Xem Nhiều 12/2022 #️ Cam 7, Test 1, Reading Pas 2 / 2023 # Top 14 Trend | Phusongyeuthuong.org

Xem Nhiều 12/2022 # Cam 7, Test 1, Reading Pas 2 / 2023 # Top 14 Trend

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AThe history of human civilization is entwined with the history of ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today. Lịch sử của nền văn minh con người gắn chặt với lịch sử các cách thức mà chúng ta đã biết để vận dụng tài nguyên nước. Khi dân cư dần dần mở rộng, con người phải lấy nước từ các nguồn ngày càng xa, dẫn đến các nỗ lực kỹ thuật phức tạp như xây đập và cống dẫn nước. Ở đỉnh cao của đế chế La Mã, chín hệ thống lớn, với một bố trí sáng tạo của ống cống được xây dựng khá tốt, đã cung cấp cho mỗi cư dân Rome lượng nước giống như lượng nước cung cấp cho mỗi người ở nhiều nơi trong thế giới công nghiệp ngày nay.

   

BDuring the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unprecedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation system that makes possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food. Nearly one-fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water. Trong cuộc cách mạng công nghiệp và sự bùng nổ dân số của thế kỷ 19 và 20, nhu cầu về nước tăng lên đáng kể. Việc xây dựng chưa từng có với hàng chục ngàn dự án kỹ thuật hoành tráng được thiết kế để kiểm soát lũ lụt, bảo vệ nguồn nước sạch, và cung cấp nước cho thủy lợi và thủy điện đã mang lại nhiều lợi ích cho hàng trăm triệu người. Sản xuất lương thực đã theo kịp với các việc dân số tăng cao chủ yếu là do việc mở rộng các hệ thống thủy lợi nhân tạo để có thể tăng sản lượng lương thực thế giới lên 40%. Gần một phần năm tất cả nguồn điện được tạo ra trên toàn thế giới được sản xuất bởi các tua bin quay bằng sức mạnh của nước.

   

CYet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population till suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve their problems.

   

DThe consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardizing human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers* are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in part of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions. Hậu quả của chính sách về nước của chúng ta đã lan rộng đến mức gây nguy hiểm cho sức khỏe con người. Hàng chục triệu người đã bị buộc phải di dời khỏi nhà của họ – thường chỉ được địa phương cảnh báo hoặc bồi thường qua loa – để nhường chỗ cho các hồ chứa đằng sau đập. Hơn 20% của tất cả các loài cá nước ngọt đang bị đe dọa vì đập và việc xả nước đã phá hủy hệ sinh thái sông “có dòng chảy tự do” nơi mà các loài này đang sinh sống. Một số tập quán tưới tiêu làm suy giảm chất lượng đất và làm giảm năng suất nông nghiệp. Các tầng chứa nước ngầm đang được khai thác nhanh hơn lượng bổ sung tự nhiên ở một số nơi như Ấn Độ, Trung Quốc, Mỹ và các nơi khác. Và tranh chấp về tài nguyên nước dùng chung đã dẫn đến bạo lực và tiếp tục tạo ra những căng thẳng ở địa phương, quốc gia và thậm chí quốc tế.

   

EAt the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as a top priority – ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organizations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pressing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from preventable water-related illness.

   

FFortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted. As a result, the pressure to build now water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen. May mắn thay và bất ngờ là nhu cầu về nước không tăng nhanh như một số dự đoán. Kết quả là, áp lực để xây dựng các cơ sở hạ tầng về nước đã giảm trong hai thập kỷ qua. Mặc dù dân số, sản lượng công nghiệp và năng suất kinh tế vẫn tiếp tục tăng cao ở các nước phát triển, tỷ lệ mà mọi người rút nước từ các hồ chứa nước, sông và hồ đã chậm lại. Và ở vài nơi trên thế giới, nhu cầu này đã thực sự giảm.

