that “While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and attention deficit

disorders (ADD/ADHD).

– at risk=vulnerable

6. the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems.

Keywords: proportion, auditory problems

In paragraph A, the writer indicates that “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

– Auditory problems = hearing loss

Questions 7-10: Answer the questions below.

7. For what period of time has hearing loss in school children been studied in New Zealand?

Keywords: period of time

In paragraph A, “The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.”

8. In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism?

Keywords: machinery, type of noise, autism

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated bymachinerypainful and distressing.”

– upset=find painful, distressing

9. What term is used to describe the hearing problems of schoolchildren which have not been diagnosed?

Keywords: term, hearing problems, not been diagnosed

At the end of paragraph G, “It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education

system with „invisible‟ disabilities.”

– have not been diagnosed = undiagnosed

10. What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give schoolchildren equal opportunities?

Keywords: New Zealand Disability Strategy, part, equal opportunities

In paragraph H, the writer says that “Objective 3 of the New Zealand Disability Strategy is to” Provide the Best Education for Disabled People‟ by improving education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities to learn and develop within their already existing school.”

Questions 11-12: Choose TWO letters, A-F.

11-12. Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage?

A. current teaching methods

B. echoing corridors

C. cooling system

D. large class sizes

E loud-voiced teachers

F. playground games

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air- conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher’s voice.”

– current teaching methods = modern teaching practices

– cooling system = mechanical means of ventilation (such as air-conditioning)

Obviously, options B, D, E, and F are not given in the text.

Questions 13: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

13.What is the writer’s overall purpose in writing this article?

A. to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems

B. to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments

C. to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems

D. to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow

At the beginning of the text, the writer argues that “Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficit in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole.” Then the writer details the situation of auditory function deficit in young children in New Zealand by discussing the reasons, consequences and solutions to this problem. Therefore, overall, the writer’s purpose is to “increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems”.

Options A, B, D do not represent the GENERAL purpose of the writer.

Passage 2: Venus in transit

14-17 Which paragraph contains the following information?

14. Examples of different ways in which the parallax principle has been applied

Keywords: examples, parallax principle

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 chúng tôi AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today. The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars.” So, the parallax principle has been applied to determine a value for the AU and to measure the distances to the stars.

15. a description of an event which prevented a transit observation.

Keywords: event, prevented transit observation

In paragraph D, the writer says that “He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship‟s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations.”

– prevented=ruled out any attempt at

16. a statement about potential future discoveries leading on from transit observations.

Keywords: future discoveries, transit observations.

In paragraph G, the writer indicates that “such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.”

– discoveries=breakthroughs

– leading on from=paved the way for

17. a description of physical states connected with Venus which early astronomical instruments failed to overcome.

Keywords: instruments, physical states, Venus, failed

In paragraph E, the writer argues that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the „black drop‟ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun‟s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun‟s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.”

– physical states= the ‘black drop’ effect, a halo of light

– failed to overcome=made it impossible

18-21: Match each statement with the correct person.

18. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy.

Keywords: distance, observations of Venus, accuracy

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AUbased on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to today‟s value of 149,597,870 km.”

– the distance of the Sun from the Earth=the AU

– with a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate

19. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.

Keywords: distance, worked out bycomparing observations

In paragraph B, “He (Edmond Halley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun‟s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun.”

– work out=calculate, measure

20. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go around the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun.

Keywords: time, around the Sun, distance from the Sun

In paragraph C, the writer argues that “Johannes Kepler, in the early 17th century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sungoverned their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable.”

– go around = orbit (orbital)

21. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations.

Keywords: Venus transit, unable, calculations

In paragraph D, “Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship’s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations”.

– unable=ruled out

– make any calculations=making accurate observations

Questions 22-26: Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2 ?

22. Halley observed one transit of the planet Venus.

Keywords: Halley, transit, Venus

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet, Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific…..Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn‟t survive to see either”.

23. Le Gentil managed to observe a second Venus transit.

Keywords: managed, second Venus transit.

In paragraph D, the writer states that “Undaunted, he remained south of the equator ….before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically, after traveling nearly 50,000 kilometers, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience. ” This means that Le Gentil did not succeed in observing a second Venus transit in the Philippines.