   

GWhat explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons* of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) – almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20% from their peak in 1980. Điều gì giải thích về sự thay đổi đáng ghi nhận này? Có hai yếu tố là con người đã tìm ra cách để sử dụng nước hiệu quả hơn, và cộng đồng đang suy nghĩ lại về ưu tiên của họ khi sử dụng nước. Trong suốt ba phần tư đầu tiên của thế kỷ 20, lượng nước ngọt được tiêu thụ trên đầu người trung bình tăng gấp đôi; như ở Mỹ, lượng rút ​​nước tăng gấp mười lần, trong khi dân số tăng gấp bốn lần. Nhưng kể từ năm 1980, lượng nước tiêu thụ mỗi người đã thực sự giảm, nhờ vào một loạt các công nghệ mới giúp tiết kiệm nước tại nhà và tại các xưởng công nghiệp. Ví dụ năm 1965 Nhật Bản sử dụng khoảng 13 triệu gallons nước sản xuất 1 triệu đô sản lượng thương mại; năm 1989 lượng tiêu thụ này đã giảm xuống còn 3,5 triệu gallon (thậm chí hơn do lạm phát) – khoảng bốn lần lượng nước tiêu thụ năm 1965. Ở Mỹ, lượng ​​nước tiêu thụ đã giảm hơn 20% so với mức đỉnh vào năm 1980.

   

HOn the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget. Mặt khác, các đập, cống dẫn nước và các loại cơ sở hạ tầng khác sẽ vẫn phải được xây dựng, đặc biệt là ở các nước đang phát triển, nơi nhu cầu cơ bản của con người đã không được đáp ứng. Nhưng các dự án như vậy phải được xây dựng hiện đại và có trách nhiệm hơn với người dân địa phương và môi trường của họ so với trong quá khứ. Và ngay cả trong các khu vực có các dự án mới có vẻ đảm bảo này thì chúng ta vẫn phải tìm cách để đáp ứng nhu cầu với ít nguồn lực hơn, tôn trọng các tiêu chuẩn sinh thái và với ngân sách ít hơn.

Cam 9, Test 2, Reading Pas 2 / 2023

June 2004 saw the first passage., known as a ‘transit` of the planet Venus across the face of the Sun in 122 years. Transits have helped shape our view of the whole Universe, as Heather Cooper and Nigel Henbest explain

Tháng 6 năm 2004 đã chứng kiến một sự di chuyển đầu tiên, được biết đến như là một sự ‘quá cảnh’, của sao Kim băng qua bề mặt của Mặt trời trong 122 năm. Sự di chuyển này đã giúp định hình quan điểm của chúng ta về toàn bộ Vũ trụ, như Heather Cooper và Nigel Henbest giải thích.

AOn 8 June 2004, more than half the population of the world were treated to a rare astronomical event. For over six hours, the planet Venus steadily inched its way over the surface of the Sun. This “transit` of Venus was the first since 6 December l882. On that occasion, the American astronomer Professor Simon Newcomb led a party to South Africa to observe the event. They were based at a girls’ school, where – if is alleged – the combined forces of three schoolmistresses outperformed the professionals with the accuracy of their observations.

Vào ngày 8 tháng 6 năm 2004, hơn một nửa dân số thế giới đã được chứng kiến một sự kiện thiên văn hiếm hoi. Hành tinh sao Kim đã dần dần đi qua bề mặt của mặt trời khoảng hơn sáu tiếng đồng hồ. Sự ”dịch chuyển” này của sao Kim là lần đầu tiên kể từ ngày 6 tháng 12 năm 1882. Vào dịp đó, nhà thiên văn học người Mỹ, giáo sư Simon Newcomb đã dẫn một đoàn người đến Nam Phi để quan sát sự kiện này. Họ đặt cơ sở tại trường học nữ sinh, nơi mà được đưa ra lý lẽ rằng – kết hợp sức mạnh của ba nữ hiệu trưởng thực hiện tốt hơn các chuyên gia với sự chính xác về các quan sát của họ.

EWhile the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. This is due to diffraction of light. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun’s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.

Trong khi thời gian dịchchuyển ban đầu chính xác như các thiết bị cho phép, các phép đo được theo đuổi bởi hiệu ứng ‘giọt đen’. hi sao Kim bắt đầu băng qua đĩa Mặt Trời, nó có vẻ bị mờ không tròn – điều mà khiến việc xác định thời gian trở nên khó khăn. Điều này là do sự nhiễu xạ của ánh sáng. Vấn đề thứ hai là sao kim cho thấy một quầng sáng khi nó chỉ được nhìn thấy ở bên ngoài đĩa Mặt trời. Trong khi điều này cho các nhà thiên văn học thấy rằng sao Kim được bao quanh bởi một lớp khí dày mà bao phủ ánh sáng mặt trời quanh nó, cả hai ảnh hưởng đã làm cho nó không thể có được thời gian chính xác.

G June 2004’s transit of Venus was thus more of an astronomical spectacle than a scientifically important event. But such transits have paved the way for what might prove to be one of the most vital breakthroughs in the cosmos – detecting Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars.

Sự đi qua của Sao Kim vào tháng 6 năm 2004 đã trở thành một hiện tượng thiên văn hơn là một sự kiện khoa học trọng đại. Nhưng những chuyến đi quá cảnh này đã mở đường cho điều có thể chứng minh là một trong những bước đột phá quan trọng nhất trong vũ trụ – phát hiện các hành tinh có kích cỡ Trái đất quay quanh các ngôi sao khác.

Hướng dẫn các kỹ năng Ielts:

Ielts Academic Reading: Cambridge 7, Test 1: Reading Passage 2; Making Every Drop Count; With Top Solutions And Step / 2023

This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1 Reading Passage 2, which is entitled ‘MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT’. This is a post primarily for IELTS candidates who have great problems in finding answers for the Academic Reading module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process and I sincerely hope this post can help you in your IELTS Reading preparation.

IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 1: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2:

The headline of the passage: MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT

Questions 14-20 (List of headings):

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence. ]

Question 14: Paragraph A

In the first lines of paragraph A, the writer says, “The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources.”  

Then in lines 4-7, the writer mentions, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, the Roman Empire, nine major systems = ancient water supplies,

So, the answer is: xi (A description of ancient water supplies)

Question 15: Paragraph C

Paragraph C narrates the dangers to physical condition as the result of a shortage of pure water. The writer mentions in lines 4-7, “.. … . . more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, .. . .. . .”

So, the answer is: vii (the relevance to health)

Question 16: Paragraph D

Paragraph D details about the environmental effects of water-shortage.

In lines 4-7 the writer mentions, “. . .. … . more than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity.”

So, the answer is: v (Environmental effects)

Question 17: Paragraph E

In paragraph E, take a look at the following sentences.

“. .. … however, the resource planners think about water is beginning to change.” (lines 1-2).

“The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – .. ..” (lines 2-3)

“Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities,. .. ..” (lines 4-5)

Here, resource planners/water experts = scientists, demanding = call, beginning to change/slowly shifting back, existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways = revision of policy,

So, the answer is: i (Scientists’ call for a revision of policy)

Question 18: Paragraph F

In paragraph F, take a close look at the following sentences.   

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted.”

Then, in lines 3-5, the writer says, “Although population, industrial output, and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed.”

Here, unexpectedly = surprising, the rate.. .. has slowed = downward trend,

So, the answer is: ix (A surprising downward trend in demand for water)

Question 19: Paragraph G

Paragraph G opens with this question, “What explains this remarkable turn of events?”

This suggests that the author will give an explanation of the reasons behind this reduced use of water.

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use.”

This means that there are two reasons behind reduced water use; first, people have found out ways to use water efficiently, and second, communities now think twice about their priorities for how to use water.

So, the answer is: ii (An explanation for reduced water use)

Question 20: Paragraph H

In paragraph H, we find that the writer feels the need to raise standards in use of water and planning for better infrastructure, “On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.”