24. The shape of Venus appears distorted when it starts to pass in front of the Sun.

Keywords: shape, distorted, pass in front of the sun

In paragraph E, the writer says that “While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow, the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular.”

– pass in front of the Sun=cross the Sun‟s disc

– distorted=smeared not circular

25. Early astronomers suspected that the atmosphere on Venus was toxic.

Keywords: atmosphere on Venus, toxic

In this passage, Venus’s atmosphere is not mentioned by the writer, so it is not known whether it is toxic or not. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

26. The parallax principle allows astronomers to work out how far away distant stars are from the Earth.

Keywords: parallax principle, how far, stars, Earth

In paragraph F, “The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six month later. Knowing the width of Earth‟s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.”

Passage 3: A neuroscientist reveals how to think differently

Questions 27-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

27. Neuroeconomics is a field of study which seeks to

Keywords: Neuroeconomics, seeks to

In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics which studies the brain’s secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors.” In other words, neuro economics is a field of study which seeks to understand how the brain is linked to achievement in competitive fields.

– achievement=success

28. According to the writer, iconoclasts are distinctive because

Keywords: iconoclasts, distinctive

In paragraph 2, the writer says that “This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence.” So, iconoclasts are distinctive because their brains are different, in other words, their brains function differently.

– distinctive=different

29. According to the writer, the brain works efficiently because

Keywords: brain, efficiently

In paragraph 3, the writer indicates that “For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information” So, the brain works efficiently because it relies on previous events.

– efficiently = in the quickest way

– relies on = draw on

– previous events=past experience

30. The writer says that perception is

Keyword: perception

At the end of paragraph 3, the writer says that “More than the physical reality of photons and sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.”

31. According to the writer, an iconoclastic thinker

Keywords: iconoclastic thinker

In paragraph 4, the writer says that “Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people.” In other words, an iconoclast thinker can avoid cognitive traps.

– cognitive=perceptual

Questions 32-37: Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3 ?

32. Exposure to different events forces the brain to think differently.

Keywords: different events, think differently

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chains of past experience and forces the brain to make new judgments.”

– different events = things it (the brain) has never encountered before = novelty

– think differently=make new judgments

33. Iconoclasts are unusually receptive to new experiences.

Keywords: receptive, new experiences

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Successful iconoclasts have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.”

– are unusually receptive to = have an extraordinary willingness to be exposed to

– new experiences=what is fresh and different

34. Most people are too shy to try different things.

Keywords: too shy, different things

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether most people are too shy to try different things. He just says that “most people avoid things that are different” So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.

Keywords: think, iconoclastic, overcome fear.

In paragraph 6, the writer argues that “Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks.” This means that fear prevents people from thinking in an iconoclast way. So, the statement’s meaning is opposite to that in the text.

36. When concern about embarrassment matters less, other fears become irrelevant.

Keywords: embarrassment, less, fears, irrelevant

In paragraph 6, “fear of public ridicule” is mentioned. It we interpret this as “embarrassment”, still we are not told if other fears then become irrelevant. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN

37. Fear of public speaking is a psychological illness.

Keywords: fear, public speaking, a psychological illness

In paragraph 6, the writer indicates that “But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions.” So, fear of public speaking is not a psychological illness, it is just a common variant of human nature.

– a psychological illness= a mental disorder

Questions 38-40: Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

38. Thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it

Keyword: successful, demanding

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence comes in…Perception is important in social cognition too…Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.” This means that thinking like a successful iconoclast is demanding because it requires both perceptual and social intelligence skills.

39. The concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it

Keywords: social brain, useful,

In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas.” So, the concept of the social brain is useful to iconoclasts because it focuses on how groups decide on an action.

– groups = circuits

– groups decide on an action=groups coordinate decision making

40. Iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking

Keywords: an asset, way of thinking

In the last paragraph, “Iconoclasts create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be an asset to any organisation.” So, iconoclasts are generally an asset because their way of thinking works in many fields, both artistic and scientific.

Cambridge IELTS 9 Self-study Pack (Student’s Book with Answers and Audio CDs (2)) Authentic Examination Papers from Cambridge ESOL

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