Here, higher specifications = raise standards,

So, the answer is: x (The need to raise standards)

Questions 21-26 (YES, NO, NOT GIVEN)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES

The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO

The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 21: Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.

Keywords for this question: water use, per person, higher, industrial world, Ancient Rome,

The last lines of paragraph A give us the answer to this question. The writer says here, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, as much water per person . .. . . as is provided.. .. today means the supply of water is not higher; it is rather equal.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 22: Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.

Keywords for this question: feeding, increasing populations, possible, due to, improved irrigation system,

In paragraph B the writer says in lines 5-7, “Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.”

Here, soaring = increasing, because of = due primarily to, artificial irrigation systems = improved irrigation systems,

So, the answer is: YES

Question 23: Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Keywords for this question: modern water systems, imitate, ancient Greeks and Romans,

In paragraph C the writer says in lines 2-3, “.. . … half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans.”

However, we do not find any information that says modern water systems are a copied version of the Ancient Greek and Roman water systems.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 24: Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water.

Keywords for this question: industrial growth, increasing, overall demand, water,  

In paragraph F the writer argues in lines 3-5, “.. .. . Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed.”

Here, the rate . .. . has slowed = demand of water is decreasing.

Therefore, the lines directly contradict the information provided in question 24.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 25: Modern technologies have led to reduction in the domestic water consumption.

Keywords for this question: modern technologies, led to, reduction, domestic water consumption,   

In paragraph G the author states in lines 5-7, “.. . . . But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry.”

Here, thanks to a range of new technologies = modern technologies have led to,

Therefore, the lines directly match with the statement in question 25.  

So, the answer is: YES

Question 26: In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.

Keywords for this question: future, governments, should maintain, ownership, water infrastructures,

Information relating to government and water infrastructures can only be traced in paragraphs H and E.

In paragraph E, the writer only says: “Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities.” There is no discussion about ownership whatsoever. 

In paragraph H:  “…dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built….”.  But again there is a clear indication of ownership here. Therefore, the sentences lack information about whether governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

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Ielts Reading: Cambridge 12 Test 5 Passage 1 / 2023

IELTS Reading: Cambridge 12 Test 5 Passage 1- Cork – solutions with explanations

This post on IELTS Reading deals with the in-depth analysis of Cambridge 12 Test 5 Reading Passage 1. The passage is entitled ‘ Cork‘. I’ve provided all the solutions here with some detailed explanations. Please, get the book Cambridge IELTS series 12 when you read the post. It will surely help you to find out the answers from the passage.

Title of Reading Passage 1: Cork

Question 1-5 : TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

Note: This type of question maintains a sequence. So, if you find the answer to question 2 in the first few lines of Paragraph 2, look for the answer to question 1 in paragraph 1.

Strategies to answer the questions: This post may help you to answer this type of question easily.

http://www.ieltsdeal.com/2018/01/13/ielts-reading-a-smart-strategy-to-handle-yes-no-not-given/

Now let’s look at the questions and explanations.

Keywords for the question: thickest bark

In paragraph 1 of the passage the author mentions, “Cork- the thick bark of the cork oak tree ( Quercus suber) – is a remarkable material.” Again, in paragraph 2, the author mentions, “Its bark grows up to 20cm in thickness.” In both these lines, the word THICK is available. But, in our question, the phrase is the thickest bark. Here, the word thickest is in superlative form of adjective, which means this tree has to be in the rank no. 1 as far as thickness is concerned. There is no such comparison in the passage and it means that our answer is not available in the passage.

Keywords for the question: synthetic cork, same cellular structure, natural cork

In paragraph 2 line 9-13, the author mentions the cellular structure of the bark of the cork oak “the bark of the cork oak has a particular cellular structure – with about 40 million cells per cubic centimetre – that technology has never succeeded in replicating “.

Here, there is a clear contradiction or disagreement between the question and the above-quoted text from the passage. The question says, scientists have developed or discovered or invented an artificial synthetic cork that matches the cellular structure of natural cork. But the words ” never succeeded in replicating” means that they have not been successful to make anything similar to the natural cork, with all of the same qualities.

Here, the word replicate may create confusion as a new or unknown word, which means duplicate or same.

Keywords for the question: individual, 25 years, the first and second harvest

Take a close look at paragraph 4, which talks about the harvesting of an individual cork oak tree. The author says, “From the planting of a cork sapling to the first harvest takes 25 years, and of approximately a decade must separate harvests from an individual tree”.

* Approximately a decade = nearly 10 years. So, the gap is 10 years, not 25 years.

* A gap = must be left……….. between

Note: If there is only a numeric (number) difference between the question and the passage, the answer is always False. Here is a picture to explain question no. 3 in a better way.

The word stripped is directly mentioned in paragraph 4 (Follow the order of the text from the previous question). Here, in line 15 the author states, “If the bark is stripped on a day when it’s too cold – or when the air is damp – the tree will be damaged”.

This text agrees with the question, but in a reverse pattern. Here, the word “damp” is antonym for the word “dry”. So, the bark should not be stripped in damp atmospheric conditions; rather, it needs to be stripped in dry atmospheric conditions.

Keywords for the question: only way, remove, by hand

The answer is available in paragraph 5, where the author maintains, “No mechanical means of stripping cork bark has been invented, so the job is done by teams of highly skilled workers.”

Since the author’s negative statement “no mechanical means has been invented” suggests that there is no mechanical technology available to remove the bark, it has to be done by hand (the hands of highly skilled workers).

Question 6-13: NOTE-COMPLETION (One word only)

Note: This type of question is nothing more than filling in the blanks. Read the title of the note, which is very important to have an idea about the questions and targeted paragraphs to find the answers.

Keywords for the question: affect, bottle contents

First, find the main keyword “bottle contents” and then scan the line carefully. The author states in paragraph 6, “Recent years have seen the end of the virtual monopoly of cork as the material for bottle stoppers, due to concerns about the effect it may have on the contents of the bottle…..The tiniest concentrations – as little as three or four parts to a trillion – can spoil the taste of the product contained in the bottle. The result has been a gradual yet steady move first towards plastic stoppers and, more recently, to aluminium screw caps.”

Here, look at the synonymous links.

Affect = spoil * Bottle contents = the product contained in the bottle

Keywords for the question: produce

Keywords for the question: use

In the final sentence of paragraph 6, the author states, ” These substitutes are to manufacture and, in the case of screw caps, more convenient for the user”.

These substitutes = aluminium screw caps

Manufacture = produce,

for the user = to use

So, we can gather the meaning from here that they are to produce and more convenient for the user. However, the question requires ONE WORD ONLY, so the answers for question 7 and 8 have to be “cheaper” and “convenient”.

So, the answers are:

8. convenient

Keywords for the question: suit, quality products

We find some information about quality products in the sentence in paragraph 7 line 3: “Firstly, its(the cork bottle stopper) traditional image is more in keeping with that of the type of high quality goods with which it has long been associated”.

Here, the phrase “in keeping with” means “suit”. So the answer is “traditional image”, but the answer requires only one word, so it has to be “image”. It is because you have to choose noun between noun and adjective.

Keywords for the question: made from, material

In the very following sentence, the author mentions “Secondly – and very importantly – cork is a sustainable product that can be recycled without difficulty “.

Recycling often is linked with the material. So the author is referring to its material here. The answer is “sustainable” and “recycled” Here, without difficulty = easily

So, the answers are:

11. recycled

Keywords for the question: cork forests, aid

Keywords for the question: cork forests, stop

In paragraph 7 line 9-the end the author states about the cork forests – “Moreover, cork forests are a resource which support local biodiversity, and prevent desertification in the regions where they are planted. So, given the current concerns about environmental issues, the future of this ancient material once again looks promising”.

Here, support = aid

Prevent = stop.

So the answers are clearly “biodiversity” and “desertification”

So, the answers are:

13. Desertification

This is the end of the post.

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